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1.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and diseases. Because bariatric surgery is increasingly performed in relatively elderly patients, a risk for pre- and postoperative CV complications exists. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the value of plasma N-terminal-probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) as a CV screening tool. SETTING: High-volume bariatric center. METHODS: Between June 2019 and January 2020, all consecutive bariatric patients 50 years and older underwent preoperative NT-proBNP assessment in this cohort study to screen for CV disease. Patients with elevated NT-proBNP (≥125 pg/mL) were referred for further cardiac evaluation, including electrocardiography and echocardiography. RESULTS: We included 310 consecutive patients (median age, 56 years; 79% female; body mass index = 43±6.5 kg/m2). A history of CV disease was present in 21% of patients, mainly atrial fibrillation (7%) and coronary artery disease (10%). A total of 72 patients (23%) had elevated NT-proBNP levels, and 67 of them underwent further cardiac workup. Of these 67 patients, electrocardiography (ECG) showed atrial fibrillation in 7 patients (10%). On echocardiography, 3 patients had left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <40%, 9 patients had LVEF 40%-49%, and 13 patients had LVEF ≥50% with structural and/or functional remodeling. In 2 patients, elevated NT-proBNP prompted workup leading to a diagnosis of coronary artery disease and consequent percutaneous coronary intervention in 1 patient. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated NT-proBNP levels are present in 23% of patients 50 years and older undergoing bariatric surgery. In 37% of them, there was echocardiographic evidence for structural and/or functional remodeling. Further studies are needed to assess if these preliminary results warrant routine application of NT-proBNP to identify patients at risk for CV complications after bariatric surgery.

2.
Circulation ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040613

RESUMO

Background: Many patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have chronic kidney disease (CKD) which complicates pharmacological management and is associated with worse outcomes. We assessed the safety and efficacy of dapagliflozin in patients with HFrEF, according to baseline kidney function, in the Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF). We also examined the effect of dapagliflozin on kidney function after randomization. Many patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have chronic kidney disease (CKD) which complicates pharmacological management and is associated with worse outcomes. We assessed the safety and efficacy of dapagliflozin in patients with HFrEF, according to baseline kidney function, in the Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF). We also examined the effect of dapagliflozin on kidney function after randomization. Methods: HFrEF patients with or without type 2 diabetes and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥30 ml/min/1.73m2 were enrolled in DAPA-HF. We calculated the incidence of the primary outcome (CV death or worsening HF) according to eGFR category at baseline (<60 and ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2) as well as using eGFR at baseline as a continuous measure. Secondary cardiovascular outcomes and a pre-specified composite renal outcome (≥ 50% sustained decline eGFR, end stage renal disease (ESRD) or renal death) were also examined, along with decline in eGFR over time. Results: Of 4742 with a baseline eGFR, 1926 (41%) had eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2. The effect of dapagliflozin on the primary and secondary outcomes did not differ by eGFR category or examining eGFR as a continuous measurement. The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval (CI)) for the primary endpoint in patients with CKD was 0.71 (0.59, 0.86) vs. 0.77 (0.64, 0.93) in those with an eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2 (interaction p=0.54). The composite renal outcome was not reduced by dapagliflozin (HR=0.71, 95% CI 0.44, 1.16; p=0.17) but the rate of decline in eGFR between day 14 and 720 was less with dapagliflozin, -1.09 (-1.41, -0.78) vs. placebo -2.87 (-3.19, -2.55) ml/min/1.73m2 per year (p<0.001). This was observed in those with and without type 2 diabetes (p for interaction=0.92) Conclusions: Baseline kidney function did not modify the benefits of dapagliflozin on morbidity and mortality in HFrEF and dapagliflozin slowed the rate of decline in eGFR, including in patients without diabetes. Clinical Trial Registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT03036124.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006257

RESUMO

Serum biomarkers are an important tool in the baseline risk assessment and diagnosis of cardiovascular disease in cancer patients receiving cardiotoxic cancer treatments. Increases in cardiac biomarkers including cardiac troponin and natriuretic peptides can be used to guide initiation of cardioprotective treatments for cancer patients during treatment and to monitor the response to cardioprotective treatments, and they also offer prognostic value. This position statement examines the role of cardiac biomarkers in the management of cancer patients. The Cardio-Oncology Study Group of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) in collaboration with the Cardio-Oncology Council of the ESC have evaluated the current evidence for the role of cardiovascular biomarkers in cancer patients before, during and after cardiotoxic cancer therapies. The characteristics of the main two biomarkers troponin and natriuretic peptides are discussed, the link to the mechanisms of cardiovascular toxicity, and the evidence for their clinical use in surveillance during and after anthracycline chemotherapy, trastuzumab and HER2-targeted therapies, vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors, proteasome inhibitors, immune checkpoint inhibitors, cyclophosphamide and radiotherapy. Novel surveillance clinical pathways integrating cardiac biomarkers for cancer patients receiving anthracycline chemotherapy or trastuzumab biomarkers are presented and future direction in cardio-oncology biomarker research is discussed.

