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1.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 176: 312-321, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610363

RESUMO

Vitamin E comprises a group of vitamers that includes tocopherols and tocotrienols. They occur in four homologues according to the number and position of methyl groups attached to the chromanol ring. Vitamin E, a liposoluble antioxidant, may participate as an adjuvant in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular, neurological, and aging-related diseases. Furthermore, vitamin E has applications in the food industry as a natural additive. In this contribution, the most recent information on the dietary sources of vitamin E, including common, novel, and unexplored sources, is presented. Common edible oils, such as those of corn, olive, palm, rice bran, and peanut, represent the most prominent sources of vitamin E. However, specialty and underutilized oils such as those obtained from tree nuts, fruit seeds, and by-products, emerge as novel sources of this important micronutrient. Complementary studies should examine the tocotrienol content of vitamin E dietary sources to better understand the different biological functions of these vitamers.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199457

RESUMO

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are chemical compounds comprised of carbon and hydrogen molecules in a cyclic arrangement. PAHs are associated with risks to human health, especially carcinogenesis. One form of exposure to these compounds is through ingestion of contaminated food, which can occur during preparation and processing involving high temperatures (e.g., grilling, smoking, toasting, roasting, and frying) as well as through PAHs present in the soil, air, and water (i.e., environmental pollution). Differently from changes caused by microbiological characteristics and lipid oxidation, consumers cannot sensorially perceive PAH contamination in food products, thereby hindering their ability to reject these foods. Herein, the occurrence and biological effects of PAHs were comprehensively explored, as well as analytical methods to monitor their levels, legislations, and strategies to reduce their generation in food products. This review updates the current knowledge and addresses recent regulation changes concerning the widespread PAHs contamination in several types of food, often surpassing the concentration limits deemed acceptable by current legislations. Therefore, effective measures involving different food processing strategies are needed to prevent and reduce PAHs contamination, thereby decreasing human exposure and detrimental health effects. Furthermore, gaps in literature have been addressed to provide a basis for future studies.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/efeitos adversos , Benzopirenos/efeitos adversos , Carcinogênese/genética , Carvão Vegetal/efeitos adversos , Culinária , Adutos de DNA/efeitos adversos , Análise de Alimentos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos
3.
Food Res Int ; 144: 110353, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053546

RESUMO

Agro-industrial activities generate large amounts of solid residues, which are generally discarded or used as animal feed. Interestingly, some of these by-products could serve as natural sources of bioactive compounds with great potential for industrial exploitation. This study aimed to optimize the extraction of phenolic antioxidants from the pulp residue (oil processing by-product) of inajá (Maximiliana maripa, a native species found in the Brazilian Amazon). The antioxidant properties of the optimized extract and its phenolic profile by high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS) were further determined. Central composite rotatable design and statistical analysis demonstrated that the temperature of 70 °C and 50% (v/v) ethanol concentration improved the extraction of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties. The optimized extract also showed scavenging activity against the ABTS radical cation and reactive oxygen species (ROS; peroxyl and superoxide radical, and hypochlorous acid). Moreover, the optimized extract was able to reduce NF-κB activation and TNF-α release, which are modulated by ROS. Flavan-3-ols were the major phenolics present in the optimized extract. Collectively, our findings support the use of inajá cake as a new source of bioactive catechins and procyanidins. This innovative approach adds value to this agro-industrial by-product in the functional food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and/or cosmetic industries and complies with the circular economy agenda.


Assuntos
Catequina , Proantocianidinas , Animais , Antioxidantes , Brasil , Frutas
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(7): 2157-2167, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591188

RESUMO

The potential of 2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-2,4,6-trihydroxy-3(2H)-benzofuranone (BZF), a quercetin oxidation metabolite, and that of a BZF-rich onion peel aqueous extract (OAE) to protect Caco-2 monolayers against the oxidative stress (OS) and an increased permeability (IP) induced by five nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (indomethacin, diclofenac, piroxicam, ibuprofen, and metamizole) were investigated. Under identical OS conditions, the NSAIDs substantially differed in their ability to induce an IP and/or NF-kB activation. The OAE (100 nM BZF) protected in identical magnitude (84-86%) against OS but in a highly dissimilar manner against the IP (18-73%). While all NSAIDs activated NF-kB, the OAE prevented only that induced by indomethacin. Results reveal that the IP has no direct relationship with the OS and that with the exception of indomethacin, the prevention of NSAIDs-induced OS and/or NF-kB activation plays no fundamental role in the IP-protecting effect of OAE. These results warrant the in vivo evaluation of OAE against indomethacin-induced loss of intestinal barrier function.


