Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 79
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
2.
Eur J Nutr ; 59(1): 195-204, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649593

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Vitamin D regulates adipokine production in vitro; however, clinical trials have been inconclusive. We conducted secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial to examine whether vitamin D supplementation improves adipokine concentrations in overweight/obese and vitamin D-deficient adults. METHODS: Sixty-five individuals with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) ≤ 50 nmol/L were randomized to oral cholecalciferol (100,000 IU single bolus followed by 4,000 IU daily) or matching placebo for 16 weeks. We measured BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, % body fat (dual X-ray absorptiometry), serum 25(OH)D (chemiluminescent immunoassay) and total adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and adipsin concentrations (multiplex assay; flow cytometry). Sun exposure, physical activity, and diet were assessed using questionnaires. RESULTS: Fifty-four participants completed the study (35M/19F; mean age = 31.9 ± 8.5 years; BMI = 30.9 ± 4.4 kg/m2). After 16 weeks, vitamin D supplementation increased 25(OH)D concentrations compared with placebo (57.0 ± 21.3 versus 1.9 ± 15.1 nmol/L, p < 0.001). There were no differences between groups for changes in adiponectin, leptin, resistin, or adipsin in unadjusted analyses (all p > 0.05). After adjustment for baseline values, season, sun exposure, and dietary vitamin D intake, there was a greater increase in adiponectin (ß[95%CI] = 13.7[2.0, 25.5], p = 0.02) and leptin (ß[95%CI] = 22.3[3.8, 40.9], p = 0.02) in the vitamin D group compared with placebo. Results remained significant after additional adjustment for age, sex, and % body fat (p < 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D may increase adiponectin and leptin concentrations in overweight/obese and vitamin D-deficient adults. Further studies are needed to clarify the molecular interactions between vitamin D and adipokines and the clinical implications of these interactions in the context of obesity. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02112721.

3.
J Psychosom Res ; 124: 109775, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is little evidence comparing the role of subjective versus objective indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) on individuals' self-rated health (SRH) in Iran. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate underlying predictors of SRH including subjective and objective SES in Tehran, a multi-ethnic city. METHOD: This is an analysis of cross-sectional survey data on subjective and objective SES from a population-based case-control study conducted in Tehran, Iran (2015). We used random digit dialing for study sample recruitment. Linear regression models were used for estimating crude and adjusted coefficients (95% confidence intervals). Age, gender, SES as well as cigarette smoking were included as confounders. RESULTS: 15-50 years old residents of Tehran were recruited in the study (n = 1057). High reported objective and subjective SES was consistently associated with a better SRH. Subjective current SES (p < .001), subjective adolescence SES (p = .018), change in subjective SES (current vs. adolescent) (p = .034) and participants' education years (p < .001). Improvements over time in current SES in comparison to SES rated during adolescence increased the participants' SRH after adjustment for potential confounders (coefficient = 0.170, 95% CI: (0.015, 0.325)). Female participants (coefficient = -0.305, 95% CI: (-0.418, -0.192)) and smokers (high category vs. never smokers) (coefficient = -0.456, 95% CI: (-0.714, -0.197)) reported significantly worse SRH. Increasing age - 0.008 (95% CI: -0.014, -0.002) was associated with decreased SRH. CONCLUSION: High subjective and objective SES consistently was the most important predictor of high SRH.

4.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e028263, 2019 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110109

