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1.
Langmuir ; 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097015

RESUMO

We report methods to synthesize sub-micron- and micron-sized patchy silica particles with fluorescently labeled hemispherical titania protrusions, as well as routes to efficiently characterize these particles and self-assemble these particles into non-close-packed structures. The synthesis methods expand upon earlier work in the literature, in which silica particles packed in a colloidal crystal were surface-patterned with a silane coupling agent. Here, hemispherical amorphous titania protrusions were successfully labeled with fluorescent dyes, allowing for imaging by confocal microscopy and super-resolution techniques. Confocal microscopy was exploited to experimentally determine the numbers of protrusions per particle over large numbers of particles for good statistical significance, and these distributions were compared to simulations predicting the number of patches as a function of core particle polydispersity and maximum separation between the particle surfaces. We self-assembled these patchy particles into open percolating gel networks by exploiting solvophobic attractions between the protrusions.

2.
ACS Omega ; 2(4): 1720-1730, 2017 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31457536

RESUMO

In this article, we report the synthesis and physical characterization of colloidal polystyrene particles that carry water-soluble supramolecular N,N',N″,-trialkyl-benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamides (BTAs) on their surface. These molecules are known to assemble into one-dimensional supramolecular polymers via noncovalent interactions. By tethering the BTAs to charge-stabilized particles, the clustering behavior of the resulting colloids was dictated by a balance between interparticle electrostatic repulsion and the BTA-mediated attractions. Through careful tuning of the dispersing medium's ionic strength, a regime was found in which particle aggregation could be reversibly induced upon heating the dispersion. These findings clearly indicate that hydrophobic interactions, which become stronger upon heating, play an important role during the clustering process. Besides the thermoreversible nature of the generated hydrophobic interparticle attractions, we found the clustering to be selective, that is, the BTA-functionalized colloids do not interact with nonfunctionalized hydrophobic polystyrene particles. This selectivity in the association process can be rationalized by the preferred stacking of the surface-tethered BTAs. These selective intermolecular/particle bonds are likely stabilized by the formation of hydrogen bonds, as previously observed for analogous molecular BTA assemblies. The resulting driving force responsible for particle clustering is therefore dual in nature and depends on both hydrophobic attractions and hydrogen bonding.

3.
J Vis Exp ; (110)2016 04 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27168201

RESUMO

Control over colloidal assembly is of utmost importance for the development of functional colloidal materials with tailored structural and mechanical properties for applications in photonics, drug delivery and coating technology. Here we present a new family of colloidal building blocks, coined supramolecular colloids, whose self-assembly is controlled through surface-functionalization with a benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) derived supramolecular moiety. Such BTAs interact via directional, strong, yet reversible hydrogen-bonds with other identical BTAs. Herein, a protocol is presented that describes how to couple these BTAs to colloids and how to quantify the number of coupling sites, which determines the multivalency of the supramolecular colloids. Light scattering measurements show that the refractive index of the colloids is almost matched with that of the solvent, which strongly reduces the van der Waals forces between the colloids. Before photo-activation, the colloids remain well dispersed, as the BTAs are equipped with a photo-labile group that blocks the formation of hydrogen-bonds. Controlled deprotection with UV-light activates the short-range hydrogen-bonds between the BTAs, which triggers the colloidal self-assembly. The evolution from the dispersed state to the clustered state is monitored by confocal microscopy. These results are further quantified by image analysis with simple routines using ImageJ and Matlab. This merger of supramolecular chemistry and colloidal science offers a direct route towards light- and thermo-responsive colloidal assembly encoded in the surface-grafted monolayer.


Assuntos
Coloides/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Benzamidas/química , Coloides/síntese química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Substâncias Macromoleculares/síntese química , Óptica e Fotônica , Processos Fotoquímicos , Dióxido de Silício/química , Raios Ultravioleta
4.
Langmuir ; 31(1): 57-64, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25489659

RESUMO

A robust method is described for precisely functionalizing silica colloids with short-chain alkanes and self-associating o-nitrobenzyl protected benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamides (BTAs). Controlled deprotection affords activation of the latent supramolecular moieties by facilitating short-range hydrogen-bonding interactions between surface-functionalized silica particles. Control of mesoscale assembly of the responsive colloidal suspensions is demonstrated with two different external triggers. First, the amount of active (i.e., deprotected) BTAs is efficiently tuned by varying the exposure time to UV radiation. Controlled activation of the BTAs translates to regulating the valence of the system. After activation, the binding strength of individual BTAs can be modulated with temperature, providing an additional handle with which the assembly behavior is manipulated. This dual-regulation approach is a powerful and sensitive avenue for controlling colloidal assembly processes.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Silício/química , Alcanos/química , Benzamidas/química , Coloides , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Propriedades de Superfície , Temperatura , Raios Ultravioleta
5.
Chemistry ; 21(1): 377-85, 2015 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25399508