Assuntos
Cebolas , Quercetina , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Humanos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Cebolas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Quercetina/farmacologia
5.
Molecules ; 26(2)2021 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477281

RESUMO

A clear gap with respect to the potential biological properties of wheat flavonoids exists in the available literature. This information is crucial for breeding programs aiming to produce new varieties presenting improved health benefits. Accordingly, advanced breeding lines of whole durum wheat were evaluated in this contribution. The highest recovery of phenolics was achieved using aqueous acetone (50:50, v/v), as verified by multi-response optimization, thus showing that phenolics could be largely underestimated by employing an inappropriate extraction. The concentration of derivatives of apigenin, the main phenolics present, ranged from 63.5 to 80.7%, as evaluated by LC-ESI-QTOF-MS. Phenolics from the breeding line 98 exhibited the highest ability in scavenging peroxyl radicals, reducing power as well as in terms of inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity, a key enzyme regulating the absorption of triacylglycerols. In contrast, none of the samples exhibited a significant anti-diabetic potential. Despite their high concentration compared to that of phenolic acids, results of this work do not support a significant antioxidant and pancreatic lipase inhibitory effect of durum wheat flavonoids. Therefore, breeding programs and animal and/or human trials related to the effect of durum wheat flavonoids on oxidative stress and absorption of triacylglycerols are discouraged at this point.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Flavonoides/química , Triticum/química , Animais , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(13)2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32630023

RESUMO

Phytoene synthase 1 (Psy1) and lipoxygenase 1 (Lpx-1) are key genes involved in the synthesis and catalysis of carotenoid pigments in durum wheat, regulating the increase and decrease in these compounds, respectively, resulting in the distinct yellow color of semolina and pasta. Here, we reported new haplotype variants and/or allele combinations of these two genes significantly affecting yellow pigment content in grain and semolina through their effect on carotenoid pigments. To reach the purpose of this work, three complementary approaches were undertaken: the identification of QTLs associated to carotenoid content on a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, the characterization of a Mediterranean panel of accessions for Psy1 and Lpx-1 genes, and monitoring the expression of Psy1 and Lpx-1 genes during grain filling on two genotypes with contrasting yellow pigments. Our data suggest that Psy1 plays a major role during grain development, contributing to semolina yellowness, and Lpx-1 appears to be more predominant at post-harvest stages and during pasta making.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Geranil-Geranildifosfato Geranil-Geraniltransferase/genética , Lipoxigenase/genética , Pigmentação/genética , Triticum/genética , Geranil-Geranildifosfato Geranil-Geraniltransferase/metabolismo , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Região do Mediterrâneo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/enzimologia
7.
Food Res Int ; 131: 108532, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247498

RESUMO

Winemaking generates large amounts of by-products, a well recognized source of phenolic compounds. However, less attention has been paid to the polysaccharide-rich fraction (PRF) and effects of fractionation techniques on its potential bioactivity. Therefore, PRFs from Syrah and Tempranillo winemaking by-products were extracted under aqueous (neutral pH conditions), acidic and alkaline conditions. PRFs were screened for their monosaccharide composition, uronic acid content, homogeneity and molecular weight. Anti-inflammatory activity of PRFs were evaluated on stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. PRF obtained in water and/or under acidic conditions showed heterogeneous profiles. As like as in the others, a heterogeneous and complex profile was detected in extracts procured under alkaline conditions. A high content of uronic acid was found in aqueous extracts, thus indicating the presence of pectin. Pectin and hemicellulose were present in PRFs procured under acidic conditions. Alkaline conditions rendered extracts containing a complex mixture of monosaccharides, mainly xylose. This latter PRF was the only one exhibiting anti-inflammatory potential (at 100 µg/mL) by reducing the release of TNF-α and activation of NF-κB in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages, with no effect on cell viability. Regardless of the grape variety, PRFs obtained under alkaline conditions were the best option to obtain bioactive polysaccharides with potential application as a source of anti-inflammatory compounds. A complex mixture of polymers may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, according to results procured by NMR, it is possible to suggest that bioactive fractions are composed of a chain of α-L-Araf-(1 → 3) linked, ß-D-Xylp- (1 → 4), α-D-Glcp-(1 → 4) linked, α-D-GalpA-(1 → 4), α-D-Gal-(1 → 2) forming possible RG I and RG II and xylan chains.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Vinho , Animais , Indústria Alimentícia , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Resíduos Industriais , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(20): 5521-5528, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275419