5.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094495

RESUMO

The co-occurrence of cancer and heart failure (HF) represents a significant clinical drawback as each disease interferes with the treatment of the other. In addition to shared risk factors, a growing body of experimental and clinical evidence reveals numerous commonalities in the biology underlying both pathologies. Inflammation emerges as a common hallmark for both diseases as it contributes to the initiation, and progression of both HF and cancer. Under stress, malignant and cardiac cells change their metabolic preferences to survive, which makes these metabolic derangements a great basis to develop intersection strategies and therapies to combat both diseases. Further, genetic predisposition and clonal hematopoiesis are common drivers for both conditions and they hold great clinical relevance in the context of personalized medicine. Also, altered angiogenesis is a common hallmark for failing hearts and tumors and represents a promising substrate to target in both diseases. Cardiac cells and malignant cells interact with their surrounding environment called stroma. This interaction mediates the progression of the 2 pathologies and understanding the structure and function of each stromal component may pave the way for innovative therapeutic strategies and improved outcomes in patients. The interdisciplinary collaboration between cardiologists and oncologists is essential to establish unified guidelines. Also, preclinical models that mimic the human situation, where both pathologies coexist, are needed to understand all the aspects of the bidirectional relationship between cancer and HF. Finally, adequately powered clinical studies, including all ages, and men and women, with proper adjudication of both cancer and CV end points, are essential to accurately study these two pathologies at the same time.

6.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002110

RESUMO

AIMS: Elderly patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have worse prognosis and less often receive guideline-recommended therapies. We aim to better understand the underlying pathophysiological processes associated with aging in HFrEF potentially leading to targeted therapies in this vulnerable population. METHODS AND RESULTS: From a panel of 363 cardiovascular biomarkers available in 1,611 patients with HFrEF in the BIOSTAT-CHF index cohort and cross-validated in 823 patients in the BIOSTAT-CHF validation cohort, we tested which biomarkers were dysregulated in patients aged > 75yr versus <65yr. Secondly, pathway overrepresentation analyses were performed to identify biological pathways linked to higher plasma concentrations of biomarkers in elderly versus younger patients. After adjustment, multiple test correction (FDR 1%), and cross-validation, 27/363 biomarkers were associated with older age, 22 positively, and 5 negatively. The biomarkers that were positively associated with older age were associated with tumor cell regulation, extra-cellular matrix organization, and inflammatory processes, whereas biomarkers negatively associated with older age were associated with pathways that may point to cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Among the 27 biomarkers, WFDC2 (WAP Four-Disulfide-Core-Domain-2) - that broadly functions as a protease inhibitor - was associated with older age and had the strongest association with all outcomes. No protein-by-sex interaction was observed. CONCLUSIONS: In elderly HFrEF patients, pathways associated with extra-cellular matrix organization, inflammatory processes, and tumor cell regulation were activated, while pathways associated with tumor proliferation functions were down-regulated. These findings may help in a better understanding of the aging processes in HFrEF and identify potential therapeutic targets. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Elderly patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have worse prognosis and less often receive guideline-recommended therapies. Using a large set of circulating proteins, elderly patients had higher concentrations of proteins associated with tumor cell regulation, extra-cellular matrix organization, and inflammatory processes, whereas pathways that may point to cell proliferation and tumorigenesis were down-regulated. WAP Four-Disulfide-Core-Domain-2 was associated with older age and had the strongest association with an increased risk of all outcomes. Understanding the underlying pathophysiological processes associated with aging in HFrEF may potentially lead to targeted therapies in this vulnerable population.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(18): e016309, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862764

