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1.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer survivors are at increased risk for developing second primary cancers compared to the general population. Little is known about whether body mass index (BMI) increases this risk. We examined the association between BMI and second cancers among women with incident invasive breast cancer. METHODS: This retrospective cohort included 6,481 patients from Kaiser Permanente Colorado and Washington of whom 822 (12.7%) developed a second cancer (mean follow-up was 88.0 months). BMI at the first cancer was extracted from the medical record. Outcomes included: 1) all second cancers, 2) obesity-related second cancers, 3) any second breast cancer, and 4) estrogen receptor (ER)-positive second breast cancers. Multivariable Poisson regression models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for second cancers associated with BMI adjusted for site, diagnosis year, treatment, demographic, and tumor characteristics. RESULTS: The mean age at initial breast cancer diagnosis was 61.2 (standard deviation = 11.8) years. Most cases were overweight (33.4%) or obese (33.8%) and diagnosed at stage I (62.0%). In multivariable models, for every 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI, the risk of any second cancer diagnosis increased by 7% (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.14); 13% (RR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.05 to 1.21) for obesity-related cancers; 11% (RR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.21) for a second breast cancer, and 15% (RR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.27) for a second ER-positive breast cancer. CONCLUSION: We observed a statistically significant increased risk of second cancers associated with increasing BMI. These findings have important public health implications given the prevalence of overweight and obesity in breast cancer survivors and underscore the need for effective prevention strategies.

2.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820799

RESUMO

The average age at menarche declined in European and U.S. populations during the 19th and 20th centuries. The timing of pubertal events may have broad implications for chronic disease risks in aging women. Here we tested for associations of recalled menarcheal age with risks of 19 cancers in 536,450 women [median age, 60 years (range, 31-39 years)] in nine prospective U.S. and European cohorts that enrolled participants from 1981 to 1998. Cox regression estimated multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations of the age at menarche with risk of each cancer in each cohort and random-effects meta-analysis was used to generate summary estimates for each cancer. Over a median 10 years of follow-up, 60,968 women were diagnosed with a first primary incident cancer. Inverse linear associations were observed for seven of 19 cancers studied. Each additional year in the age at menarche was associated with reduced risks of endometrial cancer (HR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.89-0.94), liver cancer (HR = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.85-0.99), melanoma (HR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), bladder cancer (HR = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.99), and cancers of the colon (HR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99), lung (HR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-0.99), and breast (HR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.93-0.99). All but one of these associations remained statistically significant following adjustment for baseline body mass index. Similarities in the observed associations between menarche and seven cancers suggest shared underlying causes rooted early in life. We propose as a testable hypothesis that early exposure to sex hormones increases mid-life cancer risks by altering functional capacities of stem cells with roles in systemic energy balance and tissue homeostasis. SIGNIFICANCE: Age at menarche is associated with risk for seven cancers in middle-aged women, and understanding the shared underlying causal pathways across these cancers may suggest new avenues for cancer prevention.

3.
Breast Cancer Res ; 23(1): 24, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estimates of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk in the modern treatment era by year of diagnosis and characteristics of the first breast cancer are needed to assess the impact of recent advances in breast cancer treatment and inform clinical decision making. METHODS: We examined CBC risk among 419,818 women (age 30-84 years) who were diagnosed with a first unilateral invasive breast cancer and survived ≥ 1 year in the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program cancer registries from 1992 to 2015 (follow-up through 2016). CBC was defined as a second invasive breast cancer in the contralateral breast ≥ 12 months after the first breast cancer. We estimated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of CBC by year of diagnosis, age at diagnosis, and tumor characteristics for the first breast cancer. Cumulative incidence of CBC was calculated for women diagnosed with a first breast cancer in the recent treatment era (2004-2015, follow-up through 2016). RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 8 years (range 1-25 years), 12,986 breast cancer patients developed CBC. Overall, breast cancer patients had approximately twice the risk of developing cancer in the contralateral breast when compared to that expected in the general population (SIR = 2.21, 95% CI = 2.17-2.25). SIRs for CBC declined by year of first diagnosis, irrespective of age at diagnosis and estrogen receptor (ER) status (p-trends < 0.001), but the strongest decline was after an ER-positive tumor. The 5-year cumulative incidence of CBC ranged from 1.01% (95% CI = 0.90-1.14%) in younger women (age < 50 years) with a first ER-positive tumor to 1.89% (95% CI = 1.61-2.21%) in younger women with a first ER-negative tumor. CONCLUSION: Declines in CBC risk are consistent with continued advances in breast cancer treatment. The updated estimates of cumulative incidence inform breast cancer patients and clinicians on the risk of CBC and may help guide treatment decisions.

