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1.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 162: 107200, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984467

RESUMO

New sequencing techniques have allowed us to explore the variation on thousands of genes and elucidate evolutionary relationships of lineages even in complex scenarios, such as when there is rapid diversification. That seems to be the case of species in the genus Anastrepha, which shows great species diversity that has been divided into 21 species groups, several of which show wide geographical distribution. The fraterculus group has several economically important species and it is also an outstanding model for speciation studies, since it includes several lineages that have diverged recently possibly in the presence of interspecific gene flow. Our main goal is to test whether we can infer phylogenetic relationships of recently diverged taxa with gene flow, such as what is expected for the fraterculus group and determine whether certain genes remain informative even in this complex scenario. An analysis of thousands of orthologous genes derived from transcriptome datasets of 10 different lineages across the genus, including some of the economically most important pests, revealed signals of incomplete lineage sorting, vestiges of ancestral introgression between more distant lineages and ongoing gene flow between closely related lineages. Though these patterns affect the phylogenetic signal, the phylogenomic inferences consistently show that the morphologically identified species here investigated are in different evolutionary lineages, with the sole exception involving Brazilian lineages of A. fraterculus, which has been suggested to be a complex assembly of cryptic species. A tree space analysis suggested that genes with greater phylogenetic resolution have evolved under similar selection pressures and are more resilient to intraspecific gene flow, which would make it more likely that these genomic regions may be useful for identifying fraterculus group lineages. Our findings help establish relationships among the most important Anastrepha species groups, as well as bring further data to indicate that the diversification of fraterculus group lineages, and even other lineages in the genus Anastrepha, has been strongly influenced by interspecific gene flow.


Assuntos
Introgressão Genética , Filogenia , Tephritidae/classificação , Tephritidae/genética , Animais , Fluxo Gênico , Genoma de Inseto , Transcriptoma
2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3284, 2019 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337766

RESUMO

Conflict is thought to play a critical role in the evolution of social interactions by promoting diversity or driving accelerated evolution. However, despite our sophisticated understanding of how conflict shapes social traits, we have limited knowledge of how it impacts molecular evolution across the underlying social genes. Here we address this problem by analyzing the genome-wide impact of social interactions using genome sequences from 67 Dictyostelium discoideum strains. We find that social genes tend to exhibit enhanced polymorphism and accelerated evolution. However, these patterns are not consistent with conflict driven processes, but instead reflect relaxed purifying selection. This pattern is most likely explained by the conditional nature of social interactions, whereby selection on genes expressed only in social interactions is diluted by generations of inactivity. This dilution of selection by inactivity enhances the role of drift, leading to increased polymorphism and accelerated evolution, which we call the Red King process.


Assuntos
Dictyostelium/genética , Evolução Molecular , Interações Microbianas/genética , Dictyostelium/fisiologia
3.
Front Genet ; 9: 359, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250479

RESUMO

Introgression should no longer be considered as rare a phenomenon as once thought, since several studies have recently documented gene flow between closely related and radiating species. Here, we investigated evolutionary relationships among three closely related species of fruit flies of the Anastrepha fraterculus group (Anastrepha fraterculus, A. obliqua and A. sororcula). We sequenced a set of 20 genes and implemented a combined populational and phylogenetic inference with a model selection approach by an ABC framework in order to elucidate the demographic history of these species. The phylogenetic histories inferred from most genes showed a great deal of discordance and substantial shared polymorphic variation. The analysis of several population and speciation models reveal that this shared variation is better explained by introgression rather than convergence by parallel mutation or incomplete lineage sorting. Our results consistently showed these species evolving under an isolation with migration model experiencing a continuous and asymmetrical pattern of gene flow involving all species pairs, even though still showed a more closely related relationship between A. fraterculus and A. sororcula when compared with A. obliqua. This suggests that these species have been exchanging genes since they split from their common ancestor ∼2.6 MYA ago. We also found strong evidence for recent population expansion that appears to be consequence of anthropic activities affecting host crops of fruit flies. These findings point that the introgression here found may have been driven by genetic drift and not necessary by selection, which has implications for tracking and managing fruit flies.