RESUMO

Background The burden of cancer in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is apparently growing. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) may help understanding this observation, since they span decades of heart failure treatment. Methods and Results We assessed cancer, cardiovascular, and total mortality in phase 3 heart failure RCTs involving ≥90% individuals with left ventricular ejection fraction <45%, who were not acutely decompensated and did not represent specific patient subsets. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) of each type of death for the control and treatment arms were calculated using a random-effects model. Temporal trends and the impact of patient and RCT characteristics on mortality outcomes were evaluated by meta-regression analysis. Cancer mortality was reported for 15 (25%) of 61 RCTs, including 33 709 subjects, and accounted for 6% to 14% of all deaths and 17% to 67% of noncardiovascular deaths. Cancer mortality rate was 0.58 (95% CI, 0.46-0.71) per 100 patient-years without temporal trend (P=0.35). Cardiovascular (P=0.001) and total (P=0.001) mortality rates instead decreased over time. Moreover, cancer mortality was not influenced by treatment (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.92-1.28), unlike cardiovascular (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.79-0.98) and all-cause (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84-0.99) mortality. Meta-regression did not reveal significant sources of heterogeneity. Possible reasons for excluding patients with malignancy overlapped among RCTs with and without published cancer mortality, and malignancy was an exclusion criterion only for 4 (8.7%) of the RCTs not reporting cancer mortality. Conclusions Cancer is a major, yet overlooked cause of noncardiovascular death in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, which has become more prominent with cardiovascular mortality decline.

8.
Circulation ; 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883108

RESUMO

Background: In the Dapagliflozin And Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF), dapagliflozin, added to guideline-recommended therapies, reduced the risk of mortality and HF hospitalization. We examined the frequency and significance of episodes of outpatient heart failure-worsening, requiring augmentation of oral therapy, and the effects of dapagliflozin on these additional events. Methods: Patients in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II-IV, with a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%, and elevation of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were eligible. The primary outcome was the composite of an episode of worsening heart failure (HF hospitalization or urgent HF visit requiring intravenous [IV] therapy) or cardiovascular (CV) death, whichever occurred first. An additional prespecified exploratory outcome was the primary outcome plus worsening HF symptoms/signs leading to initiation of new, or augmentation of existing, oral treatment. Results: Overall, 36% more patients experienced the expanded, compared with the primary, composite outcome. In the placebo group, 684/2371 (28.8%) patients, and 527/2373 (22.2%) participants in the dapagliflozin group, experienced the expanded outcome (HR 0.73, 0.65-0.82; P<0.0001); each component of the composite was reduced significantly by dapagliflozin. Over the median follow-up of 18.2 months, the number of patients needed to treat (NNT) with dapagliflozin to prevent one experiencing an episode of fatal or non-fatal worsening was 16. Among the 4744 randomized patients, the first episode of worsening was outpatient augmentation of treatment in 407 participants (8.6%), an urgent HF visit with IV therapy in 20 (0.4%), HF hospitalization in 489 (10.3%) and CV death in 295 (6.2%) patients. The adjusted risk of death from any cause (compared with no event) following an outpatient worsening was HR 2.67 (95%CI 2.03-3.52), after an urgent HF visit 3.00 (1.39-6.48) and after a HF hospitalization 6.21 (5.07-7.62). Conclusions: In DAPA-HF, outpatient episodes of HF worsening were common, of prognostic importance and reduced by dapagliflozin. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT03036124.

9.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871009

RESUMO

AIMS: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a multifactorial disease that constitutes several distinct phenotypes, including a common cardiometabolic phenotype with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Treatment options for HFpEF are limited, and development of novel therapeutics is hindered by the paucity of suitable preclinical HFpEF models that recapitulate the complexity of human HFpEF. Metabolic drugs, like Glucagon Like Peptide Receptor Agonist (GLP-1RA) and Sodium Glucose Transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), have emerged as promising drugs to restore metabolic perturbations and may have value in the treatment of the cardiometabolic HFpEF phenotype. We aimed to develop a multifactorial HFpEF mouse model that closely resembles the cardiometabolic HFpEF phenotype, and evaluated the GLP-1 RA liraglutide and a SGLT2i dapagliflozin. METHODS & RESULTS: Aged (18-22 months old) female C57BL/6J mice were fed a standardized chow (CTRL) or high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. After 8 weeks HFD, Angiotensin-II (ANGII), was administered for 4 weeks via osmotic mini-pumps. HFD+ANGII resulted in a cardiometabolic HFpEF phenotype, including obesity, impaired glucose handling and metabolic dysregulation with inflammation. The multiple-hit resulted in typical clinical HFpEF features, including cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis with preserved fractional shortening but with impaired myocardial deformation, atrial enlargement lung congestion, and elevated blood pressures. Treatment with liraglutide attenuated the cardiometabolic dysregulation and improved cardiac function, with reduced cardiac hypertrophy, less myocardial fibrosis, and attenuation of atrial weight, natriuretic peptide levels, and lung congestion. Dapagliflozin treatment improved glucose handling, but had mild effects on the HFpEF phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a mouse model that recapitulates the human HFpEF disease, providing a novel opportunity to study disease pathogenesis and development of enhanced therapeutic approaches. We furthermore show that attenuation of cardiometabolic dysregulation may represent a novel therapeutic target for treatment of HFpEF. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: The failure of many treatment modalities for HFpEF may -at least in part- be explained by the lack of an adequate animal model. The diverse etiology of HFpEF is still largely neglected in pre-clinical research. In this study we developed a murine model that includes advanced age, female sex, in concert with co-morbidities: elevated blood pressure, obesity and T2DM. We demonstrate that this model recapitulates the human cardiometabolic HFpEF phenotype. We showed that contemporary glucose lowering drugs, liraglutide and dapagliflozin, which are both under study for HFpEF, have positive results. Our model may be useful to evaluate novel cardiometabolic, anti-fibrotic, and anti-inflammatory treatments for HFpEF.