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence, clustering and sociodemographic distribution of non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors in adolescents in Nepal. DESIGN: Data originated from Global School Based Student Health Survey, Nepal conducted in 2015-2016. SETTING: The study sites were the secondary schools in Nepal; 74 schools were selected based on the probability proportional to school enrolment size throughout Nepal. PARTICIPANTS: 5795 school-going children aged 13-17 years were included in the study. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: NCD risk factors: smoking, alcohol consumption, insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, insufficient physical activity and overweight/obesity were the primary outcomes. Sociodemographic distributions of the combined and individual NCD risk factors were determined by Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: Findings revealed the prevalence of smoking (6.04%; CI 4.62 to 7.88), alcohol consumption (5.29%; CI 4.03 to 6.92), insufficient fruit and vegetable intake (95.33%; CI 93.89 to 96.45), insufficiently physical activity (84.77%; CI 81.04 to 87.88) and overweight/obesity (6.66%; CI 4.65 to 9.45). One or more risk factors were present in 99.6%, ≥2 were in 83% and ≥3 were in 11.2%. Risk factors were more likely to cluster in male, 17 years of age and grade 7. Prevalence of smoking (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR)=2.38; CI 1.6 to 3.51) and alcohol consumption (aPR=1.81; CI 1.29 to 2.53) was significantly high in male, and in 16 and 17 years of age. Prevalence of insufficient physical activity and overweight/obesity was significantly lower in higher grades. CONCLUSION: Insufficient fruit and vegetable intake and insufficient physical activity were highly prevalent in the populations studied. Risk factors were disproportionately distributed and clustered in particular gender, age and grade. The study population requires an age and gender specific preventive public health intervention.

5.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 185: 212-217, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201225

RESUMO

Back pain is currently the greatest cause of disability worldwide, and there are very limited therapeutic options available. Vitamin D deficiency and obesity are both risk factors for back pain. The few randomised controlled trials examining the effects of vitamin D supplementation on back pain have methodological limitations and largely include non-vitamin D deficient participants. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether vitamin D supplementation improves back pain symptoms in vitamin D deficient and overweight or obese, otherwise healthy adults. Sixty-five overweight or obese adults (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) with vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations ≤50 nmol/L) were randomised to a bolus oral dose of 100,000 IU followed by 4000 IU cholecalciferol/day or matching placebo for 16 weeks. We measured 25(OH)D concentrations (chemiluminescent immunoassays) and self-reported back pain (Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire) before and after the intervention. Lifestyle habits including sun exposure, physical activity, and diet were collected using questionnaires. Fifty-four participants completed the study, of which 49 had complete data for back pain and were included in the present analyses (31 M/18 F; mean ± SD age: 31.8 ± 8.9 years; BMI: 31.1 ± 4.5 kg/m2). After the 16-week intervention, 25(OH)D levels increased significantly with vitamin D supplementation compared with placebo (55.7 ± 20.9 versus 3.9 ± 14.4 nmol/L, respectively, p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between vitamin D and placebo groups in change in back pain intensity or disability scores (all p > 0.05). However, in those with 25(OH)D concentrations <30 nmol/L at baseline (n = 20), there was a significantly greater reduction in back pain disability scores in the vitamin D group compared with placebo, after adjusting for important covariates known to affect vitamin D status and/or back pain (b [95%CI] = -11.6 [-22.4, -0.8], p = 0.04). Our findings suggest that vitamin D supplementation in overweight or obese and markedly vitamin D deficient adults (25(OH)D <30 nmol/L) may improve back pain disability. Although treating severe vitamin D deficiency is recommended for optimising bone health, this study suggests it may also improve back pain. Hence, testing for vitamin D deficiency in those with back pain who are overweight or obese may be warranted.


Assuntos
Dor nas Costas/dietoterapia , Hormônios e Agentes Reguladores de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/patologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/dietoterapia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vitamina D/sangue
7.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 186: 136-141, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321667

RESUMO

Recent trials do not support a role for vitamin D supplementation in prevention or treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although effects may differ in Asian populations. In this pilot secondary analysis of a placebo-controlled randomised trial of overweight or obese individuals with low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L), we examined whether vitamin D supplementation improved insulin sensitivity or body composition in participants of Asian ethnicity. Amongst 65 trial participants, 33 reported being of Asian descent (mean ± SD age 30 ± 7 years; 67% male). Participants were block randomised to receive vitamin D (n = 14; initial bolus dose of 2500 µg cholecalciferol followed by 100 µg cholecalciferol/d) or placebo (n = 19; identical capsules) for 16 weeks. Primary outcome was change in insulin sensitivity (M-value) assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Secondary outcomes were changes in 25(OH)D (chemiluminescent immunoassay), fasting blood glucose (YSI Stat 2300), and body composition including waist-hip ratio and total body fat percentage (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Questionnaires assessed sun-exposure habits, physical activity, and diet. After the 16-week intervention, 25(OH)D concentrations increased significantly in the vitamin D group with no change in placebo (61.4 ± 21.1 vs -0.4 ± 12.7 nmol/L; P < 0.01). Vitamin D group participants demonstrated significant improvements in waist-hip ratio (-0.02 ± 0.03 vs 0.00 ± 0.02; P < 0.01) and fasting blood glucose (-0.1 ± 0.2 vs 0.2 ± 04 mmol/L; P < 0.04) compared with the placebo group, but changes in insulin sensitivity and other body composition measures did not differ significantly between groups (all P > 0.05). In conclusion, vitamin D supplementation improved waist-hip ratio and fasting blood glucose in overweight and obese Asian-Australians with low vitamin D concentrations. Further research is required to determine whether vitamin D supplementation is potentially more effective in specific ethnic groups.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Jejum , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 186: 169-175, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30367939

