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1.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220368, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity is considered a major challenge for current health care. Lifestyle interventions, as a broad and generic approach, may have the potential to improve the management of care among patients with multimorbidity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of multimorbidity defined within the cardiometabolic disease domains with dietary patterns, representing habitual dietary intake. DESIGN: We studied 129 369 participants from the Lifelines Cohort study (42% male, 45±13 years (range 18-93)) in which diet was assessed using a 110-item food frequency questionnaire. A composite morbidity score was applied in multivariable ordered logistic regression to test the association with dietary patterns derived by principal components analysis, based on sex-specific dietary pattern scores. RESULTS: Four dietary patterns were retained, accounting for 26.6% of the variation in overall diet. After control for potential confounders, men and women in the highest quintile of "meat, alcohol and potato pattern" and "snack pattern" had a higher likelihood of having higher morbidity scores than those in the lowest quintile (e.g. men: OR = 1.83(95% CI:1.71-1.97), OR = 1.18(95% CI 1.11-1.27 respectively). The opposite was observed with respect to the "bread and sweets pattern" and "vegetable, fish and fruit pattern" (e.g. women: OR = 0.88(95% CI: 0.81-0.96), OR = 0.86(95% CI 0.81-0.92 respectively). The association partially attenuated after adjusting for BMI, but the associations remained significant among men. CONCLUSIONS: Robust associations between dietary patterns and multimorbidity within the cardiometabolic domain, in particular a "meat, alcohol and potato pattern", suggest an important opportunity of dietary interventions in multimobidity prevention. Generic prevention strategies based on population derived dietary patterns may have the potential to enhance lifestyle management among people with multimorbidity.

2.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In heart failure (HF), levels of NT-proBNP are influenced by the presence of concomitant atrial fibrillation (AF), making it difficult to distinguish between HF versus AF in patients with raised NT-proBNP. It is unknown whether levels of GDF-15 are also influenced by AF in patients with HF. In this study we compared the plasma levels of NT-proBNP versus GDF-15 in patients with HF in AF versus sinus rhythm (SR). METHODS: In a post hoc analysis of the index cohort of BIOSTAT-CHF (n = 2516), we studied patients with HF categorized into three groups: (1) AF at baseline (n = 733), (2) SR at baseline with a history of AF (n = 183), and (3) SR at baseline and no history of AF (n = 1025). The findings were validated in the validation cohort of BIOSTAT-CHF (n = 1738). RESULTS: Plasma NT-proBNP levels of patients who had AF at baseline were higher than those of patients in SR (both with and without a history of AF), even after multivariable adjustment (3417 [25th-75th percentile 1897-6486] versus 1788 [682-3870], adjusted p < 0.001, versus 2231 pg/mL [902-5270], adjusted p < 0.001). In contrast, after adjusting for clinical confounders, the levels of GDF-15 were comparable between the three groups (3179 [2062-5253] versus 2545 [1686-4337], adjusted p = 0.36, versus 2294 [1471-3855] pg/mL, adjusted p = 0.08). Similar patterns of both NT-proBNP and GDF-15 were found in the validation cohort. CONCLUSION: These data show that in patients with HF, NT-proBNP is significantly influenced by underlying AF at time of measurement and not by previous episodes of AF, whereas the levels of GDF-15 are not influenced by the presence of AF. Therefore, GDF-15 might have additive value combined with NT-proBNP in the assessment of patients with HF and concomitant AF.

3.
Heart Fail Rev ; 2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256318

RESUMO

Anthracyclines are the cornerstone for many oncologic treatments, but their cardiotoxicity has been recognized for several decades. Female subjects, especially before puberty and adolescence, or after menopause, seem to be more at increased risk, with the prognostic impact of this sex issue being less consistent compared to other cardiovascular risk factors. Several studies imply that sex differences could depend on the lack of the protective effect of sex hormones against the anthracycline-initiated damage in cardiac cells, or on differential mitochondria-related oxidative gene expression. This is also reflected by the results obtained with different diagnostic methods, such as cardiovascular biomarkers and imaging techniques (echocardiography, magnetic resonance, and nuclear medicine) in the diagnosis and monitoring of cardiotoxicity, confirming that sex differences exist. The same is true about protective strategies from anthracycline cardiotoxicity. Indeed, first studied to withstand oxidative damage in response to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, cardioprotection has different outcomes in men and women. A number of studies assessed the differences in I/R response between male and female hearts, with oxidative stress and apoptosis being shared mechanisms between the I/R and anthracyclines heart damage. Sex hormones can modulate these mechanisms, thus confirming their importance in the pathophysiology in cardioprotection not only from the ischemia/reperfusion damage, but also from anthracyclines, fueling further cardio-oncologic research on the topic.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321851