10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(12): 1455-1465, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factors and biomarkers associate differentially with heart failure (HF) risk in men and women is unclear. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate sex-specific associations of CV risk factors and biomarkers with incident HF. METHODS: The analysis was performed using data from 4 community-based cohorts with 12.5 years of follow-up. Participants (recruited between 1989 and 2002) were free of HF at baseline. Biomarker measurements included natriuretic peptides, cardiac troponins, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, D-dimer, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, sST2, galectin-3, cystatin-C, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio. RESULTS: Among 22,756 participants (mean age 60 ± 13 years, 53% women), HF occurred in 2,095 participants (47% women). Age, smoking, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, body mass index, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, left ventricular hypertrophy, and left bundle branch block were strongly associated with HF in both sexes (p < 0.001), and the combined clinical model had good discrimination in men (C-statistic = 0.80) and in women (C-statistic = 0.83). The majority of biomarkers were strongly and similarly associated with HF in both sexes. The clinical model improved modestly after adding natriuretic peptides in men (ΔC-statistic = 0.006; likelihood ratio chi-square = 146; p < 0.001), and after adding cardiac troponins in women (ΔC-statistic = 0.003; likelihood ratio chi-square = 73; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: CV risk factors are strongly and similarly associated with incident HF in both sexes, highlighting the similar importance of risk factor control in reducing HF risk in the community. There are subtle sex-related differences in the predictive value of individual biomarkers, but the overall improvement in HF risk estimation when included in a clinical HF risk prediction model is limited in both sexes.

12.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809235

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiac specificity provides an advantage in correlating heart failure (HF) biomarker plasma levels with indices of cardiac function and remodelling, as shown for natriuretic peptides. Using bioinformatics, we explored the cardiac specificity of secreted proteins and investigated in more detail the relationship of Dickkopf-3 (DKK3) gene expression and DKK3 plasma concentrations with cardiac function and remodelling in (pre)clinical studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: The cardiac specificity of secreted proteins was determined using RNAseq data for a large panel of organs and tissues. This showed that natriuretic peptides (NPPA and NPPB) are highly cardiac-specific (>99%), whereas other HF biomarkers, including galectin-3 (Gal-3, LGALS3) and growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), lack cardiac specificity (<4%). DKK3 was cardiac-enriched (44%), warranting further investigation. In three different HF mouse models, cardiac Dkk3 expression was altered, but DKK3 plasma concentrations were not. In humans, DKK3 plasma concentrations were higher in HF patients (n = 2090) in comparison with age- and sex-matched controls without HF (n = 240) (46.4 ng/mL vs. 36.3 ng/mL; P < 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that DKK3 was strongly associated with HF risk factors and comorbidities, including age, kidney function and atrial fibrillation. After correction for existing prediction models, DKK3 did not independently predict HF outcome [all-cause mortality/HF hospitalization, hazard ratio 1.13 (0.79-1.61) per DKK3 doubling; P = 0.503]. CONCLUSIONS: Of actively secreted HF biomarkers, only natriuretic peptides showed high cardiac specificity. Despite a cardiac specificity of 44%, secreted DKK3 had limited additional diagnostic and prognostic value.