RESUMO

This randomised placebo-controlled trial aimed to determine the effect of 16-weeks cholecalciferol supplementation on calcium-phosphate homeostasis and bone mineral density (BMD) in overweight and obese adults. Fifty-four vitamin D-deficient (25OHD<50 nmol/L), overweight and obese adults (mean age 32 ± 8.5 years) were included in the trial. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either a bolus oral dose of 100,000 IU cholecalciferol followed by 4000 IU cholecalciferol/d or a matching placebo for 16 weeks. Before and after the intervention, serum calcium, phosphate, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and C-terminal plasma fibroblast growth factor-23 (cFGF-23) concentrations were measured. Whole-body BMD was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and diet and sun exposure were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the vitamin D and placebo group. After 16-weeks of vitamin D supplementation, mean changes in 25(OH)D concentration were higher in the vitamin D group (57 nmol/L 95% CI 49, 65) compared with placebo (2 nmol/L 95% CI -4, 8), P < 0.001. Additionally, iPTH concentrations declined in the vitamin D group (-1.19 pmol/L 95% CI -1.9, -0.47) compared with placebo (0.14 pmol/L 95% CI -0.49, 0.77), P = 0.006. There were no significant differences in calcium, phosphate, iPTH and cFGF-23 concentrations and whole-body BMD between vitamin D and placebo at follow-up. Inverse correlations were observed between mean change in serum iPTH and cFGF-23 in the vitamin D group only (r=-0.41, P = 0.029). In individuals with greater vitamin D deficiency at baseline (25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L), there was a significant increase in mean whole-body BMD (0.01 g/cm2, 95% CI 0.001, 0.025) however, the mean change in BMD was not different between vitamin D and placebo groups in this sub-group analysis. We conclude that cholecalciferol supplementation for 16 weeks increases serum 25(OH)D concentrations and reduces iPTH concentrations in overweight and obese, but otherwise healthy adults with vitamin D deficiency, and has no effect on calcium, phosphate and iFGF-23 concentrations and whole-body BMD.


Assuntos
Cálcio/sangue , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Sobrepeso/complicações , Fosfatos/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Humanos , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/sangue , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Efeito Placebo , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue
9.
Amino Acids ; 51(1): 73-81, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30136029

RESUMO

Abnormalities of iron homeostasis have been linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Carnosine, an over-the-counter food supplement with chelating properties, has been shown to decrease serum iron and improve glucose metabolism in diabetic rodents. We have previously demonstrated that carnosine supplementation prevented worsening of glucose metabolism in healthy overweight and obese middle-aged adults. Yet, the impact of carnosine on markers of iron metabolism in humans has not been investigated. We aimed to determine whether carnosine supplementation has an effect on iron parameters in overweight and obese, otherwise healthy adults. We included 26 participants, who were randomly allocated to receive 1 g carnosine (n = 14) or identical placebo (n = 12) twice daily for 12 weeks. Iron parameters including iron, ferritin, transferrin, soluble transferrin receptor, total iron binding capacity and iron saturation were measured in serum or plasma by standard commercial assays. Carnosine supplementation decreased plasma soluble transferrin receptor compared to placebo (mean change difference ± standard error: - 0.07 ± 0.03 mg/l, p = 0.04). None of the other iron parameters were different between carnosine and placebo groups. At follow-up, soluble transferrin receptor was associated inversely with urinary carnosine concentrations and positively with serum carnosinase-1 activity (both p < 0.02). Our findings suggest that carnosine may modulate iron metabolism in high-risk groups which could ameliorate insulin resistance and prevent type 2 diabetes. Larger human clinical trials are required to confirm our results.