RESUMO

Emerging evidence supports that cancer incidence is increased in patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease and heart failure (HF), and patients with HF frequently die from cancer. Recently, data have been generated showing that circulating factors in relation to HF promote tumour growth and development in murine models, providing proof that a causal relationship exists between both diseases. Several common pathophysiological mechanisms linking HF to cancer exist, and include inflammation, neuro-hormonal activation, oxidative stress and a dysfunctional immune system. These shared mechanisms, in combination with risk factors, in concert may explain why patients with HF are prone to develop cancer. Investigating the new insights linking HF with cancer is rapidly becoming an exciting new field of research, and we herein review the most recent data. Besides insights in mechanisms, we call for clinical awareness, that is essential to optimize treatment strategies of patients having developed cancer with a history of HF. Finally, ongoing and future trials should strive for comprehensive phenotyping of both CV and cancer end points, to allow optimal usefulness of data, and to better describe and understand common characteristics of these two lethal diseases.

5.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(6): 715-731, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222929

RESUMO

Natriuretic peptide [NP; B-type NP (BNP), N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP), and midregional proANP (MR-proANP)] concentrations are quantitative plasma biomarkers for the presence and severity of haemodynamic cardiac stress and heart failure (HF). End-diastolic wall stress, intracardiac filling pressures, and intracardiac volumes seem to be the dominant triggers. This paper details the most important indications for NPs and highlights 11 key principles underlying their clinical use shown below. NPs should always be used in conjunction with all other clinical information. NPs are reasonable surrogates for intracardiac volumes and filling pressures. NPs should be measured in all patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of HF such as dyspnoea and/or fatigue, as their use facilitates the early diagnosis and risk stratification of HF. NPs have very high diagnostic accuracy in discriminating HF from other causes of dyspnoea: the higher the NP, the higher the likelihood that dyspnoea is caused by HF. Optimal NP cut-off concentrations for the diagnosis of acute HF (very high filling pressures) in patients presenting to the emergency department with acute dyspnoea are higher compared with those used in the diagnosis of chronic HF in patients with dyspnoea on exertion (mild increase in filling pressures at rest). Obese patients have lower NP concentrations, mandating the use of lower cut-off concentrations (about 50% lower). In stable HF patients, but also in patients with other cardiac disorders such as myocardial infarction, valvular heart disease, atrial fibrillation or pulmonary embolism, NP concentrations have high prognostic accuracy for death and HF hospitalization. Screening with NPs for the early detection of relevant cardiac disease including left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular risk factors may help to identify patients at increased risk, therefore allowing targeted preventive measures to prevent HF. BNP, NT-proBNP and MR-proANP have comparable diagnostic and prognostic accuracy. In patients with shock, NPs cannot be used to identify cause (e.g. cardiogenic vs. septic shock), but remain prognostic. NPs cannot identify the underlying cause of HF and, therefore, if elevated, must always be used in conjunction with cardiac imaging.

6.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(7): 827-843, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243866

RESUMO

Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a potentially life-threatening condition typically presenting as heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in the last month of pregnancy or in the months following delivery in women without another known cause of heart failure. This updated position statement summarizes the knowledge about pathophysiological mechanisms, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of PPCM. As shortness of breath, fatigue and leg oedema are common in the peripartum period, a high index of suspicion is required to not miss the diagnosis. Measurement of natriuretic peptides, electrocardiography and echocardiography are recommended to promptly diagnose or exclude heart failure/PPCM. Important differential diagnoses include pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, hypertensive heart disease during pregnancy, and pre-existing heart disease. A genetic contribution is present in up to 20% of PPCM, in particular titin truncating variant. PPCM is associated with high morbidity and mortality, but also with a high probability of partial and often full recovery. Use of guideline-directed pharmacological therapy for HFrEF is recommended in all patients respecting contraindications during pregnancy/lactation. The oxidative stress-mediated cleavage of the hormone prolactin into a cardiotoxic fragment has been identified as a driver of PPCM pathophysiology. Pharmacological blockade of prolactin release using bromocriptine as a disease-specific therapy in addition to standard therapy for heart failure treatment has shown promising results in two clinical trials. Thresholds for devices (implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, cardiac resynchronization therapy and implanted long-term ventricular assist devices) are higher in PPCM than in other conditions because of the high rate of recovery. The important role of education and counselling around contraception and future pregnancies is emphasised.

