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1.
Blood ; 134(19): 1645-1657, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420334

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality. To advance our understanding of the biology contributing to VTE, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of VTE and a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) based on imputed gene expression from whole blood and liver. We meta-analyzed GWAS data from 18 studies for 30 234 VTE cases and 172 122 controls and assessed the association between 12 923 718 genetic variants and VTE. We generated variant prediction scores of gene expression from whole blood and liver tissue and assessed them for association with VTE. Mendelian randomization analyses were conducted for traits genetically associated with novel VTE loci. We identified 34 independent genetic signals for VTE risk from GWAS meta-analysis, of which 14 are newly reported associations. This included 11 newly associated genetic loci (C1orf198, PLEK, OSMR-AS1, NUGGC/SCARA5, GRK5, MPHOSPH9, ARID4A, PLCG2, SMG6, EIF5A, and STX10) of which 6 replicated, and 3 new independent signals in 3 known genes. Further, TWAS identified 5 additional genetic loci with imputed gene expression levels differing between cases and controls in whole blood (SH2B3, SPSB1, RP11-747H7.3, RP4-737E23.2) and in liver (ERAP1). At some GWAS loci, we found suggestive evidence that the VTE association signal for novel and previously known regions colocalized with expression quantitative trait locus signals. Mendelian randomization analyses suggested that blood traits may contribute to the underlying risk of VTE. To conclude, we identified 16 novel susceptibility loci for VTE; for some loci, the association signals are likely mediated through gene expression of nearby genes.

2.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(7): 1286-1295, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078775

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although most patients with SCLC die within a few months of diagnosis, a subgroup of patients survive for many years. Factors determining long-term survivorship remain largely unknown. We present the first comprehensive comparative genomic and tumor microenvironment analyses of SCLC between patients with long-term survivorship and patients with the expected survivorship. METHODS: We compared surgically resected tumors of 23 long-term SCLC survivors (survival >4 years) and 18 SCLC survivors with the expected survival time (survival ≤2 years). There were no significant differences in clinical variables, including TNM staging and curative- versus non-curative-intent surgery between the groups. Gene expression profiling was performed by using microarrays, and tumor microenvironment analyses were performed by immunohistochemistry of prominent immune-related markers. RESULTS: Immune-related genes and pathways represented the majority of the differentially overexpressed genes in long-term survivorship compared with in expected survivorship. The differences in the immunological tumor microenvironment were confirmed by quantitative immunostaining. Increased numbers of tumor-infiltrating and associated lymphocytes were present throughout tumors of long-term survivors of SCLC. Several differentiating patterns of enhanced antitumor immunity were identified. Although some areas of the tumors of long-term survivors of SCLC also harbored higher numbers of suppressive immune cells (monocytes, regulatory lymphocytes, and macrophages), the ratios of these suppressive cells to CD3-positive lymphocytes were generally lower in the tumors of long-term survivors of SCLC, indicating a less tumor-suppressive microenvironment. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that long-term survivorship of patients with SCLC is strongly influenced by the presence of the immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. Characterization of the antitumor immune responses may identify opportunities for individualized immunotherapies for SCLC.

3.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(8): 1360-1369, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009812

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inherited susceptibility to lung cancer risk in never-smokers is poorly understood. The major reason for this gap in knowledge is that this disease is relatively uncommon (except in Asians), making it difficult to assemble an adequate study sample. In this study we conducted a genome-wide association study on the largest, to date, set of European-descent never-smokers with lung cancer. METHODS: We conducted a two-phase (discovery and replication) genome-wide association study in never-smokers of European descent. We further augmented the sample by performing a meta-analysis with never-smokers from the recent OncoArray study, which resulted in a total of 3636 cases and 6295 controls. We also compare our findings with those in smokers with lung cancer. RESULTS: We detected three genome-wide statistically significant single nucleotide polymorphisms rs31490 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.769, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.722-0.820; p value 5.31 × 10-16), rs380286 (OR: 0.770, 95% CI: 0.723-0.820; p value 4.32 × 10-16), and rs4975616 (OR: 0.778, 95% CI: 0.730-0.829; p value 1.04 × 10-14). All three mapped to Chromosome 5 CLPTM1L-TERT region, previously shown to be associated with lung cancer risk in smokers and in never-smoker Asian women, and risk of other cancers including breast, ovarian, colorectal, and prostate. CONCLUSIONS: We found that genetic susceptibility to lung cancer in never-smokers is associated to genetic variants with pan-cancer risk effects. The comparison with smokers shows that top variants previously shown to be associated with lung cancer risk only confer risk in the presence of tobacco exposure, underscoring the importance of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of this disease.

