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1.
J Perinat Neonatal Nurs ; 34(2): E5-E11, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332449

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of implementing a care bundle for preventing peri-intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH) in preterm newborns. A longitudinal, quantitative, quasi-experimental study was conducted with preterm newborns from a neonatal unit. The study was divided into 2 stages: the first consisted of a retrospective cohort of newborns (control group) not exposed to the bundle, and the second consisted of 5 practical steps of implementing a care bundle for preventing PIVH in eligible newborns. The results show that a significant reduction in PIVH occurred, from 34.8% before the intervention to 26.3% after application of the bundle. Also, after implementation of the bundle, there was a reduction in the severe forms of PIVH in the newborns who presented with hemorrhage compared with the control group. The study shows how the use of a low-cost and easy operationalization tool can contribute to the health of preterm newborns. It was found that the bundle is directly related to the decrease in the incidence of PIVH. The results may contribute to the improvement in care quality, thus promoting safe care for premature newborns.

2.
J Sch Nurs ; 34(6): 449-457, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28675075

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate sociodemographic, behavioral, and individual factors associated with body image perception in a sample of adolescents from schools in low Human Development Index areas in Brazil. This cross-sectional study included 609 boys and 573 girls (aged 11-17 years). Body image perception (nine-silhouettes scale) and sociodemographic, behavioral, and individual variables were included. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used. Most boys (76.9%) and girls (77.5%) were dissatisfied with their body image. Body mass index status and healthy body image evaluation were significantly associated with body image dissatisfaction in both boys and girls ( p < .001), and daily fruit consumption was associated with body image dissatisfaction only in boys ( p = .035). Education and health care focused on body image can pay special attention to young people from vulnerable areas with unhealthy nutritional status and focus on strategies that enable improving the perception of a healthy body and a healthy diet.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Autoimagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Brasil , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , População Rural , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Int J Nurs Pract ; 23(3)2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28124405

RESUMO

Diarrhoea is responsible for high rates of infant morbidity and mortality. It is multifactorial, manifested by socioeconomic, hygienic, and maternal factors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of an educational video on maternal self-efficacy for the prevention of childhood diarrhoea. This was a randomized trial conducted in the state of Ceará, Brazil. Participants were 2 groups (comparison and intervention), composed of mothers of children under 5 years of age. Group membership was allocated by cluster randomization. Outcomes were maternal self-efficacy measured using the Maternal Self-efficacy Scale for Prevention of Early Childhood Diarrhoea; outcome data collectors were blinded to group allocation. Ninety participants were randomized to each group; 83 intervention group and 80 comparison group members were contained in the final analysis. Maternal self-efficacy in preventing childhood diarrhoea increased in both groups, but average scores of the intervention group were higher at all time than those of the comparison group. The educational video had a significant effect on maternal self-efficacy.


Assuntos
Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde , Mães/educação , Mães/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravação em Vídeo
4.
Matern Child Health J ; 21(1): 128-135, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27421733

RESUMO

Objectives The Kangaroo method helps promote maternal breastfeeding and adequate growth of low birthweight preterm infants. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between weight-gain velocity during use of the Kangaroo method and maternal and infant variables. Methods A nested cross-sectional study in a cohort of newborn infants managed using the Kangaroo method was carried out at a reference center for the method in Brazil. Data on low birthweight and preterm infants managed using the Kangaroo Method (n = 78) and on their respective mothers (n = 70) was collected between January and July 2014. Maternal and infant variables were associated and correlated with weight-gain velocity (g/kg/day) at each phase of the method (p < 0.05). Results Mean weight-gain velocity increased from 0.12 ± 11.11 g/kg/day in the first phase to 13.47 ± 4.84 g/kg/day in the third phase (p < 0.001), and percentage of adequate weight increased at phase 3 (p < 0.001). Birthweight was inversely correlated with weight-gain velocity at phases 1 and 2 of the Kangaroo method. Birthweight of under 1500 g was associated with a lower likelihood of inadequate weight-gain velocity of the newborn at phase 1 (OR = 0.1; 95 % CI 0.01-0.78; p = 0.012). In phase 3, maternal age was directly correlated with weight-gain velocity. Conclusions Weight-gain velocity was associated with maternal (age) and infant (gestational age at birth, birthweight, weight for gestational age at birth, length of hospital stay and five-minute Apgar score) variables. Knowledge of the factors influencing weight-gain velocity and its behavior at each phase of the method can help guide conduct toward potentializing factors that promote adequate weight-gain.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Apgar , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Lineares , Gravidez , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração
5.
J Esthet Restor Dent ; 29(2): E56-E66, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27935179