4.
Genome Biol Evol ; 10(1): 380-395, 2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29346618

RESUMO

Several studies have demonstrated that genes differentially expressed between sexes (sex-biased genes) tend to evolve faster than unbiased genes, particularly in males. The reason for this accelerated evolution is not clear, but several explanations have involved adaptive and nonadaptive mechanisms. Furthermore, the differences of sex-biased expression patterns of closely related species are also little explored out of Drosophila. To address the evolutionary processes involved with sex-biased expression in species with incipient differentiation, we analyzed male and female transcriptomes of Anastrepha fraterculus and Anastrepha obliqua, a pair of species that have diverged recently, likely in the presence of gene flow. Using these data, we inferred differentiation indexes and evolutionary rates and tested for signals of selection in thousands of genes expressed in head and reproductive transcriptomes from both species. Our results indicate that sex-biased and reproductive-biased genes evolve faster than unbiased genes in both species, which is due to both adaptive pressure and relaxed constraints. Furthermore, among male-biased genes evolving under positive selection, we identified some related to sexual functions such as courtship behavior and fertility. These findings suggest that sex-biased genes may have played important roles in the establishment of reproductive isolation between these species, due to a combination of selection and drift, and unveil a plethora of genetic markers useful for more studies in these species and their differentiation.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Genes de Insetos , Tephritidae/genética , Animais , Feminino , Fluxo Gênico , Masculino , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Seleção Genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Transcriptoma
5.
PLoS One ; 7(3): e33446, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22428050

RESUMO

The gene doublesex (dsx) is considered to be under strong selective constraint along its evolutionary history because of its central role in somatic sex differentiation in insects. However, previous studies of dsx used global estimates of evolutionary rates to investigate its molecular evolution, which potentially miss signals of adaptive changes in generally conserved genes. In this work, we investigated the molecular evolution of dsx in the Anastrepha fraterculus species group (Diptera, Tephritidae), and test the hypothesis that this gene evolved solely by purifying selection using divergence-based and population-based methods. In the first approach, we compared sequences from Anastrepha and other Tephritidae with other Muscomorpha species, analyzed variation in nonsynonymous to synonymous rate ratios (dN/dS) in the Tephritidae, and investigated radical and conservative changes in amino acid physicochemical properties. We show a general selective constraint on dsx, but with signs of positive selection mainly in the common region. Such changes were localized in alpha-helices previously reported to be involved in dimer formation in the OD2 domain and near the C-terminal of the OD1 domain. In the population-based approach, we amplified a region of 540 bp that spanned almost all of the region common to both sexes from 32 different sites in Brazil. We investigated patterns of selection using neutrality tests based on the frequency spectrum and locations of synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations in a haplotype network. As in the divergence-based approach, these analyses showed that dsx has evolved under an overall selective constraint, but with some events of positive selection. In contrast to previous studies, our analyses indicate that even though dsx has indeed evolved as a conserved gene, the common region of dsx has also experienced bouts of positive selection, perhaps driven by sexual selection, during its evolution.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Evolução Molecular , Modelos Genéticos , Seleção Genética , Tephritidae/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Brasil , Primers do DNA/genética , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos/genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
6.
BMC Evol Biol ; 10: 293, 2010 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20868501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many genes involved in the sex determining cascade have indicated signals of positive selection and rapid evolution across different species. Even though fruitless is an important gene involved mostly in several aspects of male courtship behavior, the few studies so far have explained its high rates of evolution by relaxed selective constraints. This would indicate that a large portion of this gene has evolved neutrally, contrary to what has been observed for other genes in the sex cascade. RESULTS: Here we test whether the fruitless gene has evolved neutrally or under positive selection in species of Anastrepha (Tephritidae: Diptera) using two different approaches, a long-term evolutionary analysis and a populational genetic data analysis. The first analysis was performed by using sequences of three species of Anastrepha and sequences from several species of Drosophila using the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous rates of evolution in PAML, which revealed that the fru region here studied has evolved by positive selection. Using Bayes Empirical Bayes we estimated that 16 sites located in the connecting region of the fruitless gene were evolving under positive selection. We also investigated for signs of this positive selection using populational data from 50 specimens from three species of Anastrepha from different localities in Brazil. The use of standard tests of selection and a new test that compares patterns of differential survival between synonymous and nonsynonymous in evolutionary time also provide evidence of positive selection across species and of a selective sweep for one of the species investigated. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that the high diversification of fru connecting region in Anastrepha flies is due at least in part to positive selection, not merely as a consequence of relaxed selective constraint. These conclusions are based not only on the comparison of distantly related taxa that show long-term divergence time, but also on recently diverged lineages and suggest that episodes of adaptive evolution in fru may be related to sexual selection and/or conflict related to its involvement in male courtship behavior.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Seleção Genética/genética , Tephritidae/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Haplótipos , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Filogenia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
7.
Evolution ; 59(11): 2333-42, 2005 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16396174