13.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(5): 387-395, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The P-wave duration (PWD) is an electrocardiographic measurement that represents cardiac conduction in the atria. Shortened or prolonged PWD is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). We used exome-chip data to examine the associations between common and rare variants with PWD. METHODS: Fifteen studies comprising 64 440 individuals (56 943 European, 5681 African, 1186 Hispanic, 630 Asian) and ≈230 000 variants were used to examine associations with maximum PWD across the 12-lead ECG. Meta-analyses summarized association results for common variants; gene-based burden and sequence kernel association tests examined low-frequency variant-PWD associations. Additionally, we examined the associations between PWD loci and AF using previous AF genome-wide association studies. RESULTS: We identified 21 common and low-frequency genetic loci (14 novel) associated with maximum PWD, including several AF loci (TTN, CAND2, SCN10A, PITX2, CAV1, SYNPO2L, SOX5, TBX5, MYH6, RPL3L). The top variants at known sarcomere genes (TTN, MYH6) were associated with longer PWD and increased AF risk. However, top variants at other loci (eg, PITX2 and SCN10A) were associated with longer PWD but lower AF risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight multiple novel genetic loci associated with PWD, and underscore the shared mechanisms of atrial conduction and AF. Prolonged PWD may be an endophenotype for several different genetic mechanisms of AF.

14.
Eur Heart J ; 41(36): 3402-3418, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820334

RESUMO

AIMS: Concern about hypotension often leads to withholding of beneficial therapy in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin, which lowers systolic blood pressure (SBP),according to baseline SBP in Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Key inclusion criteria were: New York Heart Association Class II-IV, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%, elevated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level, and SBP ≥95 mmHg. The primary outcome was a composite of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death. The efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin were examined using SBP as both a categorical and continuous variable. A total of 1205 patients had a baseline SBP <110 mmHg; 981 ≥ 110 < 120; 1149 ≥ 120 < 130; and 1409 ≥ 130 mmHg. The placebo-corrected reduction in SBP from baseline to 2 weeks with dapagliflozin was -2.54 (-3.33 to -1.76) mmHg (P < 0.001), with a smaller between-treatment difference in patients in the lowest compared to highest SBP category. Patients in the lowest SBP category had a much higher rate (per 100 person-years) of the primary outcome [20.6, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 17.6-24.2] than those in the highest SBP category (13.8, 11.7-16.4). The benefit and safety of dapagliflozin was consistent across the range of SBP; hazard ratio (95% CI) in each SBP group, lowest to highest: 0.76 (0.60-0.97), 0.76 (0.57-1.02), 0.81 (0.61-1.08), and 0.67 (0.51-0.87), P interaction = 0.78. Study drug discontinuation did not differ between dapagliflozin and placebo across the SBP categories examined. CONCLUSION: Dapagliflozin had a small effect on SBP in patients with HFrEF and was superior to placebo in improving outcomes, and well tolerated, across the range of SBP included in DAPA-HF. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03036124.

15.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618086

RESUMO

Heart failure (HF) is common and associated with a poor prognosis, despite advances in treatment. Over the last decade cardiovascular outcome trials with sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have demonstrated beneficial effects for three SGLT2 inhibitors (empagliflozin, canagliflozin and dapagliflozin) in reducing hospitalisations for HF. More recently, dapagliflozin reduced the risk of worsening HF or death from cardiovascular causes in patients with chronic HF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus. A number of additional trials in HF patients with reduced and/or preserved left ventricular ejection fraction are ongoing and/or about to be reported. The present position paper summarises recent clinical trial evidence and discusses the role of SGLT2 inhibitors in the treatment of HF, pending the results of ongoing trials in different populations of patients with HF.

16.
Circulation ; 142(11): 1040-1054, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the DAPA-HF trial (Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse-Outcomes in Heart Failure), the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin reduced the risk of worsening heart failure and death in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. We examined the efficacy and tolerability of dapagliflozin in relation to background diuretic treatment and change in diuretic therapy after randomization to dapagliflozin or placebo. METHODS: We examined the effects of study treatment in the following subgroups: no diuretic and diuretic dose equivalent to furosemide <40, 40, and >40 mg daily at baseline. We examined the primary composite end point of cardiovascular death or a worsening heart failure event and its components, all-cause death and symptoms. RESULTS: Of 4616 analyzable patients, 736 (15.9%) were on no diuretic, 1311 (28.4%) were on <40 mg, 1365 (29.6%) were on 40 mg, and 1204 (26.1%) were taking >40 mg. Compared with placebo, dapagliflozin reduced the risk of the primary end point across each of these subgroups: hazard ratios were 0.57 (95% CI, 0.36-0.92), 0.83 (95% CI, 0.63-1.10), 0.77 (95% CI, 0.60-0.99), and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.63-0.97), respectively (P for interaction=0.61). The hazard ratio in patients taking any diuretic was 0.78 (95% CI, 0.68-0.90). Improvements in symptoms and treatment toleration were consistent across the diuretic subgroups. Diuretic dose did not change in most patients during follow-up, and mean diuretic dose did not differ between the dapagliflozin and placebo groups after randomization. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin were consistent across the diuretic subgroups examined in DAPA-HF. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03036124.