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze which facial, gingival and dental characteristics are associated with confidence in smiling among 75 subjects seeking treatment in a northern Brazilian public dental university. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical examinations and three standardized photographs of each subject were taken by one trained examiner. In addition, a questionnaire was applied to assess confidence in smiling. The subjects were dichotomized into two groups, non-confident (n = 36) and confident (n = 39) in smiling. Chi-square/Fischer exact test were used to associate the facial, gingival and dental characteristics between groups. RESULTS: The subjects that reported to be non-confident in smiling were statistically associated with smile type (p = 0.030) and wrongly positioned teeth (p = 0.047). On the other hand, gender (p = 0.491), marital status (p = 0.217), gum pigmentation (p = 0.930), midline (p = 0.176), volume of the upper (p = 0.380), and lower (p = 0.615) lips were not associated with self-reported confidence in smiling. CONCLUSION: In patients seeking dental treatment in a public dental university, non-confidence in smiling was associated only with some oral and intraoral characteristics and not with demographic characteristics. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study showed that only smile type and wrongly positioned teeth were statistically associated with confidence in smiling. Dentists should pay attention to those intraoral characteristics, but the clinical decision making should always include the patients' perception. (J Esthet Restor Dent 29:E56-E66, 2017).


Assuntos
Estética Dentária , Sorriso , Brasil , Face/patologia , Gengiva/patologia , Humanos
6.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 23(5): 971-8, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26487149

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: the aim was to translate and culturally adapt the Adherence Determinants Questionnaire scale for the Portuguese language in the Brazilian context, and to check its reliability and validity to analyze the elements of the adherence of patients to the clinical treatment for breast and cervical cancer. METHOD: this was a methodological study, carried out in two oncology reference centers. The sample consisted of 198 participants, with 152 being treated for breast cancer and 46 being treated for cervical cancer. The content validation was performed by a committee of experts. The construct validation was demonstrated through factor analysis and the reliability was analyzed using Cronbach's alpha. RESULTS: the committee of experts made the necessary adjustments so that the scale was adapted to the Brazilian context. The factor analysis suggested a reduction from seven to five factors and the maintenance of 38 items similar to those of the original scale. The reliability, investigated through Cronbach's alpha, was .829, showing high internal consistency. CONCLUSION: it was concluded that the Brazilian version of the Adherence Determinants Questionnaire scale is a valid and reliable instrument that is able to measure the elements of adherence to the treatment for breast and cervical cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Cooperação do Paciente , Autorrelato , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traduções , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia
7.
Midwifery ; 31(7): 735-41, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25935233