Assuntos
Carnosina/administração & dosagem , Quelantes/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ferro/sangue , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores da Transferrina/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Carnosina/farmacologia , Quelantes/farmacologia , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Projetos Piloto , Transferrina/metabolismo
10.
Nutrients ; 10(9)2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205427

RESUMO

Adipokines play an important role in the regulation of glucose metabolism. We have previously shown that carnosine supplementation in overweight or obese non-diabetic individuals improves glucose metabolism but does not change adiponectin concentrations. However, its effect on other adipokines has not been investigated. Herein we further determined the effect of carnosine supplementation on serum adipsin, resistin and leptin. Twenty-two overweight or obese otherwise healthy adults were randomly assigned to receive either 2 g of carnosine (n = 13) or identically looking placebo (n = 9) for 12 weeks. Serum adipsin, leptin and resistin were analyzed using a bead-based multiplex assay. Carnosine supplementation decreased serum resistin concentrations compared to placebo (mean change from baseline: -35 ± 83 carnosine vs. 35 ± 55 ng/mL placebo, p = 0.04). There was a trend for a reduction in serum leptin concentrations after carnosine supplementation (-76 ± 165 ng/mL carnosine vs. 20 ± 28 ng/mL placebo, p = 0.06). The changes in leptin and resistin concentrations were inversely related to the change in concentration for urinary carnosine (r = -0.72, p = 0.0002; r = -0.67, p = 0.0009, respectively), carnosine-propanal (r = -0.56, p = 0.005; r = -0.63, p = 0.001, respectively) and carnosine-propanol (r = -0.61, p = 0.002; r = -0.60, p = 0.002, respectively). There were no differences between groups in change in adipsin concentrations. Our findings show carnosine supplementation may normalize some, but not all, of the serum adipokine concentrations involved in glucose metabolism, in overweight and obese individuals. Further clinical trials with larger samples are needed to confirm these results.


Assuntos
Carnosina/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Obesidade/terapia , Resistina/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Projetos Piloto , Eslováquia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Front Physiol ; 9: 93, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483883

RESUMO

Objective: To compare cardiometabolic risk factors including cytokine and adipokine concentrations between individuals with and without back pain. Methods: In 62 overweight/obese adults (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2; 23F/39M), we collected data on: self-reported back pain; anthropometry [BMI, waist circumference, body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry-DEXA)]; metabolic parameters [fasting glucose; insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps)]; cardiovascular parameters (blood pressure, lipids); serum inflammation markers [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP; immunoturbidimetric-assay), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10 (multiplex-assay)]; and adipokines [leptin, adipsin, resistin, and adiponectin (multiplex-assay)]. Results: Participants who reported having back pain in the past month (n = 24; 39%) had higher BMI (mean ± SD = 33.8 ± 6.3 vs. 30.2 ± 4.1 kg/m2, p = 0.008), fat-mass (39.9 ± 12.3 vs. 33.9 ± 9.8%, p = 0.04), and waist circumference (109.6 ± 16.8 vs. 101.0 ± 9.3 cm, p = 0.01) compared to those without back pain (n = 38; 61%). No differences were observed in cardiometabolic parameters, inflammatory markers, or adiponectin or resistin concentrations. Those reporting back pain had higher adipsin concentrations compared to those without back pain [median (IQR) = 744 (472-2,804) vs. 721 (515-867) ng/ml, p = 0.03], with a trend for higher leptin [5.5 (1.5-24.3) vs. 2.3 (1.5-6.7) ng/ml, p = 0.05], both of which persisted after adjustment for age and sex. Adipsin remained associated with back pain independently of adiposity (BMI, waist, fat-mass, or total %body fat; all p ≤ 0.03). Conclusions: Greater obesity, and higher adipsin and leptin concentrations were observed in those who reported back pain in the past month compared to those without back pain, and adipsin was associated with back pain independently of adiposity. Larger studies are needed to determine if adipsin could be a novel therapeutic target for prevention and/or treatment of back pain.