RESUMO

Grain protein composition is important in wheat quality and may influence the amino acidic sequence of bioactive peptides obtained from this feedstock. However, the genetic basis modulating the amino acid profile in durum wheat is not well-understood. Therefore, strong and weak gluten strength durum wheat genotypes were evaluated for their amino acid composition along grain filling. Strong gluten strength lines showed higher expression levels of low-molecular-weight glutenin-related genes between 21 and 35 days post-anthesis (DPA) and exhibited up to 43.5% more alanine than the weak lines at 42 DPA, which was supported by the higher expression levels of putative alanine amino transferase genes in strong genotypes. Therefore, with the involvement of chemistry and molecular biology, the results present here may influence the science of wheat.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glutens/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Triticum/genética , Aminoácidos/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Glutens/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
9.
Molecules ; 25(3)2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033416

RESUMO

The Brazilian Food Supplement Law recently recognized that guarana (Paullinia cupana) contains bioactive substances, hence supporting its role as a functional food ingredient. The health benefits of guarana are associated, at least in part, to its phenolic compounds. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no literature addressing the presence of phenolic compounds in the fraction containing insoluble-bound compounds and its contribution in terms of alpha-glucosidase inhibition. The concentration of phenolic extracts released from the insoluble-bound fraction required to inhibit 50% of alpha-glucosidase (IC50) activity was 5.8-fold lower than that present in the soluble counterpart. Both fractions exhibited a mixed inhibition mode. Fourteen proanthocyanidins (dimers to tetramers) present in the insoluble-bound fraction were tentatively identified by MALDi-TOF-MS. Future studies aiming at increasing the concentration of the soluble counterpart are deemed necessary. The results presented here enhance the phenolic database of guarana and have a practical impact on the procurement of nutraceuticals and functional ingredients related to the prevention and/or management of type 2 diabetes. The Brazilian normative on food supplements has been recently revised. This study lends support to the future inclusion of guarana powder in the list of sources of proanthocyanidins for the industry of food supplements.


Assuntos
Cafeína/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Teobromina/farmacologia , Teofilina/farmacologia , Brasil , Cafeína/química , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Paullinia/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Teobromina/química , Teofilina/química , alfa-Glucosidases/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 1347, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787991

RESUMO

Carotenoid pigment content is an important quality trait as it confers a natural bright yellow color to pasta preferred by consumers (whiteness vs. yellowness) and nutrients, such as provitamin A and antioxidants, essential for human diet. The main goal of the present review is to summarize the knowledge about the genetic regulation of the accumulation of pigment content in durum wheat grain and describe the genetic improvements obtained by using breeding approaches in the last two decades. Although carotenoid pigment content is a quantitative character regulated by various genes with additive effects, its high heritability has facilitated the durum breeding progress for this quality trait. Mapping research for yellow index and yellow pigment content has identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) on all wheat chromosomes. The major QTL, accounting for up to 60%, were mapped on 7L homoeologous chromosome arms, and they are explained by allelic variations of the phytoene synthase (PSY) genes. Minor QTL were detected on all chromosomes and associated to significant molecular markers, indicating the complexity of the trait. Despite there being currently a better knowledge of the mechanisms controlling carotenoid content and composition, there are gaps that require further investigation and bridging to better understand the genetic architecture of this important trait. The development and the utilization of molecular markers in marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs for improving grain quality have been reviewed and discussed.