7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(19): 2388-2397, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary prevention strategies to mitigate the burden of heart failure (HF) are urgently needed. However, no validated risk prediction tools are currently in use. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to derive 10-year risk equations of developing incident HF. METHODS: Race- and sex-specific 10-year risk equations for HF were derived and validated from individual-level data from 7 community-based cohorts with at least 12 years of follow-up. Participants who were recruited between 1985 and 2000, between 30 to 79 years, and were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline were included to create a pooled cohort (PC) and were randomly split for derivation and internal validation. Model performance was also assessed in 2 additional cohorts. RESULTS: In the derivation sample of the PC (n = 11,771), 58% were women, 22% were black with a mean age of 52 ± 12 years, and HF occurred in 1,339 participants. Predictors of HF included in the race-sex-specific models were age, blood pressure (treated or untreated), fasting glucose (treated or untreated), body mass index, cholesterol, smoking status, and QRS duration. The PC equations to Prevent HF model had good discrimination and strong calibration in internal and external validation cohorts. A web-based tool was developed to facilitate clinical application of this tool. CONCLUSIONS: The authors present a contemporary analysis from 33,010 men and women demonstrating the utility of the sex- and race-specific 10-year PC equations to Prevent HF risk score, which integrates clinical parameters readily available in primary care settings. This tool can be useful in risk-based decision making to determine who may merit intensive screening and/or targeted prevention strategies.

8.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(5): e005544, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PENK (proenkephalin) is a stable surrogate for enkephalins, endogenous opioid peptides, which exert cardiodepressive effects and improve renal function. PENK has been associated with heart failure (HF) severity and renal dysfunction. We therefore hypothesized that PENK could be associated with deterioration of kidney function and could have a role as a novel renal marker in HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 2180 patients with HF of a large multicenter cohort (BIOSTAT-CHF [A Systems Biology Study to Tailored Treatment in Chronic Heart Failure]), the relationship between PENK and clinical variables, plasma and urinary biomarkers, and clinical end points was established. Data were validated in a separate cohort of 1703 patients with HF. PENK was elevated (>80 pmol/L, 99th percentile) in 1245 (57%) patients. Higher PENK was associated with more advanced HF and glomerular and tubular dysfunction. The strongest independent predictor of PENK was estimated glomerular filtration rate. Others were plasma NGAL (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) and NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; all P<0.001). Using correlation heatmaps and hierarchical cluster analyses, PENK clustered with estimated glomerular filtration rate, creatinine, NGAL, galectin-3, and urea. Higher PENK was independently associated with increased risk of deterioration of kidney function between baseline and 9 months (odds ratio, 1.29 [1.02-1.65] per PENK doubling; P=0.038; defined as >25% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate) and mortality (hazard ratio, 1.23 [1.07-1.43] per doubling; P=0.004). Analyses in the validation cohort yielded comparable findings. CONCLUSIONS: Higher PENK levels are associated with more severe HF, with glomerular and tubular renal dysfunction, with incidence of a deterioration of kidney function, and with mortality. These findings suggest that the opioid system might be involved in deteriorating kidney function in HF.

9.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2019 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129923

RESUMO

The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has published a series of guidelines on heart failure (HF) over the last 25 years, most recently in 2016. Given the amount of new information that has become available since then, the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC recognized the need to review and summarise recent developments in a consensus document. Here we report from the HFA workshop that was held in January 2019 in Frankfurt, Germany. This expert consensus report is neither a guideline update nor a position statement, but rather a summary and consensus view in the form of consensus recommendations. The report describes how these guidance statements are supported by evidence, it makes some practical comments, and it highlights new research areas and how progress might change the clinical management of HF. We have avoided re-interpretation of information already considered in the 2016 ESC/HFA guidelines. Specific new recommendations have been made based on the evidence from major trials published since 2016, including sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, MitraClip for functional mitral regurgitation, atrial fibrillation ablation in HF, tafamidis in cardiac transthyretin amyloidosis, rivaroxaban in HF, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in non-ischaemic HF, and telemedicine for HF. In addition, new trial evidence from smaller trials and updated meta-analyses have given us the chance to provide refined recommendations in selected other areas. Further, new trial evidence is due in many of these areas and others over the next 2 years, in time for the planned 2021 ESC guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure.