13.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 54(5): 551-555, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29363215

RESUMO

AIMS: To examine reports of anaphylaxis in Australasia from consumption of packaged food products with or without precautionary allergen labelling (PAL), where the known allergen triggers were not a listed ingredient. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to all members of the Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy (n = 548). Participants were asked to complete a survey reporting whether they have had seen any patients over the last 3 months reporting anaphylaxis following ingestion of a packaged food where the suspected food allergen was not a listed ingredient. RESULTS: Of the n = 548 members approached, n = 198 responded (response rate 36.1%).There were 14 reports of anaphylaxis to packaged foods (where the suspected allergen was not a listed ingredient), which met the case definition from a total of 198 respondents over the 9-month period. Of those reactions, 50.0% (confidence interval 95% 21-78) were reported from foods that did not have a PAL statement, and 50.0% (confidence interval 95% 21-78) were due to peanuts. CONCLUSION: Anaphylaxis to undeclared allergens was not rare and did not appear to depend on whether the product was labelled with precautionary advice. There is currently no reliable labelling system that can inform food-allergic consumers of safer food choices. Improvements in the regulation of food labelling with PAL are required.


Assuntos
Alérgenos , Anafilaxia/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/etiologia , Rotulagem de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Adolescente , Adulto , Alérgenos/imunologia , Anafilaxia/diagnóstico , Anafilaxia/epidemiologia , Australásia/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Rotulagem de Alimentos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 177: 200-208, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28803880

RESUMO

Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency may contribute to increased risk of depression. However, previous studies are limited by variability in participant characteristics including vitamin D deficiency status and presence of existing diseases, use of low doses of vitamin D supplementation for short durations, and use of co-interventions or psychotropic drugs. We examined whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were associated with symptoms of depression, as well as whether vitamin D supplementation reduced symptoms of depression in overweight or obese and vitamin D-deficient, but otherwise healthy adults. Cross-sectional analyses were performed on baseline data from 63 (39M/24F) overweight or obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥25kg/m2) and vitamin D-deficient (25(OH)D ≤50 nmol/l) adults (mean age=31.3±8.5), without clinical depression. Participants were randomized to either a bolus oral dose of 100,000 IU followed by 4000 IU daily of cholecalciferol, or matching placebo for 16 weeks. Interventional analyses were performed on data from 48 participants (30M/18F) who completed the trial. We measured serum 25(OH)D concentrations; anthropometry: BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), % body fat (dual X-ray absorptiometry); and depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) before and after intervention. Data on dietary vitamin D intake (3-day food record), physical activity (international physical activity questionnaire), and sun exposure habits were collected using questionnaires. At baseline, mean 25(OH)D concentration was 32.9±11.3 nmol/l and total BDI score was 6.6±6.3 (range=0-33). There were no associations between 25(OH)D concentrations and total BDI scores or BDI subscales (all p>0.1). After the 16-week intervention, 25(OH)D concentrations increased in the vitamin D group compared to placebo (56.0±20.8 versus 2.7±13.9 nmol/L, respectively; p <0.0001). Change in total BDI scores did not differ between vitamin D and placebo groups (-2.0±4.5 versus -1.5±2.9, respectively; p=0.7). There were no differences in BDI subscales between groups (both p>0.1). Results remained non-significant after adjusting for multiple covariates including sun exposure, physical activity, and dietary vitamin D intake (all p>0.1). Our findings suggest that vitamin D deficiency may not be related to increased risk of depression in individuals without clinically significant depression and that the use of vitamin D supplementation may not be warranted for reducing depressive symptoms in this population. Further large-scale studies are needed to establish whether vitamin D supplementation may be beneficial for improving depressive symptoms in other population groups, including in those with existing depressive or psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Depressão/dietoterapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/dietoterapia , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 177: 216-222, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28732679