RESUMO

The synthesis of C3 - and C2 -symmetric benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamides (BTAs) containing well-defined oligodimethylsiloxane (oDMS) and/or alkyl side chains has been carried out. The influence of the bulkiness of the oDMS chains in the aggregation behavior of dilute solutions of the oDMS-BTAs in methylcyclohexane was studied by temperature-dependent UV spectroscopy. The formation of hierarchically self-assembled aggregates was observed at different BTA concentrations, the tendency of aggregation increases by shortening or removing oDMS chains. Chiral BTAs were investigated with circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, showing a stronger tendency to aggregate than the achiral ones. Majority rules experiments show a linear behavior consistent with the existence of a high mismatch penalty energy. The most efficient oDMS-BTAs organogelators have the ability to form stable organogels at 5 mg mL(-1) (0.75 wt %) in hexane. Solid-state characterization techniques indicate the formation of an intermolecular threefold hydrogen bonding between adjacent molecules forming thermotropic liquid crystals, exhibiting a hexagonal columnar organization from room temperature to above 150 °C. A decrease of the clearing temperatures was observed when increasing the number and length of the oligodimethylsiloxane chains. In addition to the three-fold hydrogen bonding that leads to columnar liquid crystalline phase, segregation between the oDMS and aliphatic chains takes place in the BTA functionalized with two alkyl and one oDMS chain leading to a superlattice within the hexagonal structure with potential applications in lithography.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/química , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Benzamidas/síntese química , Dicroísmo Circular , Géis/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Estereoisomerismo , Temperatura
6.
Soft Matter ; 9(42): 10025-10030, 2013 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25365822

RESUMO

We report on the self-assembly of discotic amphiphiles that contain chelated gadolinium(iii) ions and are based on the C3-symmetrical benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide motif. Fluorescence spectroscopy, SAXS and cryo-TEM experiments demonstrate that a bimodal distribution of small and large aggregates is formed in a ratio that is dependent on the ionic strength. The results correlate with the previously reported degree of cooperativity of the polymerization mechanism, which increases with increasing NaCl concentration. Hence, by tuning the electrostatic interactions between the ligands at the periphery we can tune the cooperativity of the self-assembly. This tunability provides a versatile handle to adjust the size and shape of the discotic amphiphiles, which have potential as supramolecular MRI contrast agents.

7.
J Vis Exp ; (66): e3975, 2012 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22895608

RESUMO

For aqueous based supramolecular polymers, the simultaneous control over shape, size and stability is very difficult. At the same time, the ability to do so is highly important in view of a number of applications in functional soft matter including electronics, biomedical engineering, and sensors. In the past, successful strategies to control the size and shape of supramolecular polymers typically focused on the use of templates, end cappers or selective solvent techniques. Here we disclose a strategy based on self-assembling discotic amphiphiles that leads to the control over stack length and shape of ordered, chiral columnar aggregates. By balancing electrostatic repulsive interactions on the hydrophilic rim and attractive non-covalent forces within the hydrophobic core of the polymerizing building block, we manage to create small and discrete spherical objects. Increasing the salt concentration to screen the charges induces a sphere-to-rod transition. Intriguingly, this transition is expressed in an increase of cooperativity in the temperature-dependent self-assembly mechanism, and more stable aggregates are obtained. For our study we select a benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) core connected to a hydrophilic metal chelate via a hydrophobic, fluorinated L-phenylalanine based spacer (Scheme 1). The metal chelate selected is a Gd(III)-DTPA complex that contains two overall remaining charges per complex and necessarily two counter ions. The one-dimensional growth of the aggregate is directed by π-π stacking and intermolecular hydrogen bonding. However, the electrostatic, repulsive forces that arise from the charges on the Gd(III)-DTPA complex start limiting the one-dimensional growth of the BTA-based discotic once a certain size is reached. At millimolar concentrations the formed aggregate has a spherical shape and a diameter of around 5 nm as inferred from (1)H-NMR spectroscopy, small angle X-ray scattering, and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The strength of the electrostatic repulsive interactions between molecules can be reduced by increasing the salt concentration of the buffered solutions. This screening of the charges induces a transition from spherical aggregates into elongated rods with a length > 25 nm. Cryo-TEM allows to visualise the changes in shape and size. In addition, CD spectroscopy permits to derive the mechanistic details of the self-assembly processes before and after the addition of salt. Importantly, the cooperativity -a key feature that dictates the physical properties of the produced supramolecular polymers- increases dramatically upon screening the electrostatic interactions. This increase in cooperativity results in a significant increase in the molecular weight of the formed supramolecular polymers in water.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/química , Gadolínio DTPA/química , Fenilalanina/análogos & derivados , Água/química , Quelantes/química , Dicroísmo Circular , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/métodos , Modelos Moleculares , Fenilalanina/química
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