4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(1): 58-66, 2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an increasingly recognized cause of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) afflicting predominantly younger to middle-aged women. Observational studies have reported a high prevalence of extracoronary vascular anomalies, especially fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) and a low prevalence of coincidental cases of atherosclerosis. PHACTR1/EDN1 is a genetic risk locus for several vascular diseases, including FMD and coronary artery disease, with the putative causal noncoding variant at the rs9349379 locus acting as a potential enhancer for the endothelin-1 (EDN1) gene. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to test the association between the rs9349379 genotype and SCAD. METHODS: Results from case control studies from France, United Kingdom, United States, and Australia were analyzed to test the association with SCAD risk, including age at first event, pregnancy-associated SCAD (P-SCAD), and recurrent SCAD. RESULTS: The previously reported risk allele for FMD (rs9349379-A) was associated with a higher risk of SCAD in all studies. In a meta-analysis of 1,055 SCAD patients and 7,190 controls, the odds ratio (OR) was 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.50 to 1.86) per copy of rs9349379-A. In a subset of 491 SCAD patients, the OR estimate was found to be higher for the association with SCAD in patients without FMD (OR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.53 to 2.33) than in SCAD cases with FMD (OR: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.28 to 1.99). There was no effect of genotype on age at first event, P-SCAD, or recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: The first genetic risk factor for SCAD was identified in the largest study conducted to date for this condition. This genetic link may contribute to the clinical overlap between SCAD and FMD.

5.
Menopause ; 25(11): 1275-1285, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30358723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We studied the long-term risk of depressive and anxiety symptoms in women who underwent bilateral oophorectomy before menopause. DESIGN: We conducted a cohort study among all women residing in Olmsted County, MN, who underwent bilateral oophorectomy before the onset of menopause for a noncancer indication from 1950 through 1987. Each member of the bilateral oophorectomy cohort was matched by age with a referent woman from the same population who had not undergone an oophorectomy. In total, we studied 666 women with bilateral oophorectomy and 673 referent women. Women were followed for a median of 24 years, and depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed using a structured questionnaire via a direct or proxy telephone interview performed from 2001 through 2006. RESULTS: Women who underwent bilateral oophorectomy before the onset of menopause had an increased risk of depressive symptoms diagnosed by a physician (hazard ratio = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.04-2.26, adjusted for age, education, and type of interview) and of anxiety symptoms (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.33-3.95) compared with referent women. The findings remained consistent after excluding depressive or anxiety symptoms that first occurred within 10 years after oophorectomy. The associations were greater with younger age at oophorectomy but did not vary across indications for the oophorectomy. In addition, treatment with estrogen to age 50 years in women who underwent bilateral oophorectomy at younger ages did not modify the risk. CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral oophorectomy performed before the onset of menopause is associated with an increased long-term risk of depressive and anxiety symptoms.

6.
Blood ; 132(17): 1736, 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30361463
7.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30298529

RESUMO

The Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) network is a network of medical centers with electronic medical records linked to existing biorepository samples for genomic discovery and genomic medicine research. The network sought to unify the genetic results from 78 Illumina and Affymetrix genotype array batches from 12 contributing medical centers for joint association analysis of 83,717 human participants. In this report, we describe the imputation of eMERGE results and methods to create the unified imputed merged set of genome-wide variant genotype data. We imputed the data using the Michigan Imputation Server, which provides a missing single-nucleotide variant genotype imputation service using the minimac3 imputation algorithm with the Haplotype Reference Consortium genotype reference set. We describe the quality control and filtering steps used in the generation of this data set and suggest generalizable quality thresholds for imputation and phenotype association studies. To test the merged imputed genotype set, we replicated a previously reported chromosome 6 HLA-B herpes zoster (shingles) association and discovered a novel zoster-associated loci in an epigenetic binding site near the terminus of chromosome 3 (3p29).