RESUMO

Vitamin D has been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties in in vitro and animal studies, which are thought to occur via inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB) pathway. However, the association between vitamin D and in vivo NFκB activity in humans has not previously been reported. The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and NFκB activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as well as plasma inflammatory markers in healthy individuals. We hypothesized that 25(OH)D concentrations would be negatively associated with NFκB activity and pro-inflammatory markers downstream of NFκB, and positively associated with anti-inflammatory markers. We measured circulating 25(OH)D (chemiluminescent immunoassay); anthropometry: body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and % body fat (dual X-ray absorptiometry); plasma pro- and anti-inflammatory markers: high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-10 (ELISA); and NFκB activity in PBMCs (DNA-binding assay). Forty-nine participants were included in the study (21M/28F; age=31.6±10.2years (mean±SD); BMI=28.4±4.6kg/m2; % body fat=30.2±9.3%). Mean 25(OH)D concentration was 48.2±24.5 nmol/l. There were no differences in 25(OH)D concentrations between genders and no association between 25(OH)D concentrations and age, BMI, or % body fat (all p>0.1). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were positively associated with NFκB activity in PBMCs (r=0.48, p=0.0008) but not with any of the pro- or anti-inflammatory markers measured (all p>0.1). After adjusting for age, sex, and % body fat, 25(OH)D concentrations remained positively associated with NFκB activity in PBMCs (ß=0.55, p<0.0001). Although in-vitro studies suggest that vitamin D inhibits NFκB activity, our novel cross-sectional data from a cohort of healthy individuals suggest that vitamin D may regulate rather than inhibit the NFκB pathway. Large-scale intervention and mechanistic studies are needed to further investigate the effects of vitamin D on NFκB activity in vivo in humans.


Assuntos
Inflamação/sangue , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Adulto , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 177: 193-199, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28899715

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. However, there is limited and inconsistent data on the effect of vitamin D supplementation on liver function. Hepatic enzymes have been used as surrogate markers for NAFLD and have been associated with metabolic syndrome. We examined the relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in 120 drug-naïve individuals with no history of liver disease. In addition, the effect of vitamin D supplementation (100,000 loading dose of cholecalciferol followed by 4000IU daily for 16 weeks) on hepatic enzymes was investigated in a subgroup of 54 vitamin D-deficient overweight or obese individuals (28 randomised to cholecalciferol and 26 to placebo). Hepatic enzymes, anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp, M value) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured before and after the intervention. In the cross-sectional study, levels of GGT and ALT were higher in men compared to women (both p=0.001). There were no significant differences in GGT, ALT and ALP between vitamin D categories (25(OH)D<25nmol/L, 25-50nmol/L, and >50nmol/L) and no relationships were found between the three enzymes and 25(OH)D before and after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, WHR, and insulin sensitivity (all p>0.5). In the randomised trial, 25(OH)D concentrations increased in the vitamin D group (mean change 57.0±21.3nmol/L) compared to the placebo group (mean change 1.9±15.1nmol/L). Mean changes in GGT, ALT and ALP were not significantly different between vitamin D and placebo groups (all p>0.2). Change in 25(OH)D concentration was not correlated with changes in GGT, ALT and ALP before and after adjustments for age and sex (all p>0.1). In summary, 25(OH)D concentrations were not related to hepatic enzymes in drug-naive adults with no history of liver disease, and vitamin D supplementation had no effect on the serum levels of hepatic enzymes in vitamin D-deficient and overweight or obese, otherwise healthy individuals. Hence, vitamin D supplementation is unlikely to prevent incident NAFLD.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto Jovem , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue
17.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 17458, 2017 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29234057

RESUMO

Carnosine has been shown to reduce oxidation and glycation of low density lipoprotein hence improving dyslipidaemia in rodents. The effect of carnosine on human plasma lipidome has thus far not been investigated. We aimed to determine whether carnosine supplementation improves the plasma lipidome in overweight and obese individuals. Lipid analysis was performed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in 24 overweight and obese adults: 13 were randomly assigned to 2 g carnosine daily and 11 to placebo, and treated for 12 weeks. Carnosine supplementation maintained trihexosylceramide (0.01 ± 0.19 vs -0.28 ± 0.34 nmol/ml, p = 0.04), phosphatidylcholine (77 ± 167 vs -81 ± 196 nmol/ml, p = 0.01) and free cholesterol (20 ± 80 vs -69 ± 80 nmol/ml, p = 0.006) levels compared to placebo. Trihexosylceramide was inversely related with fasting insulin (r = -0.6, p = 0.002), insulin resistance (r = -0.6, p = 0.003), insulin secretion (r = -0.4, p = 0.05) and serum carnosinase 1 activity (r = -0.3, p = 0.05). Both phosphatidylcholine and free cholesterol did not correlate with any cardiometabolic parameters. Our data suggest that carnosine may have beneficial effects on the plasma lipidome. Future larger clinical trials are needed to confirm this.