11.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(5): 553-576, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989768

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases and an important cause of heart failure (HF). Current knowledge on incidence, pathophysiology and natural history of HF in cardiomyopathies is limited, and distinct features of their therapeutic responses have not been systematically addressed. Therefore, this position paper focuses on epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history and latest developments in treatment of HF in patients with dilated (DCM), hypertrophic (HCM) and restrictive (RCM) cardiomyopathies. In DCM, HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has high incidence and prevalence and represents the most frequent cause of death, despite improvements in treatment. In addition, advanced HF in DCM is one of the leading indications for heart transplantation. In HCM, HF with preserved ejection (HFpEF) affects most patients with obstructive, and ∼10% of patients with non-obstructive HCM. A timely treatment is important, since development of advanced HF, although rare in HCM, portends a poor prognosis. In RCM, HFpEF is common, while HFrEF occurs later and more frequently in amyloidosis or iron overload/haemochromatosis. Irrespective of RCM aetiology, HF is a harbinger of a poor outcome. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of HF in cardiomyopathies have significant implications for therapeutic decision-making. In addition, new aetiology-specific treatment options (e.g. enzyme replacement therapy, transthyretin stabilizers, immunoadsorption, immunotherapy, etc.) have shown a potential to improve outcomes. Still, causative therapies of many cardiomyopathies are lacking, highlighting the need for the development of effective strategies to prevent and treat HF in cardiomyopathies.

12.
Eur Heart J ; 40(26): 2155-2163, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957868

RESUMO

Randomized clinical trials initially used heart failure (HF) patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to select study populations with high risk to enhance statistical power. However, this use of LVEF in clinical trials has led to oversimplification of the scientific view of a complex syndrome. Descriptive terms such as 'HFrEF' (HF with reduced LVEF), 'HFpEF' (HF with preserved LVEF), and more recently 'HFmrEF' (HF with mid-range LVEF), assigned on arbitrary LVEF cut-off points, have gradually arisen as separate diseases, implying distinct pathophysiologies. In this article, based on pathophysiological reasoning, we challenge the paradigm of classifying HF according to LVEF. Instead, we propose that HF is a heterogeneous syndrome in which disease progression is associated with a dynamic evolution of functional and structural changes leading to unique disease trajectories creating a spectrum of phenotypes with overlapping and distinct characteristics. Moreover, we argue that by recognizing the spectral nature of the disease a novel stratification will arise from new technologies and scientific insights that will shape the design of future trials based on deeper understanding beyond the LVEF construct alone.

13.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(7): 862-873, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033127

RESUMO

AIMS: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition reduces heart failure hospitalizations in patients with diabetes, irrespective of glycaemic control. We examined the effect of SGLT2 inhibition with empagliflozin (EMPA) on cardiac function in non-diabetic rats with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS AND RESULTS: Non-diabetic male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent permanent coronary artery ligation to induce MI, or sham surgery. Rats received chow containing EMPA that resulted in an average daily intake of 30 mg/kg/day or control chow, starting before surgery (EMPA-early) or 2 weeks after surgery (EMPA-late). Cardiac function was assessed using echocardiography and histological and molecular markers of cardiac remodelling and metabolism were assessed in the left ventricle. Renal function was assessed in metabolic cages. EMPA increased urine production by two-fold without affecting creatinine clearance and serum electrolytes. EMPA did not influence MI size, but LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was significantly higher in the EMPA-early and EMPA-late treated MI groups compared to the MI group treated with vehicle (LVEF 54%, 52% and 43%, respectively, all P < 0.05). EMPA also attenuated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, diminished interstitial fibrosis and reduced myocardial oxidative stress. EMPA treatment reduced mitochondrial DNA damage and stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis, which was associated with the normalization of myocardial uptake and oxidation of glucose and fatty acids. EMPA increased circulating ketone levels as well as myocardial expression of the ketone body transporter and two critical ketogenic enzymes, indicating that myocardial utilization of ketone bodies was increased. Together these metabolic changes were associated with an increase in cardiac ATP production. CONCLUSION: Empagliflozin favourably affects cardiac function and remodelling in non-diabetic rats with LV dysfunction after MI, associated with substantial improvements in cardiac metabolism and cardiac ATP production. Importantly, it did so without renal adverse effects. Our data suggest that EMPA might be of benefit in heart failure patients without diabetes.