8.
BMC Genet ; 19(Suppl 1): 81, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GAW20 working group 5 brought together researchers who contributed 7 papers with the aim of evaluating methods to detect genetic by epigenetic interactions. GAW20 distributed real data from the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study, including single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, methylation (cytosine-phosphate-guanine [CpG]) markers, and phenotype information on up to 995 individuals. In addition, a simulated data set based on the real data was provided. RESULTS: The 7 contributed papers analyzed these data sets with a number of different statistical methods, including generalized linear mixed models, mediation analysis, machine learning, W-test, and sparsity-inducing regularized regression. These methods generally appeared to perform well. Several papers confirmed a number of causative SNPs in either the large number of simulation sets or the real data on chromosome 11. Findings were also reported for different SNPs, CpG sites, and SNP-CpG site interaction pairs. CONCLUSIONS: In the simulation (200 replications), power appeared generally good for large interaction effects, but smaller effects will require larger studies or consortium collaboration for realizing a sufficient power.

9.
BMC Proc ; 12(Suppl 9): 26, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30263042

RESUMO

GAW20 provided a platform for developing and evaluating statistical methods to analyze human lipid-related phenotypes, DNA methylation, and single-nucleotide markers in a study involving a pharmaceutical intervention. In this article, we present an overview of the data sets and the contributions analyzing these data. The data, donated by the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) investigators, included data from 188 families (N = 1105) which included genome-wide DNA methylation data before and after a 3-week treatment with fenofibrate, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, metabolic syndrome components before and after treatment, and a variety of covariates. The contributions from individual research groups were extensively discussed prior, during, and after the Workshop in groups based on discussion themes, before being submitted for publication.

10.
J Thorac Oncol ; 13(10): 1483-1495, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies are widely used to map genomic regions contributing to lung cancer (LC) susceptibility, but they typically do not identify the precise disease-causing genes/variants. To unveil the inherited genetic variants that cause LC, we performed focused exome-sequencing analyses on genes located in 121 genome-wide association study-identified loci previously implicated in the risk of LC, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary function level, and smoking behavior. METHODS: Germline DNA from 260 case patients with LC and 318 controls were sequenced by utilizing VCRome 2.1 exome capture. Filtering was based on enrichment of rare and potential deleterious variants in cases (risk alleles) or controls (protective alleles). Allelic association analyses of single-variant and gene-based burden tests of multiple variants were performed. Promising candidates were tested in two independent validation studies with a total of 1773 case patients and 1123 controls. RESULTS: We identified 48 rare variants with deleterious effects in the discovery analysis and validated 12 of the 43 candidates that were covered in the validation platforms. The top validated candidates included one well-established truncating variant, namely, BRCA2, DNA repair associated gene (BRCA2) K3326X (OR = 2.36, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.38-3.99), and three newly identified variations, namely, lymphotoxin beta gene (LTB) p.Leu87Phe (OR = 7.52, 95% CI: 1.01-16.56), prolyl 3-hydroxylase 2 gene (P3H2) p.Gln185His (OR = 5.39, 95% CI: 0.75-15.43), and dishevelled associated activator of morphogenesis 2 gene (DAAM2) p.Asp762Gly (OR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.10-0.79). Burden tests revealed strong associations between zinc finger protein 93 gene (ZNF93), DAAM2, bromodomain containing 9 gene (BRD9), and the gene LTB and LC susceptibility. CONCLUSION: Our results extend the catalogue of regions associated with LC and highlight the importance of germline rare coding variants in LC susceptibility.