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: quality of life issues are central to maternal health and well-being. Within the context of a study examining postnatal quality of life, we set out to translate into Brazilian Portuguese the Mother-Generated Index and ensure its cross-cultural adaption for use in a Brazilian context. DESIGN: the Mother-Generated Index, a subjective quality of life tool, underwent a validated process of translation and cultural adaptation: synthesis of two independently translated versions, back-translation and review by an expert committee was followed by testing of the preliminary tool with 30 mothers. SETTINGS: community-based study in city in north-eastern Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: 30 postpartum mothers, interviewed approximately 30 days after birth. FINDINGS: while the mothers understood the concept of identifying and scoring quality of life aspects, many did not grasp the concept behind the use of 'spending points' to produce a relative ranking of these aspects. We resolved this by giving the mothers 'spending beans' instead; beans are a regional food staple. This use of a physical 'currency' solved the problem. DISCUSSION: this modified approach was ratified by the committee of experts and used with success on a further sample of 91 mothers. The whole process aimed to ensure semantic equivalence of the translated tool, and following this process we concluded that face validity of the Brazilian Portuguese Mother-Generated Index was good. While considerable resources are required to ensure a robust process of translation and adaptation, this is necessary if valid and reliable tools are to be produced. IMPLICATIONS: We conclude that the Mother-Generated Index is a valid tool to measure quality of life among Brazilian postpartum mothers, as it allows a simple and understandable way of assessing the various dimensions involved in their quality of life. Moreover, the Mother-Generated Index can provide healthcare professionals the opportunity to become aware of all significant aspects of a woman's life after childbirth.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comparação Transcultural , Mães/psicologia , Parto/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Brasil , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil , Tocologia , Parto/etnologia , Gravidez , Traduções
8.
J Asthma ; 52(5): 485-91, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25405360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease. In Brazil, little is known about factors associated with this disease. This study aimed to identify factors associated with asthma in 13- to 14-year-old adolescents in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. METHODS: It is a cross-sectional population-based study, with a probability sample of 3015 students in 2006-2007. We used the questionnaires about asthma, rhinitis and socio-demographic/environmental factors from the International Study for Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) protocol. Current asthma was defined as physician-diagnosed asthma and wheezing in the previous 12 months. Bivariate analysis was performed between asthma and factors included in the study, using prevalence ratio and Chi-square test. Confidence intervals (95%) and odds ratio (OR) were also calculated. Factors associated with asthma in bivariate analysis were then assessed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Final sample was composed by 694 adolescents, 179 with asthma. Rhinoconjunctivitis and consumption of stuffed biscuits and fried snacks three or more times per week were independently and positively associated with asthma; consumption of fruits three or more times per week was negatively associated with asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary factors were the most associated with asthma in this study. Besides rhinoconjunctivitis, consumption of stuffed biscuits and fried snacks (foods with high content of saturated fat) three or more times per week were independently associated with asthma as aggravating factors, while the consumption of fruits three or more times per week was associated with asthma as protective factor. Interventions acting on these factors may decrease the occurrence of asthma in this population.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Meio Ambiente , Exposição Ambiental , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Sons Respiratórios , Rinite , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 35(3): 36-42, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25474838

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to identify the knowledge, attitudes and practices for the prevention of diabetic foot in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. This study was based on a cross-sectional survey conducted in two Family Health Units, in the city of Picos--PI, Brazil, with 85 diabetics of both sexes, by means of a semi-structured Knowledge, Attitude and Practice questionnaire. There was a predominance of females in the study (62.4%). On the topic of foot care, 49.4% had no knowledge on hygiene or what to observe in their feet. In relation to nail care, 56.5% were unaware of the correct way to cut nails. Regarding attitudes, 80% were willing to engage in self-care. In terms of practice, results showed that activities such as washing, drying, moisturizing and massaging were not executed together. It is therefore necessary to develop educational strategies to create awareness, both for diabetics and health professionals, on the effective prevention of diabetic foot.


Assuntos
Pé Diabético/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Pé Diabético/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 67(5): 715-21, 2014.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25517664

RESUMO

This quantitative study, conducted between 2008 April and 2009 March in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, aimed to validate the general guidelines of the communication of the nurse with the blind. Thirty nurses and 30 blinds, divided into control and experimental groups, participated in the study. Thirty nursing consultations were videotaped and analyzed by experts. In contrast to the control group, the experimental group showed good and excellent performance in all guidelines for verbal and non-verbal communication with the blinds. The study results point to the urgency of adopting the teaching of these general guidelines for communicating with the blind in nursing courses, in addition to training nurses in caring for the blind people.


Assuntos
Cegueira , Comunicação , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Humanos , Comunicação não Verbal
11.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-756186

RESUMO

Objetivo: Investigar a prevalência de hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) em idosos e verificar perfil sociodemográfico, fatores de risco e complicações dos idosos identificados com hipertensão. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, quantitativo, realizado com 220 prontuários de idosos em um Centro de Saúde de São Luís-MA, Brasil, entre 2011 e 2012. Por meio da aplicação de um formulário estruturado, coletaram-se dados dos prontuários e das fichas do Hiperdia, com variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas. Realizou-se análise estatística descritiva com o Statistical Package for the Social Sciences e aplicou-se o teste qui-quadrado. Resultados: A prevalência da hipertensão entre os idosos foi de 51,4% (n=113; IC95%). Destes, 63,7% (n=72) eram do sexo feminino; 64,6% (n=73), sedentários; 52,2% (n=59) tinham sobrepeso; 53,1% (n=60), obesidade abdominal; 29,2% (n=33) eram diabéticos; 17,7% (n=20) apresentavam comorbidades e complicações; 79,6% (n=90) estavam com a pressão arterial aumentada na primeira consulta; e 66,6% (n=60), na última. Conclusão: A HAS apresentou alta prevalência nos idosos investigados, sendo maior em determinados subgrupos: mulheres, baixa escolaridade e não brancos. Dentre os fatores de risco mais comuns, destacaram-se o sedentarismo, o sobrepeso e a obesidade abdominal.


