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1.
Food Chem ; 337: 127771, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777564

RESUMO

Faveleira (Cnidoscolus quercifolius) is an emerging Brazilian plant, with seeds rich in edible oil. This study investigates physicochemical properties, chemical composition, thermal and oxidative stability, in vitro and in vivo toxicity, antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of faveleira seed oil. It was observed that the oil has low acidity, value of peroxide, chlorophyll, carotenoids, ß-carotene and high concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids. In addition to presenting thermal and oxidative stability and high total phenolic content, with vanillin, eugenol and quercetin were predominating. The oil showed no toxicity in vitro and in vivo, and presented antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. These findings provide relevant and appropriate conditions for processing of faveleira seed oil as functional food.

2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 265: 113248, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805356

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Verbesina macrophylla (Cass.) S.F.Blake is a medicinal plant from South America, popularly known as "asa de peixe", "asa de peixe branco", "cambará branco" or "cambará guaçu", being used by traditional communities for its healing powers in the form of teas, infusions, liqueurs and extracts, for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections of the urinary and respiratory tracts, such as kidney problems, bronchitis, inflammation and fever. However, none of the ethnopharmacological properties has been scientifically evaluated. AIM OF THE STUDY: Based on the ethnopharmacological use of the species, this study investigated the chemical composition, and for the first time acute toxicity, hemolytic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the essential oil from leaves of V. macrophylla. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The essential oil was obtained from the leaves by hydrodistillation (HD), being characterized by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the broth microdilution technique in bacteria and fungi that cause infections of the respiratory and urinary tract, and toxicological safety regarding hemolytic activity on human red blood cells (hRBCs), and acute toxicity in mice. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the model carrageenan-induced peritonitis with quantification of the levels of TNF-α and IL-1ß in the intraperitoneal fluid, and ear edema induced by croton oil. The antipyretic activity evaluated in mice with pyrexia induced by yeast. RESULTS: The extraction of essential oil by hydrodistillation (HD) showed a yield of 0.33 ±â€¯0.04%, with its composition constituted mainly by sesquiterpenes of hydrocarbons (94.00%). The essential oil demonstrated antibacterial and antifungal activity, with a low rate of hemolysis in human red blood cells (hRBCs) and no clinical signs of toxicity were observed in animals after acute treatment, which suggested that the LD50 is greater than 5000 mg/kg; p.o. The essential oil demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity reducing levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α (38.83%, 72.42% and 73.52%) and IL-1ß (37.70%, 75.92% and 87.71%), and ear edema by 49.53%, 85.04% and 94.39% at concentrations of 4, 40 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The antipyretic activity presented by the essential oil is statistically similar to dipyrone. CONCLUSION: The set of results obtained, validates the main activities attributed to the traditional use of Verbesina macrophylla (Cass.) S.F.Blake. These data add industrial value to the species, considering that the antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities present results similar to the drugs already used also presenting safety. The results suggest that essential oil from V. macrophylla may be used by industry for the development of drugs with natural antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effect.

3.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-5, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081039

RESUMO

This work aimed to investigate the chemical composition, antimicrobial activity, synergistic effect, and structure changes of the essential oil of Hymenaea rubriflora (EOHr). Forty-five constituents were identified in the essential oil, corresponding to 94.43% of the compounds present, being the main components E-Caryophyllene (36.72 ± 1.05%), Germacrene D (16.13 ± 0.31%), α-Humulene (6.06 ± 0.16%), ß-elemene (5.61 ± 0.14%) and δ-Cadinene (3.76 ± 0.07%). Antimicrobial activity was evaluated, presenting antibacterial and antifungal activity with MIC ranging from 0.62 to 40 µL/mL. The essential oil had a synergistic effect when combined with gentamicin and fluconazole. Structural changes were also evaluated and it was possible to observe that EOHr action was related to changes in membrane permeability. The findings obtained here suggest that the use of the essential oil of H. rubriflora in the treatment of infectious diseases presents a potential for the future development of pharmaceutical products.

4.
Aquat Toxicol ; 197: 109-121, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29462762

RESUMO

Enzyme biomarkers from several aquatic organisms have been used for assessing the exposure to contaminants at sublethal levels. Amongst them, the cholinesterases are commonly extracted from several organisms to evaluate/measure organophosphate and carbamate neurotoxic effects. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7) is an enzyme of the group of serine esterases that acts on the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine allowing the intermittence of the nerve impulses responsible for the neuronal communication. This enzyme is the main target for the action of some pesticides and the inhibition of its activity in bivalve mollusks may be used as biomarker due to their filter-feeding habit. In this context, the present study aimed to characterize physicochemical and kinetic parameters of the AChE extracted from gills and viscera of the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae and investigate the in vitro effect of pesticides (dichlorvos, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, methyl-parathion, temephos, carbaryl, carbofuran, aldicarb, diflubenzuron and novaluron) in search for assessing its potential as biomarker. Specific substrates and inhibitors evidenced the predominance of AChE in both tissues. The optimum pH found for gills and viscera AChE were 8.0 and 8.5, respectively. The maximum peak of activity occurred at 70 °C for gill AChE and 75 °C for viscera AChE. The enzymes of both tissues presented remarkable thermostability. The Michaelis-Menten constant for both enzymes were 1.32 ±â€¯0.20 mM for gills and 0.43 ±â€¯0.12 mM for viscera. The Vmax values for gills and viscera were 53.57 ±â€¯1.72 and 27.71 ±â€¯1.15 mU/mg, respectively. The enzymes were able to reduce the activation energy to 9.75 kcal mol-1 (gills) and 11.87 kcal mol-1 (viscera) obtaining rate enhancements of 3.57 × 105 and 1.01 × 104, respectively, in relation to non-catalyzed reactions. Among the pesticides under study, the carbamates carbaryl and carbofuran exerted the strongest inhibitory effects on the enzyme activity achieving important degrees of inhibition at concentrations below national and international current regulations. The first observation of the effects of benzoylurea pesticides (diflubenzuron and novaluron) on AChE from mollusks is reported here. The gills AChE of C. rhizophorae showed potential to be specific biomarker for the carbamate carbaryl while the viscera AChE showed it for carbofuran. According to their features, these enzymes may be proposed as promising tools for estuarine monitoring as well as biocomponent of biosensor devices.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Crassostrea/enzimologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Temperatura , Animais , Biocatálise/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Estabilidade Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Cinética , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Especificidade por Substrato/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
5.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 40(6): 1659-68, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24980148

RESUMO

Brain cholinesterases from four fish (Arapaima gigas, Colossoma macropomum, Rachycentron canadum and Oreochromis niloticus) were characterized using specific substrates and selective inhibitors. Parameters of catalytic efficiency such as activation energy (AE), k(cat) and k(cat)/k(m) as well as rate enhancements produced by these enzymes were estimated by a method using crude extracts described here. Despite the BChE-like activity, specific substrate kinetic analysis pointed to the existence of only acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in brain of the species studied. Selective inhibition suggests that C. macropomum brain AChE presents atypical activity regarding its behavior in the presence of selective inhibitors. AE data showed that the enzymes increased the rate of reactions up to 10(12) in relation to the uncatalyzed reactions. Zymograms showed the presence of AChE isoforms with molecular weights ranging from 202 to 299 kDa. Values of k(cat) and k(cat)/k(m) were similar to those found in the literature.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Peixes/classificação , Peixes/metabolismo , Animais , Especificidade da Espécie , Clima Tropical
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