11.
Carcinogenesis ; 39(9): 1135-1140, 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924316

RESUMO

To identify genetic variation associated with lung cancer risk, we performed a genome-wide association analysis of 685 lung cancer cases that had a family history of two or more first or second degree relatives compared with 744 controls without lung cancer that were genotyped on an Illumina Human OmniExpressExome-8v1 array. To ensure robust results, we further evaluated these findings using data from six additional studies that were assembled through the Transdisciplinary Research on Cancer of the Lung Consortium comprising 1993 familial cases and 33 690 controls. We performed a meta-analysis after imputation of all variants using the 1000 Genomes Project Phase 1 (version 3 release date September 2013). Analyses were conducted for 9 327 222 SNPs integrating data from the two sources. A novel variant on chromosome 4p15.31 near the LCORL gene and an imputed rare variant intergenic between CDKN2A and IFNA8 on chromosome 9p21.3 were identified at a genome-wide level of significance for squamous cell carcinomas. Additionally, associations of CHRNA3 and CHRNA5 on chromosome 15q25.1 in sporadic lung cancer were confirmed at a genome-wide level of significance in familial lung cancer. Previously identified variants in or near CHRNA2, BRCA2, CYP2A6 for overall lung cancer, TERT, SECISPB2L and RTEL1 for adenocarcinoma and RAD52 and MHC for squamous carcinoma were significantly associated with lung cancer.

12.
Hepatol Commun ; 2(6): 676-682, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29881819

RESUMO

The United Kingdom-Primary Biliary Cholangitis (UK-PBC) risk scores are a set of prognostic models that estimate the risk of end-stage liver disease in patients with PBC at 5-, 10- and 15-year intervals. They have not been externally validated outside the United Kingdom. In this retrospective, external validation study, data were abstracted from outpatient charts and discrimination and calibration of the UK-PBC risk scores were assessed. A total of 464 patients with PBC treated with ursodeoxycholic acid were included. The median diagnosis age was 52.4 years, and 88% were female patients. The cumulative incidence of events was 6%, 9%, and 15% at 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively. Concordance (c-statistic) was 0.88, 0.85, and 0.84 using the 5-, 10- and 15-year risk scores, respectively, which was slightly lower than values observed in the United Kingdom validation cohort. Using the 5-year risk score, more events were observed than predicted (25 versus 16.8; P = 0.046); using the 10-year risk score, there was no difference between the observed and predicted number of events (35 versus 44.9; P = 0.14); conversely, using the 15-year risk score, fewer events were observed than predicted (46 versus 67.5; P = 0.009). Limiting evaluation by the 15-year UK-PBC risk score to those with >10 years of follow-up demonstrated no difference between observed and predicted events. Using the 5-year risk score, patients within the highest quartile had statistically significant worse event-free survival compared to the rest of the cohort: 82% versus 98% at 5 years, 73% versus 97% at 10 years, and 58% versus 93% at 15 years. Conclusion: In patients assessed at a North American tertiary medical center, the UK-PBC risk score had excellent discrimination and was reasonably calibrated both in the short and long term. (Hepatology Communications 2018;2:676-682).

14.
Menopause ; 25(8): 877-882, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29738412

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Response to menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) shows individual variation. SLCO1B1 encodes the OATP1B1 transporter expressed in the liver that transports many endogenous substances, including estrone sulfate, from the blood into hepatocytes. This study evaluated the relationship between genetic variation in SLCO1B1 and response to MHT in women enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. METHODS: KEEPS participants were randomized to oral conjugated equine estrogen (n = 33, oCEE), transdermal 17ß-estradiol (n = 33, tE2), or placebo (n = 34) for 48 months. Menopausal symptoms (hot flashes, night sweats, insomnia, palpitations) were self-reported before treatment and at 48 months. Estrone (E1), E2, and sulfated conjugates (E1S, E2S) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. SLCO1B1 rs4149056 (c.521T>C, p.Val174Ala) was genotyped using a TaqMan assay. RESULTS: After adjusting for treatment, there was a significant association between the SLCO1B1 rs4149056 TT genotype (encoding normal function transporter) and lower E1S, E1S/E1, and E2S (P = 0.032, 0.010, and 0.008, respectively) compared with women who were heterozygous (TC) or homozygous (CC) for the reduced function allele. The interactions between genotype, treatment, and E2S concentration were stronger in women assigned to tE2 (P = 0.013) than the women taking oCEE (P = 0.056). Among women assigned to active treatment, women with the CT genotype showed a significantly greater decrease in night sweats (P = 0.041) than those with the TT genotype. CONCLUSIONS: Individual variation in sulfated estrogens is explained, in part, by genetic variation in SLCO1B1. Bioavailability of sulfated estrogens may contribute to relief of night sweats.