11.
J Food Biochem ; 43(11): e13018, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441957

RESUMO

Soybean consumption has been associated with health benefits. However, the effect of ultrasound (US) soybean pretreatment in terms of potential health benefits has not been investigated so far. Accordingly, the total phenolic content (TPC) and the total aglycone content (TAC) were optimized using the Box-Behnken design. Contrasting samples regarding isoflavones aglycones and TPCs were screened for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials using RAW 264.7 macrophages. US pretreated soybeans (55°C, 15 min, and 24 W/cm2 ) showed greater TPC and TAC compared to the control and this translated to higher antiradical activity and reduction of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation. The concentration of genistein in treated soybeans increased by 95%. Furthermore, US pretreated soybeans rendered phenolic extracts that reduced the NF-κB activation by 86%. Therefore, this contribution demonstrates the beneficial effects of US pretreatment of soybeans, which provides a better feedstock for the functional food industry. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Soybeans can be consumed as such or used as a feedstock to produce soy yogurt, fermented soymilk, tofu, and protein concentrate, among others. The greatest bioavailability of isoflavones compared to other flavonoids has recently been highlighted, and this has been explained by the relatively moderate lipophilicity of isoflavones as aglycones. The present contribution supports the use of US pretreatment of soybeans to obtain a feedstock with improved contents of isoflavones as aglycones. We have confirmed that phenolic extracts obtained from the US pretreated samples showed higher bioactivity as radical scavengers and by reducing the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in a cell model, which is mediated by oxidative species. The clinical importance of NF-κB activation is derived mainly from its role in inflammatory responses. Therefore, our investigation may have a practical application in the procurement of soybean products and/or ingredients with improved functional properties related to their health benefits.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Isoflavonas/isolamento & purificação , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Soja/química , Ultrassom/métodos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Isoflavonas/química , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Sementes/química
12.
J Food Biochem ; 43(3): e12760, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353548

RESUMO

The potential of date palm wood (DPW) as a new source of phenolic antioxidants was investigated in this contribution. The total phenolic content and antiradical activity of soluble and insoluble-bound fractions of DPW was compared to those of maple wood (MW). Furthermore, salmon was smoked with DPW and MW. Irrespective of the wood type, volatile phenolic compounds were mainly methoxyphenols, with the highest contribution from eugenol followed by guaiacol and their corresponding derivatives, as evaluated by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Salmon smoked with DPW showed a higher oxidative stability than that of MW during 21 days of storage at 4°C, which was explained by the higher content of volatile phenolic compounds in the smoke generated from DPW. Minor differences were detected for the instrumental color between both samples of smoked salmon. Therefore, smoking with DPW may be used for industrial meat and fish smoking purposes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Smoking has long been used to preserve fish and meat products. The process changes the appearance and gives a desirable flavor to the product. However, high temperatures applied during smoking may also induce lipid oxidation, the extent of which is counterbalanced by the antioxidant action of phenolics in woodsmoke. In this sense, the desired interactions of the smoke volatiles in the food matrix dictates the quality of the final product. Volatile phenolics released upon smoking are dependent on the type of wood. Thus, use of a specific wood might provide unique products, hence date palm wood (DPW) used in this work may not only provide special smoked fish products but its use could be extended to other smoked products. Hence, this contribution extends the possible feedstocks for the preparation of smoked products.


Assuntos
Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Phoeniceae/química , Madeira/química , Animais , Cor , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Oxirredução , Salmão , Fumaça/análise
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(11)2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146372