17.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(554)2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727916

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in congenital cardiac shunts can be reversed by hemodynamic unloading (HU) through shunt closure. However, this reversibility potential is lost beyond a certain point in time. The reason why PAH becomes irreversible is unknown. In this study, we used MCT+shunt-induced PAH in rats to identify a dichotomous reversibility response to HU, similar to the human situation. We compared vascular profiles of reversible and irreversible PAH using RNA sequencing. Cumulatively, we report that loss of reversibility is associated with a switch from a proliferative to a senescent vascular phenotype and confirmed markers of senescence in human PAH-CHD tissue. In vitro, we showed that human pulmonary endothelial cells of patients with PAH are more vulnerable to senescence than controls in response to shear stress and confirmed that the senolytic ABT263 induces apoptosis in senescent, but not in normal, endothelial cells. To support the concept that vascular cell senescence is causal to the irreversible nature of end-stage PAH, we targeted senescence using ABT263 and induced reversal of the hemodynamic and structural changes associated with severe PAH refractory to HU. The factors that drive the transition from a reversible to irreversible pulmonary vascular phenotype could also explain the irreversible nature of other PAH etiologies and provide new leads for pharmacological reversal of end-stage PAH.

18.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621569

RESUMO

Cardiovascular (CV) imaging is an important tool in baseline risk assessment and detection of CV disease in oncology patients receiving cardiotoxic cancer therapies. This position statement examines the role of echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance, nuclear cardiac imaging and computed tomography in the management of cancer patients. The Imaging and Cardio-Oncology Study Groups of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) in collaboration with the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) and the Cardio-Oncology Council of the ESC have evaluated the current evidence for the value of modern CV imaging in the cardio-oncology field. The most relevant echocardiographic parameters, including global longitudinal strain and three-dimensional ejection fraction, are proposed. The protocol for baseline pre-treatment evaluation and specific surveillance algorithms or pathways for anthracycline chemotherapy, HER2-targeted therapies such as trastuzumab, vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, BCr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitors, proteasome inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors are presented. The indications for CV imaging after completion of oncology treatment are considered. The typical consequences of radiation therapy and the possibility of their identification in the long term are also summarized. Special populations are discussed including female survivors planning pregnancy, patients with carcinoid disease, patients with cardiac tumours and patients with right heart failure. Future directions and ongoing CV imaging research in cardio-oncology are discussed.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613292

RESUMO

MI surgery increased the myocardial expression of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and increased the relative expression of foetal (ß-MHC) compared to with that of adult (α-MHC) myosin heavy-chain isoform (i.e. ß-MHC/α-MHC ratio).

20.
Cardiovasc Res ; 116(11): 1820-1834, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683451

RESUMO

In western countries, cardiovascular (CV) disease and cancer are the leading causes of death in the ageing population. Recent epidemiological data suggest that cancer is more frequent in patients with prevalent or incident CV disease, in particular, heart failure (HF). Indeed, there is a tight link in terms of shared risk factors and mechanisms between HF and cancer. HF induced by anticancer therapies has been extensively studied, primarily focusing on the toxic effects that anti-tumour treatments exert on cardiomyocytes. In this Cardio-Oncology update, members of the ESC Working Groups of Myocardial Function and Cellular Biology of the Heart discuss novel evidence interconnecting cardiac dysfunction and cancer via pathways in which cardiomyocytes may be involved but are not central. In particular, the multiple roles of cardiac stromal cells (endothelial cells and fibroblasts) and inflammatory cells are highlighted. Also, the gut microbiota is depicted as a new player at the crossroads between HF and cancer. Finally, the role of non-coding RNAs in Cardio-Oncology is also addressed. All these insights are expected to fuel additional research efforts in the field of Cardio-Oncology.

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