14.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 316(6): H1552-H1557, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978120

RESUMO

For indexing cardiac measures in small animal models, tibia length (TL) is a recommended surrogate for body weight (BW) that aims to avoid biases because of disease-induced BW changes. However, we question if indexing by TL is mathematically correct. This study aimed to investigate the relation between TL and BW, heart weight, ventricular weights, and left ventricular diameter to optimize the current common practice of indexing cardiac parameters in small animal models. In 29 healthy Wistar rats (age 5-34 wk) and 116 healthy Black 6 mice (age 3-17 wk), BW appeared to scale nonlinearly to TL1 but linearly to TL3. Formulas for indexing cardiac weights were derived. To illustrate the effects of indexing, cardiac weights between the 50% with highest BW and the 50% with lowest BW were compared. The nonindexed cardiac weights differed significantly between groups, as could be expected (P < 0.001). However, after indexing by TL1, indexed cardiac weights remained significantly different between groups (P < 0.001). With the derived formulas for indexing, indexed cardiac weights were similar between groups. In healthy rats and mice, BW and heart weights scale linearly to TL3. This indicates that not TL1 but TL3 is the optimal surrogate for BW. New formulas for indexing heart weight and isolated ventricular weights are provided, and we propose a concept in which cardiac parameters should not all be indexed to the same measure but one-dimensional measures to BW1/3 or TL1, two-dimensional measures to BW2/3 or TL2, and three-dimensional measures to BW or TL3. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In healthy rats and mice, body weight (BW) scales linearly to tibia length (TL) to the power of three (TL3). This indicates that for indexing cardiac parameters, not TL1 but TL3 is the optimal surrogate for BW. New formulas for indexing heart weight and isolated ventricular weights are provided, and we propose a concept of dimensionally consistent indexing. This concept is proposed to be widely applied in small animal experiments.

15.
Cardiovasc Pathol ; 40: 2-6, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763825

RESUMO

Phospholamban (PLN) p.Arg14del cardiomyopathy is characterized by a distinct arrhythmogenic biventricular phenotype that can be predominantly left ventricular, right ventricular, or both. Our aim was to further elucidate distinct features of this cardiomyopathy with respect to the distribution of desmosomal proteins observed by immunofluorescence (IF) in comparison to desmosomal arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy and co-existent genetic variants. We studied eight explanted heart specimens from PLN p.Arg14del mutation carriers. Macro- and microscopic examination revealed biventricular presence of fibrofatty replacement and interstitial fibrosis. Five out of 8 (63%) patients met consensus criteria for both arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). In four cases, targeted next-generation sequencing revealed one additional pathogenic variant and six variants of unknown significance. IF showed diminished junction plakoglobin signal intensity at the intercalated disks in 4 (67%) out of 6 cases fulfilling ARVC criteria but normal intensity in both cases fulfilling only DCM criteria. Notably, the four cases with diminished junction plakoglobin were also those where an additional gene variant was detected. IF for two proteins recently investigated in desmosomal arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM), synapse-associated protein 97 and glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta, showed a distinct distributional pattern in comparison to desmosomal ACM. In 7 (88%) out of 8 cases we observed both a strong synapse-associated protein 97 signal at the sarcomeres and no glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta translocation to the intercalated discs. Phospholamban p.Arg14del cardiomyopathy is characterized by a distinct molecular signature compared to desmosomal ACM, specifically a different desmosomal protein distribution. This study substantiates the idea that additional genetic variants play a role in the phenotypical heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/genética , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/genética , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/metabolismo , Desmossomos/química , Miocárdio/química , Deleção de Sequência , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Displasia Arritmogênica Ventricular Direita/patologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/patologia , Desmossomos/patologia , Feminino , Fibrose , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/análise
16.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1632019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730688

RESUMO

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common genetic heart disease. Its prevalence is estimated between 1:500 and 1:200. HCM is defined by left ventricular hypertrophy (wall thickness ≥ 15 mm) in absence of abnormal loading conditions such as hypertension. It is caused by mutations in cardiac sarcomere protein genes and inheritance is autosomal dominant. HCM is heterogeneous in terms of its clinical presentation, progression and prognosis, ranging from absence of symptoms in genotype-positive individuals to severe left ventricular hypertrophy, sudden cardiac death and end-stage heart failure at young age. Timely identification of HCM patients and initiation of proper treatment requires knowledge of the various manifestations of HCM. We describe the case of a 60-year-old female HCM patient and the four clinical stages of HCM with corresponding complications and treatment options.