RESUMO

Legume seeds are rich sources of protein, fiber, and minerals. In addition, their phenolic compounds as secondary metabolites render health benefits beyond basic nutrition. Lowering apolipoprotein B secretion from HepG2 cells and decreasing the level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol oxidation are mechanisms related to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Likewise, low-level chronic inflammation and related disorders of the immune system are clinical predictors of cardiovascular pathology. Furthermore, DNA-damage signaling and repair are crucial pathways to the etiology of human cancers. Along CVD and cancer, the prevalence of obesity and diabetes is constantly increasing. Screening the ability of polyphenols in inactivating digestive enzymes is a good option in pre-clinical studies. In addition, in vivo studies support the role of polyphenols in the prevention and/or management of diabetes and obesity. Soybean, a well-recognized source of phenolic isoflavones, exerts health benefits by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation related to the above-mentioned chronic ailments. Similar to soybeans, chickpeas are good sources of nutrients and phenolic compounds, especially isoflavones. This review summarizes the potential of chickpea as a substitute for soybean in terms of health beneficial outcomes. Therefore, this contribution may guide the industry in manufacturing functional foods and/or ingredients by using an undervalued feedstock.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Cicer/química , Isoflavonas/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Soja/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Isoflavonas/química , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
14.
Food Chem ; 290: 229-238, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31000041

RESUMO

Free radical imbalance is associated with several chronic diseases. However, recent controversies have put in check the validity of colorimetric methods to screen the functionality of polyphenols. Therefore, in this study two antioxidant methods, based on chemical reactions, were tested for their ability in anticipating the reduction of the activation of NF-κB using LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages, selected as a biological model. Grape processing by-products from winemaking showed higher total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant capacity towards peroxyl radical (31.1%) as well as reducing power (39.5%) than those of grape juice by-products. The same trend was observed when these samples were tested against LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages by reducing the activation NF-κB. Feedstocks containing higher TPC and corresponding ORAC and FRAP results translated to higher reduction in the activation of NF-κB (36.5%). Therefore, this contribution demonstrates that colorimetric methods are still important screening tools owing their simplicity and widespread application.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Vitis/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Colorimetria , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Células RAW 264.7 , Vitis/metabolismo
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(11)2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30404239

RESUMO

Plant foods, their products and processing by-products are well recognized as important sources of phenolic compounds. Recent studies in this field have demonstrated that food processing by-products are often richer sources of bioactive compounds as compared with their original feedstock. However, their final application as a source of nutraceuticals and bioactives requires addressing certain hurdles and challenges. This review discusses recent knowledge advances in the use of plant food processing by-products as sources of phenolic compounds with special attention to the role of genetics on the distribution and biosynthesis of plant phenolics, as well as their profiling and screening, potential health benefits, and safety issues. The potentialities in health improvement from food phenolics in animal models and in humans is well substantiated, however, considering the emerging market of plant food by-products as potential sources of phenolic bioactives, more research in humans is deemed necessary.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis/química , Plantas/química , Opinião Pública , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Descontaminação , Contaminação de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Plantas/genética , Plantas/metabolismo
16.
Food Chem ; 269: 404-412, 2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100452

RESUMO

Ultrasound may convert conjugated isoflavones into their corresponding aglycones, the best form for absorption in the human body. However, ultrasound may also influence the activity of endogenous ß-glucosidase. Therefore, the present work evaluated the effects of soybean ultrasound pre-treatment by applying the Box-Behnken design prior to soaking, a step that is important for industries to prepare certain soy products. Furthermore, a multi-response optimisation is provided. The best conditions for soybean ultrasound pre-treatment were established as temperature, X1 = 55 °C; exposure time, X2 = 5 min and ultrasound intensity, X3 = 19.5 W cm-2. Under these conditions, soybeans with higher contents of aglycones were obtained and ß-glucosidase activity was kept as high as possible. A second experiment was conducted and confirmed that ultrasound pre-treatment results in a lower soaking time (2 h) to achieve the highest moisture content, lower hardness as well as increased content of aglycones.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Isoflavonas/análise , Soja , beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Soja/química , Soja/enzimologia
17.
Foods ; 7(7)2018 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30011817

RESUMO

Epicotyls from germinated soybeans (EGS) have great potential as sources of endogenous ß-glucosidase. Furthermore, this enzyme may improve the conversion of isoflavones into their corresponding aglycones. ß-Glucosidase may also increase the release of aglycones from the cell wall of the plant materials. Therefore, the aim of this work was to optimize both the extraction of ß-glucosidase from EGS and to further examine its application in defatted soybean cotyledon to improve the recovery of aglycones, which were evaluated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). A multistep optimization was carried out and the effects of temperature and pH were investigated by applying a central composite design. The linear effect of pH and the quadratic effect of pH and temperature were significant for the extraction of ß-glucosidase and recovery aglycones, respectively. Optimum extraction of ß-glucosidase from EGS occurred at 30 °C and pH 5.0. Furthermore, the maximum recovery of aglycones (98.7%), which occurred at 35 °C and pH 7.0⁻7.6 during 144 h of germination, increased 8.5 times with respect to the lowest concentration. The higher bioaccessibility of aglycones when compared with their conjugated counterparts is well substantiated. Therefore, the data provided in this contribution may be useful for enhancing the benefits of soybean, their products, and/or their processing by-products.

18.
Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill ; 11(4): 273-280, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30035664

RESUMO

Few studies have addressed the distribution of mycotoxins in soybean and/or their processing fractions. In this study, samples from commercial lots were collected in four Brazilian states. The distribution of mycotoxins in soybean fractions, according to their commercial grading system, namely whole kernels (WK), split, broken and crushed kernels (SBCK), damaged kernels (DK), heat damaged and burned kernels (HDBK), moldy kernels (MK), greenish kernels (GK), foreign material + impurities (FMI), were analyzed using HPLC-FLD. AFB1 and ZEN tested positive in 43.3 and 80%, respectively. The incidence of AFB1 was higher in MK (50%), followed by HDBK (30.4%) and FMI (26.0%). ZEA incidence ranged from 69% (SBCK) to 100% (HDBK). Co-occurrence (53.3%) in at least one fraction was also detected. Brazil is the second world producer of soybeans, which places the country in a very important position. Therefore, the information provided is crucial and timely relevant for the industry and policymakers.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Sementes/química , Soja/química , Zearalenona/análise , Brasil , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos
19.
J Food Sci ; 82(10): 2432-2437, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28857163

RESUMO

Winemaking by-products account for more than 30% of the grape production, but this inexpensive feedstock has not yet been fully exploited. Accordingly, we evaluated the potential biological activity of winemaking by-products produced with Syrah grapes in comparison with those of the wine produced using the same grape cultivar. Winemaking by-products showed higher contents of total anthocyanins, flavonols, stilbenes, and flavanols than red wine as evaluated by HPLC-DAD-FD (on a dry weight basis). In contrast, red wine was a better source of phenolic acids. However, the contribution of phenolic acids was minor for both samples. Furthermore, equivalent concentration of winemaking by-products (100 mg/kg/d) showed greater biological activity by than that of red wine by decreasing the levels of VLDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerols in Wistar rats. Therefore, this study supports the use of winemaking by-products as an economical source of bioactive phenolics with potential use in the food and nutraceutical industries.


Assuntos
VLDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Hidroxibenzoatos/administração & dosagem , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Vitis/química , Resíduos/análise , Vinho/análise , Animais , Antocianinas/administração & dosagem , Antocianinas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
20.
Food Chem ; 237: 538-544, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28764032

RESUMO

Peanut skin (PS) and meal from dry-blanched peanuts (MDBP) were evaluated as sources of phenolic compounds. PS rendered the highest total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity towards ABTS radical cation, DPPH and hydroxyl radicals as well as reducing power. Phenolic acids were present in PS and MDBP whereas proanthocyanidins and monomeric flavonoids were found only in PS as identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. Procyanidin-rich extracts prevented oxidation in non-irradiated and gamma-irradiated fish model system. Both extracts inhibited the growth of gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Geobacillus stearothermophilus) and gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli). Regardless of the strain, phenolic acid-rich extracts showed the lowest minimum inhibitory capacity (MIC); therefore presenting higher antibacterial effect. The MIC of phenolic acid-rich extracts (24-49µgphenolics/mL) was higher but comparable to Ampicillin (10µg/mL). Thus, phenolics in PS and MDBP may serve as antioxidants and antimicrobial compounds.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Arachis , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Animais , Fenóis , Extratos Vegetais , Staphylococcus aureus
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