4.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(12): 1451-1460, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613232

RESUMO

Although transgenerational effects of exposure to ionizing radiation have long been a concern, human research to date has been confined to studies of disease phenotypes in groups exposed to high doses and high dose rates, such as the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Transgenerational effects of parental irradiation can be addressed using powerful new genomic technologies. In collaboration with the Ukrainian National Research Center for Radiation Medicine, the US National Cancer Institute, in 2014-2018, initiated a genomic alterations study among children born in selected regions of Ukraine to cleanup workers and/or evacuees exposed to low-dose-rate radiation after the 1986 Chornobyl (Chernobyl) nuclear accident. To investigate whether parental radiation exposure is associated with germline mutations and genomic alterations in the offspring, we are collecting biospecimens from father-mother-offspring constellations to study de novo mutations, minisatellite mutations, copy-number changes, structural variants, genomic insertions and deletions, methylation profiles, and telomere length. Genomic alterations are being examined in relation to parental gonadal dose, reconstructed using questionnaire and measurement data. Subjects are being recruited in exposure categories that will allow examination of parental origin, duration, and timing of exposure in relation to conception. Here we describe the study methodology and recruitment results and provide descriptive information on the first 150 families (mother-father-child(ren)) enrolled.

5.
J Hepatol ; 73(4): 863-872, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is known to have a female predominance while other biliary tract cancers (BTCs) have a male predominance. However, the role of female reproductive factors in BTC etiology remains unclear. METHODS: We pooled data from 19 studies of >1.5 million women participating in the Biliary Tract Cancers Pooling Project to examine the associations of parity, age at menarche, reproductive years, and age at menopause with BTC. Associations for age at menarche and reproductive years with BTC were analyzed separately for Asian and non-Asian women. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by study. RESULTS: During 21,681,798 person-years of follow-up, 875 cases of GBC, 379 of intrahepatic bile duct cancer (IHBDC), 450 of extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EHBDC), and 261 of ampulla of Vater cancer (AVC) occurred. High parity was associated with risk of GBC (HR ≥5 vs. 0 births 1.72; 95% CI 1.25-2.38). Age at menarche (HR per year increase 1.15; 95% CI 1.06-1.24) was associated with GBC risk in Asian women while reproductive years were associated with GBC risk (HR per 5 years 1.13; 95% CI 1.04-1.22) in non-Asian women. Later age at menarche was associated with IHBDC (HR 1.19; 95% CI 1.09-1.31) and EHBDC (HR 1.11; 95% CI 1.01-1.22) in Asian women only. CONCLUSION: We observed an increased risk of GBC with increasing parity. Among Asian women, older age at menarche was associated with increased risk for GBC, IHBDC, and EHBDC, while increasing reproductive years was associated with GBC in non-Asian women. These results suggest that sex hormones have distinct effects on cancers across the biliary tract that vary by geography. LAY SUMMARY: Our findings show that the risk of gallbladder cancer is increased among women who have given birth (especially women with 5 or more children). In women from Asian countries, later age at menarche increases the risk of gallbladder cancer, intrahepatic bile duct cancer and extrahepatic bile duct cancer. We did not see this same association in women from Western countries. Age at menopause was not associated with the risk of any biliary tract cancers.