Assuntos
Carnosina/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Lipídeos/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/terapia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 15154, 2017 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29123173

RESUMO

In-vitro studies suggest that vitamin D reduces inflammation by inhibiting nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB) activity. Yet, no trials have examined the effects of vitamin D supplementation on NFκB activity in-vivo in humans. We conducted a double-blind randomized trial (RCT) examining effects of vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory markers and NFκB activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Sixty-five overweight/obese, vitamin D-deficient (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] ≤ 50 nmol/L) adults were randomized to a single 100,000 IU bolus followed by 4,000 IU daily cholecalciferol or matching placebo for 16 weeks. We measured BMI, % body fat, serum 25(OH)D, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), tumour necrosis factor (TNF), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), several interleukins, and NFκB activity in PBMCs. Fifty-four participants completed the study. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations increased with vitamin D supplementation compared to placebo (p < 0.001). Vitamin D and placebo groups did not differ in any inflammatory markers or NFκB activity (all p > 0.05). Results remained non-significant after adjustment for age, sex, and % body fat, and after further adjustment for sun exposure, physical activity, and dietary vitamin D intake. Although in-vitro studies report anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin D, our RCT data show no effect of vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory markers or NFκB activity in-vivo in humans.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Inflamação/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Austrália , Análise Química do Sangue , Citocinas/análise , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/química , Masculino , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29046662

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a complex chronic disease affecting over 400 million people worldwide. Managing T2DM and its associated complications in individual patient consultations poses substantial challenges to physicians due to limited time and resources and lack of access to multidisciplinary teams. Shared medical appointments (SMAs) are consecutive medical consultations provided by a physician in a group setting, where integrated medical care and patient education are delivered in a single session. SMAs allow physicians to deliver the same level of care to multiple patients at the same time, thereby maximizing available resources. However, the effectiveness and practicality of SMAs in the management of T2DM remains unknown. This narrative review summarizes current and emerging evidence regarding the effectiveness of SMAs in improving clinical outcomes in patients with T2DM, as well as whether SMAs are associated with reduced costs and improved diabetes-related behavioral and lifestyle changes. An extensive literature search was conducted on major electronic databases including PubMed and Google Scholar using keywords, including SMAs, group visits, and T2DM to identify all studies of SMAs in patients with T2DM. Studies in type 1 diabetes or mixed or unspecified populations were excluded, as well as studies where SMAs did not involve a physician since these do not meet the classical definition of a SMA. Nineteen studies were identified and are included in this review. Overall, current evidence suggests that SMAs delivered regularly over time may be effective in improving glycemic outcomes, diabetes knowledge, and some diabetes-related behaviors. However, the main limitation of existing studies was the paucity of comparisons with standard care which limits the ability to draw conclusions regarding whether SMAs are superior to standard care in T2DM management. Moreover, the small number of studies and substantial heterogeneity in study designs, populations, and interventions creates difficulties in establishing the practicality and efficiency of SMAs in the clinical care setting. We conclude that there remains a need for larger studies to identify populations who may or may not benefit from the SMA model of care and to clarify the potential benefits and barriers to implementing SMAs into routine diabetes care.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29033984

RESUMO

Precautionary allergen labelling (PAL) has resulted in consumer confusion. Previous research has shown that interpretive labels (using graphics, symbols, or colours) are better understood than the traditional forms of labels. In this study, we aimed to understand if consumers would use interpretive labels (symbol, mobile phone application and a toll-free number) with or without medical advice that was advocated by the food industry rather than the normal PAL. This is relevant information for industry and clinicians as it provides an insight into the food allergic perception regarding PAL.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA