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Langmuir ; 36(38): 11225-11236, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857524


The kinetics of the ozonation of graphite with different particle sizes (106 µm, G106; 6.20 µm, G6.2) was studied at several temperatures under a flow of O3 diluted in O2. The reaction was first-order with respect to graphite and to the consumption of ozone. X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) showed that the reactions occurring in the solid under steady-state conditions maintain the original stoichiometry, as predicted by the postulated mechanism for SO2. The deoxygenation reaction occurred along with the ozonation reaction at 100 °C. The rate of oxygen elimination in the flow system has the same rate-determining kinetic barrier as ozone insertion. Ozonation and deoxygenation reactions are sequentially related. Ozonation occurs with the insertion of O3, forming a 1,2,3-trioxolane followed by an oxygen transfer that produces a peroxide valence tautomer in equilibrium with 1,3-dicarbonyl, [peroxide ↔ dicarbonyl], and an oxirene that eliminates atomic oxygen. The decarboxylation reaction was studied at 600 °C from the ozonated G106 (ΔG≠ = 83.60 ± 0.08 kcal·mol-1). Total decarboxylation at 600 °C matched the number of moles of CO2 removed and the oxygen content after ozonation, showing that the reduction of ozone on graphite was essentially a clean reduction with no secondary oxidations. When ozonized graphite was heated to 600 °C, only [peroxide ↔ dicarbonyl] species remained in the matrix. The peroxide tautomer isomerized to dioxirane and eliminated CO2 as a dioxicarbene. Total deoxygenation of decarboxylated graphite G106 was obtained by pyrolysis. There was residual oxygen that arose from the atomic oxygen eliminated from the oxirene, intercalated in graphite layers, and formed basal epoxy groups. Also, incoming O atoms reacted with the intercalated O atoms to produce O2 molecules. Thermal annealing deintercalated molecular oxygen (600-900 °C).

Langmuir ; 30(15): 4301-9, 2014 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24605942


Graphite microparticles (d50 6.20 µm) were oxidized by strong acids, and the resultant graphite oxide was thermally exfoliated to graphene oxide sheets (MPGO, C/O 1.53). Graphene oxide was treated with nonthermal plasma under a SO2 atmosphere at room temperature. The XPS spectrum showed that SO2 was inserted only as the oxidized intermediate at 168.7 eV in the S 2p region. Short thermal shocks at 600 and 400 °C, under an Ar atmosphere, produced reduced sulfur and carbon dioxide as shown by the XPS spectrum and TGA analysis coupled to FTIR. MPGO was also submitted to thermal reaction with SO2 at 630 °C, and the XPS spectrum in the S 2p region at 164.0 eV showed that this time only the nonoxidized episulfide intermediate was inserted. Plasma and thermal treatment produced a partial reduction of MPGO. The sequence of thermal reaction followed by plasma treatment inserted both sulfur intermediates. Because oxidized and nonoxidized intermediates have different reactivities, this selective insertion would allow the addition of selective types of organic fragments to the surface of graphene oxide.