Objective: To investigate the prevalence of systemic hypertension among the elderly and verify the sociodemographic profile, risk factors and complications of elderly individuals identified with hypertension. Methods: Quantitative descriptive study, performed with 220 medical records of elderly patients in a Health Center in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil, between 2011 and 2012. By applying a structured questionnaire containing sociodemographic and clinical variables, data was collected from the medical records and Hiperdia files. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences and the chi-square test was applied. Results: The prevalence of hypertension in the elderly was 51.4% (n=113; IC95%). Of these, 63.7% (n=72) were female; 64.6% (n=73) were sedentary; 52.2% (n=59) were overweight; 53.1% (n=60) had abdominal obesity; 29.2% (n=33) had diabetes; 17.7% (n=20) had comorbidities and complications; 79.6% (n=90) were found with increased blood pressure in the first consultation, and 66.6% (n=60), in the last one. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension was high among the elderly assessed, being higher in some subgroups: women, low level of education, and non-white. Among the most common risk factors, the sedentary lifestyle, overweight, and abdominal obesity stand out.


Objetivo: Investigar la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial sistémica (HAS) en mayores y verificar el perfil sociodemográfico, factores de riesgo y complicaciones de los mayores identificados con hipertensión. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo y cuantitativo realizado en 220 historiales clínicos de mayores de un Centro de Salud de São Luíz-MA, Brasil, entre 2011 y 2012. Se recogieron datos de los historiales clínicos y fichas del Hiperdía a través de un formulario estructurado con variables sociodemograficas y clínicas. Se realizó el análisis estadístico descriptivo con El Statistical Package for the Social Sciences y la aplicación de la prueba de Chi-cuadrado. Resultados: La prevalencia de hipertensión en los mayores fue del 51,4% (n=113; IC95%). De ellos, el 63,7% (n=72) eran del sexo femenino; el 64,6%(n=73) sedentarios; el 52,2% (n=59) tenían sobrepeso; el 53,1% (n=60) obesidad abdominal; el 29,2% (n=33) eran diabéticos; El 17,7% (n=20) presentaban comorbidades y complicaciones; el 79,6% (n=90) presentó la presión arterial elevada en la primera consulta; y el 66,6% (n=60) en la última. Conclusión: La HAS presento elevada prevalencia en los mayores investigados, siendo la presión arterial mayor en determinados grupos: mujeres, escolaridad baja, y mayores no blancos. De los factores de riesgo más comunes se destacaron el sedentarismo, el sobrepeso y La obesidad abdominal.

12.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 22(6): 1041-7, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25591101

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to identify the frequency of components of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) among university students. METHOD: descriptive study with 550 students, from various courses run by a public university. The socioeconomic data, lifestyle, and components of MetS were filled out using a questionnaire. Blood sample collection was undertaken in the university itself by a contracted clinical analysis laboratory. RESULTS: 66.2% were female, with a mean age of 22.6±4.41; 71.7% were sedentary; 1.8% stated that they smoke; and 48.5% were classified as at medium risk for alcoholism. 5.8% had raised abdominal circumference and 20.4% had excess weight; 1.3% and 18.9% had raised fasting blood glucose levels and triglycerides, respectively; 64.5% had low HDL cholesterol and 8.7% had blood pressure levels compatible with borderline high blood pressure. Thus, of the sample, 64.4% had at least one component for MetS; 11.6% had two, and 3.5% had three or more. CONCLUSION: a significant proportion of the population already has the components for metabolic syndrome, and this profile reinforces the importance of early diagnosis so as to reduce the risk of developing chronic comorbidities.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
13.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 21(4): 851-9, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23970220