17.
Cardiovasc Res ; 115(5): 844-853, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715247

RESUMO

Cardiovascular (CV) disease and cancer are the leading causes of death.1,2 Over the last decades, it has been appreciated that both CV disease and cancer are more common in individuals in whom risk factors for disease development accumulate, and preventative measures have been extremely important in driving down the incidence of disease.3-6 In general, the field of epidemiology, risk reduction, and preventative trials is divided into health care professionals who have an interest in either CV disease or cancer. As a result, the medical literature and medical practice has largely focused on the one disease, or the other. However, human individuals do not behave according to this dogma. Emerging data clearly suggest that identical risk factors may lead to CV disease in the one individual, but may cause cancer in another, or even both diseases in the same individual. This overlap exists between risk factors that are historically classified as 'CV risk factors' as these factors do equally strong predict cancer development. Therefore, we propose that a holistic approach might better estimate actual risks for CV disease and cancer. In this review, we summarize current insights in common behavioural risk factors for heart failure, being the most progressed and lethal form of CV disease, and cancer.

18.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(3): 272-285, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714667

RESUMO

Fibrosis is a pivotal player in heart failure development and progression. Measurements of (markers of) fibrosis in tissue and blood may help to diagnose and risk stratify patients with heart failure, and its treatment may be effective in preventing heart failure and its progression. A lack of pathophysiological insights and uniform definitions has hampered the research in fibrosis and heart failure. The Translational Research Committee of the Heart Failure Association discussed several aspects of fibrosis in their workshop. Early insidious perturbations such as subclinical hypertension or inflammation may trigger first fibrotic events, while more dramatic triggers such as myocardial infarction and myocarditis give rise to full blown scar formation and ongoing fibrosis in diseased hearts. Aging itself is also associated with a cardiac phenotype that includes fibrosis. Fibrosis is an extremely heterogeneous phenomenon, as several stages of the fibrotic process exist, each with different fibrosis subtypes and a different composition of various cells and proteins - resulting in a very complex pathophysiology. As a result, detection of fibrosis, e.g. using current cardiac imaging modalities or plasma biomarkers, will detect only specific subforms of fibrosis, but cannot capture all aspects of the complex fibrotic process. Furthermore, several anti-fibrotic therapies are under investigation, but such therapies generally target aspecific aspects of the fibrotic process and suffer from a lack of precision. This review discusses the mechanisms and the caveats and proposes a roadmap for future research.

19.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617275

RESUMO

Smoking is a major heritable and modifiable risk factor for many diseases, including cancer, common respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Fourteen genetic loci have previously been associated with smoking behaviour-related traits. We tested up to 235,116 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) on the exome-array for association with smoking initiation, cigarettes per day, pack-years, and smoking cessation in a fixed effects meta-analysis of up to 61 studies (up to 346,813 participants). In a subset of 112,811 participants, a further one million SNVs were also genotyped and tested for association with the four smoking behaviour traits. SNV-trait associations with P < 5 × 10-8 in either analysis were taken forward for replication in up to 275,596 independent participants from UK Biobank. Lastly, a meta-analysis of the discovery and replication studies was performed. Sixteen SNVs were associated with at least one of the smoking behaviour traits (P < 5 × 10-8) in the discovery samples. Ten novel SNVs, including rs12616219 near TMEM182, were followed-up and five of them (rs462779 in REV3L, rs12780116 in CNNM2, rs1190736 in GPR101, rs11539157 in PJA1, and rs12616219 near TMEM182) replicated at a Bonferroni significance threshold (P < 4.5 × 10-3) with consistent direction of effect. A further 35 SNVs were associated with smoking behaviour traits in the discovery plus replication meta-analysis (up to 622,409 participants) including a rare SNV, rs150493199, in CCDC141 and two low-frequency SNVs in CEP350 and HDGFRP2. Functional follow-up implied that decreased expression of REV3L may lower the probability of smoking initiation. The novel loci will facilitate understanding the genetic aetiology of smoking behaviour and may lead to the identification of potential drug targets for smoking prevention and/or cessation.

20.
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