15.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 89: 229-238, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29150404

RESUMO

Evidence show that stress hormones can influence cancer progression, but its role in carcinogenesis is poorly understood. In this study, we used a new method based on oral carcinogenesis model in rats to test the hypothesis that physiological levels of stress hormones in the normal tissue microenvironment would have significant predictive value for chemically induced cancer occurrence. Male Wistar rats were submitted to a tongue biopsy for measuring not-stress induced levels of norepinephrine, corticosterone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the tissue before carcinogenic induction. Rats were treated with the 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) chemical carcinogen for twenty weeks and then euthanized for microscopic evaluation of the tongue lesions. Increased pre-carcinogen norepinephrine concentrations and reduced basal corticosterone levels in the normal tissue microenvironment were predictive for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) occurrence. Likewise, increased pre-carcinogen norepinephrine levels in the normal microenvironment were associated a lower expression of pCDKN2a-p16 in OSCCs. Post-carcinogen levels of corticosterone and BDNF in oral leukoplakia tissues (precursor lesion of OSCC) and post-carcinogen corticosterone concentrations in OSCCs were higher than basal levels in the normal mucosa. Increased norepinephrine concentrations in OSCCs were associated to a greater tumor volume and thickness. Furthermore, higher levels of norepinephrine, ACTH and BDNF in OSCCs were associated to a lesser intensity of the lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate. This study shows that pre-carcinogen stress hormones levels in the normal microenvironment may be predictive for chemically induced cancer in rats. Moreover, chemical carcinogenesis can promote stressor-like effects with hormonal changes in the tissue microenvironment, which may be associated to tumor progression.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29036934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Certain diseases can occur with and without a trigger. We use Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) as our example to identify genetic interaction with pregnancy in women with VTE during pre- or postpartum. Pregnancy is one of the major risk factors for VTE as it accounts for 10% of maternal deaths. METHODS: We performed a whole genome association analysis using the Cox Proportional Hazard (CoxPH) model adjusted for covariates to identify genetic variants associated with the time-to-event of VTE related to pre- or postpartum during the childbearing age of 18-45 years using a case-only design in a cohort of women with VTE. Women with a VTE event after 45 years of age were censored and contributed only follow-up time. RESULTS: We identified two intragenic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at genome-wide significance in the PURB gene located on chromosome 7, and two additional intragenic SNPs, one in the LINGO2 gene on chromosome 9 and one in RDXP2 on chromosome X. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that the time-to-event model is a useful approach for identifying potential hazard-modification of the genetic variants when the event of interest (VTE) occurs due to a risk factor (pre- or post-partum).


Assuntos
Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/genética , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Período Pós-Parto/genética , Gravidez/genética , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28953253

RESUMO

Gene-environment (GE) interaction has important implications in the etiology of complex diseases that are caused by a combination of genetic factors and environment variables. Several authors have developed GE analysis in the context of independent subjects or longitudinal data using a gene-set. In this paper, we propose to analyze GE interaction for discrete and continuous phenotypes in family studies by incorporating the relatedness among the relatives for each family into a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) and by using a gene-based variance component test. In addition, we deal with collinearity problems arising from linkage disequilibrium among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by considering their coefficients as random effects under the null model estimation. We show that the best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) of such random effects in the GLMM is equivalent to the ridge regression estimator. This equivalence provides a simple method to estimate the ridge penalty parameter in comparison to other computationally-demanding estimation approaches based on cross-validation schemes. We evaluated the proposed test using simulation studies and applied it to real data from the Baependi Heart Study consisting of 76 families. Using our approach, we identified an interaction between BMI and the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARG) gene associated with diabetes.