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: accomplishment of the transcultural adaptation of the Parent-adolescent Communication Scale, which evaluates the frequency of communication between parents and children concerning the subjects related to sex, condom, DST, HIV and pregnancy. METHOD: Methodological research of quantitative approach, accomplished with 313 adolescent pupils of the feminine sex in the 14 to 18 year age group in Fortaleza-CE. The content validity was carried through by means of the initial translation, back translation, pre-final version and final version, being analyzed by a committee of specialists; the reliability was verified by the Cronbach's Alpha and ascertained by testing the hypotheses and test-retest within five weeks. The scale was applied via computer in the online modality in the period November/2010 to January/2011. RESULTS: The version of the instrument in Portuguese presented an Alpha of 0.86 regarding the validity of the structure, was partially verified since the testing of the hypotheses of the contracted group was not confirmed. CONCLUSION: The version of the instrument adapted for Portuguese is considered valid and reliable in the study sample.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Relações Pais-Filho , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Traduções
14.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 34(1): 155-63, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23781737

RESUMO

It was aimed to measure the quality of life of adults with spinal cord injury and identify domains that affect the quality of life of these individuals. Epidemiological study, conducted in 2007-2008 in Health Basic Units of Campina Grande/PB. There were 47 participants. It was used a questionnaire composed by: sociodemographic variables, etiology of injury; validated instrument to measure quality of life containing four domains: Physical Health, Environmental, Social Relationships and Psychological with their respective facets. The data collected were processed using descriptive and statistical analysis. The domains with lowest scores were: Environmental (55.20 points), Physical health (58.59 points). The facets that compromise the domains: mobility (55.3%), work capacity (55.3%), Financial resources (80.9%), Opportunities for acquiring new information and skills (51%), Participation in and opportunities for recreation/leisure activities (68.1%) and Sexual activity (34%). Results express the dissatisfaction of participants with quality of life. Nurses should contribute to rehabilitation and social reinsertion of those people, respecting their limitations, emphasizing the remaining potential and capacity for self-care.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Integração Comunitária , Emoções , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Limitação da Mobilidade , Satisfação do Paciente , Retorno ao Trabalho , Autorrelato , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/psicologia , Apoio Social , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/economia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/epidemiologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/enfermagem , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/reabilitação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 66(2): 190-5, 2013.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23743837

RESUMO

The study aimed to identify, in a Rooming-in unit, diagnoses related to the phenomenon of breastfeeding according to the NANDA-I Taxonomy II. It was conducted a descriptive exploratory study involving 83 mothers and their babies in the period of February to April 2011. Data were collected by means of an instrument based on the Theory of Basic Human Needs and, after statistical analysis, presented in tables. The results showed that the most frequent nursing diagnosis was Effective breastfeeding, identified in 65 (78.3%) cases. It is estimated that the nursing diagnoses related to breastfeeding can contribute to nursing care so that it can be more targeted, in order to promote a more qualified, effective and human care.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Diagnóstico de Enfermagem , Alojamento Conjunto , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Biol Res Nurs ; 15(2): 200-4, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21987832

RESUMO

Studies have shown that the application of semipermeable membranes to the skin of premature newborns (NBs) can aid in protecting the skin, reduce disturbances in fluid and electrolyte levels, and decrease neonatal mortality. The aim of this study was to verify the effect of using semipermeable membranes in low-birth-weight preterm newborns (PTNBs). A randomized controlled trial was carried out in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with 42 NBs split evenly into an intervention group (IG), in which semipermeable membranes were used to cover large areas of the skin for the first 7 days of life, and a control group (CG), which received normal care. The variables investigated for the study were weight, hydration status, urinary density, glycemic control, sodium concentration, and daily hydration quota. The following variables displayed significant daily variation: weight, hydration quota, and sodium concentration. Statistically significant individual effects by day and by group were found only for sodium concentration. In the overall analysis of the intersubject effects, sodium concentration, alone, proved to be significant (p = .055). Significant effects by group in relation to the sodium concentration were found, with the IG showing a lower average sodium concentration than the CG. Thus, the use of semipermeable membranes reduced fluid loss in premature NBs in the current study, confirming the findings of previous studies. Guidelines for practice may now be warranted.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Membranas Artificiais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Permeabilidade , Gravidez
17.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 20(4): 668-76, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22990151