RESUMO

The genetic architecture of a phenotype plays a critical role in determining phenotypic evolution through its effects on patterns of genetic variation. Genetic architecture is often considered to be constant in evolutionary quantitative genetic models. However, genetic architecture may be variable and itself evolve when there are dominance and epistatic interactions among alleles at the same and different loci, respectively. The evolution of genetic architecture by genetic drift is examined here by testing the breeding value of four standard inbred mouse strains mated across a set of 26 related recombinant quasi-inbred (RqI) lines generated from the intercross of the Large (LG/J) and Small (SM/J) inbred mouse strains. Phenotypes of interest include age-specific body weights, growth, and adult body composition. If the genetic architecture of these traits has differentiated by genetic drift during the production of the RqI strains, we should observe interactions between tester strain and RqI strain. The breeding values of the tester strains will change relative to one another depending on which RqI strain they are crossed to. The study included an average of 15.1 offspring per cross, over a total of 100 different crosses. Multivariate and univariate analyses of variance indicate that there is strongly significant interaction for all traits. Interaction is more pronounced in males than in females and accounted for an average of about 40% of the explained variation in males and 30% in females. These results indicate that the genetic architecture of these traits has differentiated by genetic drift in the RqI strains since their isolation from a common founder population. Further analysis indicates that this differentiation results in changes in the order of tester strain effects so that common patterns of selection in these differentiated populations could result in the fixation of different alleles.


Assuntos
Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Deriva Genética , Variação Genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo
8.
Genetics ; 162(3): 1341-53, 2002 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12454078

RESUMO

Maternal performance refers to the effect that the environment provided by mothers has on their offspring's phenotypes, such as offspring survival and growth. Variations in maternal behavior and physiology are responsible for variations in maternal performance, which in turn affects offspring survival. In our study we found females that failed to nurture their offspring and showed abnormal maternal behaviors. The genetic architecture of maternal performance for offspring survival was investigated in 241 females of an F(2) intercross of the SM/J and LG/J inbred mouse strains. Using interval-mapping methods we found two quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting maternal performance at D2Mit17 + 6 cM and D7Mit21 + 2 cM on chromosomes 2 and 7, respectively. In a two-way genome-wide epistasis scan we found 15 epistatic interactions involving 23 QTL distributed across all chromosomes except 12, 16, and 17. These loci form several small sets of interacting QTL, suggesting a complex set of mechanisms operating to determine maternal performance for offspring survival. Taken all together and correcting for the large number of significant factors, QTL and their interactions explain almost 35% of the phenotypic variation for maternal performance for offspring survival in this cross. This study allowed the identification of many possible candidate genes, as well as the relative size of gene effects and patterns of gene action affecting maternal performance in mice. Detailed behavior observation of mothers from later generations suggests that offspring survival in the first week is related to maternal success in building nests, grooming their pups, providing milk, and/or manifesting aggressive behavior against intruders.


Assuntos
Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Animais , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Epistasia Genética , Feminino , Camundongos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Análise de Regressão
9.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 22(1): 131-43, 2002 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11796036

RESUMO

The effects of Quaternary climatic cycles were investigated in Drosophila serido, a Brazilian cactophilic fly widely distributed outside the Amazonian region. Previous studies have indicated this species displays remarkable karyotypic, male genitalia, and mtDNA variation, so much so that it has been described as a species complex, or superspecies. In the present study we expand the analysis of the mtDNA COI gene on D. serido populations, particularly in central Brazil, by obtaining DNA sequences from 248 individuals distributed across 47 localities. This allowed us to perform a nested clade analysis to discriminate historical from recurrent forces shaping the evolution of D. serido populations. The nested analysis indicates one event of past fragmentation separating populations from south and central Brazil (referred to as type B) from populations in central and northeast Brazil (type D) and 15 other significant events. The most common outcome of our analysis was contiguous range expansion and we discuss why this was expected in D. serido. Our data indicate that D. serido has been distributed across Brazil at least since the Mid-Pleistocene, which contradicts the hypothesis of current distribution being determined by last glaciation cycle. Nonetheless, we present evidence that climatic cycles during the Quaternary and before have had a significant impact on the differentiation of D. serido in Brazil. Our study confirms the usefulness of the nested clade analysis for disentangling the effects of historical and present-day forces shaping the evolution and distribution of a taxon.


Assuntos
Drosophila/genética , Animais , Brasil , Clima , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Drosophila/anatomia & histologia , Drosophila/classificação , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genes de Insetos , Genética Populacional , Genitália Masculina/anatomia & histologia , Haplótipos , Masculino , Filogenia
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