Assuntos
Família , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Modelos Genéticos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
18.
Heart ; 103(15): 1185-1193, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28572400

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a promising biomarker of coronary heart disease (CHD) given its release into circulation in response to endothelial damage, is associated with subclinical and clinical CHD in a racial/ethnic diverse population. METHODS: HGF was measured in 6738 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Highest mean HGF values (pg/mL) were observed in Hispanic, followed by African, non-Hispanic white, then Chinese Americans. RESULTS: In all races/ethnicities, HGF levels were associated with older age, higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) and body mass index, lower high-density lipoprotein, diabetes and current smoking. In fully adjusted models, each SD higher HGF was associated with an average increase in coronary artery calcium (CAC) of 55 Agatston units for non-Hispanic whites (p<0.001) and 51 Agatston units for African-Americans (p=0.007) but was not in the other race/ethnic groups (interaction p=0.02). There were 529 incident CHD events, and CHD risk was 41% higher in African (p<0.001), 17% in non-Hispanic white (p=0.026) and Chinese (p=0.36), and 6% in Hispanic Americans (p=0.56) per SD increase in HGF. CONCLUSION: In a large and diverse population-based cohort, we report that HGF is associated with subclinical and incident CHD. We demonstrate evidence of racial/ethnic heterogeneity within these associations, as the results are most compelling in African-Americans and non-Hispanic white Americans. We provide evidence that HGF is a biomarker of atherosclerotic disease that is independent of traditional risk factors.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Hum Genet ; 136(7): 897-902, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28528403

RESUMO

Observational studies have shown an association between obesity and venous thromboembolism (VTE) but it is not known if observed associations are causal, due to reverse causation or confounding bias. We conducted a Mendelian Randomization study of body mass index (BMI) and VTE. We identified 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been previously associated with BMI and assessed the association between genetically predicted high BMI and VTE leveraging data from a previously conducted GWAS within the INVENT consortium comprising a total of 7507 VTE cases and 52,632 controls of European ancestry. Five BMI SNPs were associated with VTE at P < 0.05, with the strongest association seen for the FTO SNP rs1558902 (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.02-1.12, P = 0.005). In addition, we observed a significant association between genetically predicted BMI and VTE (OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.30-1.93 per standard deviation increase in BMI, P = 5.8 × 10-6). Our study provides evidence for a causal relationship between high BMI and risk of VTE. Reducing obesity levels will likely result in lower incidence in VTE.


Assuntos
Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Obesidade/genética , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações
20.
Oncotarget ; 8(16): 27155-27165, 2017 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28460442

RESUMO

Achaete-scute homolog 1 (ASCL1) is a neuroendocrine transcription factor specifically expressed in 10-20% of lung adenocarcinomas (AD) with neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation (NED). ASCL1 functions as an upstream regulator of the RET oncogene in AD with high ASCL1 expression (A+AD). RET is a receptor tyrosine kinase with two main human isoforms; RET9 (short) and RET51 (long). We found that elevated expression of RET51 associated mRNA was highly predictive of poor survival in stage-1 A+AD (p=0.0057). Functional studies highlighted the role of RET in promoting invasive properties of A+AD cells. Further, A+AD cells demonstrated close to 10 fold more sensitivity to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, including gefitinib, than AD cells with low ASCL1 expression. Treatment with EGF robustly induced phosphorylation of RET at Tyr-905 in A+AD cells with wild type EGFR. This phosphorylation was blocked by gefitinib and by siRNA-EGFR. Immunoprecipitation experiments found EGFR in a complex with RET in the presence of EGF and suggested that RET51 was the predominant RET isoform in the complex. In the microarray datasets of stage-1 and all stages of A+AD, high levels of EGFR and RET RNA were significantly associated with poor overall survival (p < 0.01 in both analyses). These results implicate EGFR as a key regulator of RET activation in A+AD and suggest that EGFR inhibitors may be therapeutic in patients with A+AD tumors even in the absence of an EGFR or RET mutation.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/genética , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ret/genética , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Processamento Alternativo , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/mortalidade , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/patologia , Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células , Receptores ErbB/antagonistas & inibidores , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Gradação de Tumores , Fosforilação , Prognóstico , Ligação Proteica , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética
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