RESUMO

This descriptive, cross-sectional and quantitative study presents an analysis of knowledge acquired by mastectomized women concerning breast cancer after reading an educational handbook. The sample was composed of 125 women. Data were collected in a specialized cancer facility in three phases: preparatory, operational I and operational II. As to the knowledge acquired, the posttest showed an 11% increase in the number of correct answers compared to the pretest. The most frequent correct answer regarded a question asking the name of the surgery (97.60%) while the question concerning breast reconstruction obtained the lowest number of correct answers (58.40%). Answers to all the questions significantly improved in the posttest, with the exception of a question addressing breast reconstruction (p=0.754). The assessment of knowledge showed positive results after reading, suggesting that cognition is essential to understanding and adhering to guidance, thus the handbook is a favorable resource to be used in the rehabilitation of mastectomized women.


Assuntos
Manuais como Assunto , Mastectomia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 46(2): 295-301, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22576531

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to analyze the maternal deaths, which occurred in a public maternity hospital in Fortaleza, Ceara State, Brazil and identify associations between time of death and the cases. An analysis was performed on the medical records, death certificates and notification forms regarding 96 maternal deaths that occurred between 2000 and 2008. The most prevalent delivery type was cesarean section (45, 46.8%) and the most prevalent causes of death were: hypertensive syndrome (27, 28.1%), infection (17, 17.7%) and hemorrhage (16, 16.7%). There was a statistically significant association between: cesarean section, hypertension syndrome and infection (x²=14.40, p=0.00; x²=4.02, p=0.04); deaths in the postpartum period and hypertensive syndrome (x²=6.13, p=0.01) and infection (x²=7.65, p=0.00). The characterization of these deaths helps in the recognition of groups at risk, and in developing preventive measures.


Assuntos
Morte Materna , Mortalidade Materna , Causas de Morte , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Maternidades , Humanos
19.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 46(1): 38-44, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22441263

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the hope in the lives of HIV-positive women, using the Herth Hope Scale (HHS). Participants were 111 HIV-positive women who attended a referral outpatient clinic in Fortaleza-CE. From January to May 2009, interviews were held to collect biopsychosocial variables, and the HHS was applied. Data were analyzed using SPSS-8.0 and revealed an average hope index of 34.86, indicating that these women have little hope in life in view of their diagnosis of HIV. The scale item with the highest score was faith. This probably derives from the fact that Aids is incurable, transmissible and generates negative stigma, in addition to its relation with the idea of imminent death. In conclusion, measuring hope among HIV patients through the use of an instrument permits intervention assessment and planning, promoting assistance and motivation to live better and maintain a hopeful attitude.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Soropositividade para HIV/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 70(3): e177-84, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22374059

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the incidence of postoperative bleeding after dental extraction in candidates for liver transplantation and the efficacy of the association of tranexamic acid and absorbable hemostatic sponges. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All individuals referred for oral health evaluation requiring extraction were considered in this study. Patients were included in the analysis when the blood examinations showed a platelet count of 30,000/mm(3) or greater and an international normalized ratio (INR) of 3.0 or less. In group 1 local pressure was applied by use of gauze soaked with tranexamic acid, and in group 2 gauze without tranexamic acid was used. Absorbable hemostatic sponges and cross sutures were used as a standard hemostatic measure. RESULTS: In the 23 patients included in this study, 84 simple extractions were performed during 35 dental surgical procedures. The main preoperative blood tests found the following: a mean hematocrit level of 34.54% (SD, 5.84%; range, 21.7%-44.4%), platelet counts from 31,000/mm(3) to 160,000/mm(3), and a mean INR of 1.50 (SD, 0.39; range, 0.98-2.59). Postoperative bleeding occurred during only 1 procedure (2.9%), and local pressure with gauze was effective for achieving hemostasis. No statistically significant difference in the time to hemostasis was found between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study found a low risk of bleeding for tooth extractions in patients with liver cirrhosis, INRs of 2.50 or less, and platelet counts of 30,000/mm(3) or greater. Blood transfusions were not needed, and in the case of postoperative bleeding, the use of local hemostatic measures was satisfactory.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica para Doentes Crônicos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Hemorragia Bucal/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Extração Dentária/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Técnicas Hemostáticas , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Cirrose Hepática/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hemorragia Bucal/etiologia , Contagem de Plaquetas , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Pressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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