6.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 179(2): 445-457, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625031

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The long-term risks and benefits of radiotherapy for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) remain unclear. Recent data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registries showed that DCIS-associated radiotherapy treatment significantly increased risk of second non-breast cancers including lung cancer. To help understand those observations and whether breast cancer risk factors are related to radiotherapy treatment decision-making, we examined associations between lifestyle and clinical factors with DCIS radiotherapy receipt. METHODS: Among 1628 participants from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, diagnosed with incident DCIS (1995-2011), we examined associations between lifestyle and clinical factors with radiotherapy receipt. Radiotherapy and clinical information were ascertained from state cancer registries. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for radiotherapy receipt (yes/no) were estimated from multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 45% (n = 730) received radiotherapy. No relationships were observed for most lifestyle factors and radiotherapy receipt, including current smoking (OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.70, 1.34). However positive associations were observed for moderate alcohol consumption and infrequent physical activity. The strongest associations were observed for radiotherapy receipt and more recent diagnoses (2005-2011 vs. 1995-1999; OR 1.60, 95%CI 1.14, 2.25), poorly versus well-differentiated tumors (OR 1.69, 95%CI 1.16, 2.46) and endocrine therapy (OR 3.37, 95%CI 2.56, 4.44). CONCLUSIONS: Clinical characteristics were the strongest determinants of DCIS radiotherapy. Receipt was largely unrelated to lifestyle factors suggesting that the previously observed associations in SEER were likely not confounded by these lifestyle factors. Further studies are needed to understand mechanisms driving radiotherapy-associated second malignancies following DCIS, to identify prevention opportunities for this growing population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/etiologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/patologia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/radioterapia , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Fatores de Risco , Programa de SEER , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e025556, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619413

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A broad range of stakeholders have called for randomised evidence on the potential clinical benefits and harms of proton therapy, a type of radiation therapy, for patients with breast cancer. Radiation therapy is an important component of curative treatment, reducing cancer recurrence and extending survival. Compared with photon therapy, the international treatment standard, proton therapy reduces incidental radiation to the heart. Our overall objective is to evaluate whether the differences between proton and photon therapy cardiac radiation dose distributions lead to meaningful reductions in cardiac morbidity and mortality after treatment for breast cancer. METHODS: We are conducting a large scale, multicentre pragmatic randomised clinical trial for patients with breast cancer who will be followed longitudinally for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, health-related quality of life and cancer control outcomes. A total of 1278 patients with non-metastatic breast cancer will be randomly allocated to receive either photon or proton therapy. The primary outcomes are major cardiovascular events, defined as myocardial infarction, coronary revascularisation, cardiovascular death or hospitalisation for unstable angina, heart failure, valvular disease, arrhythmia or pericardial disease. Secondary endpoints are urgent or unanticipated outpatient or emergency room visits for heart failure, arrhythmia, valvular disease or pericardial disease. The Radiotherapy Comparative Effectiveness (RadComp) Clinical Events Centre will conduct centralised, blinded adjudication of primary outcome events. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The RadComp trial has been approved by the institutional review boards of all participating sites. Recruitment began in February 2016. Current version of the protocol is A3, dated 08 November 2018. Dissemination plans include presentations at scientific conferences, scientific publications, stakeholder engagement efforts and presentation to the public via lay media outlets. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02603341.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Fótons/uso terapêutico , Terapia com Prótons , Feminino , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Neuro Oncol ; 21(7): 944-952, 2019 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Available evidence on diet and glioma risk comes mainly from studies with retrospective collection of dietary data. To minimize possible differential dietary recall between those with and without glioma, we present findings from 3 large prospective studies. METHODS: Participants included 692 176 from the UK Million Women Study, 470 780 from the US National Institutes of Health-AARP study, and 99 148 from the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Cox regression yielded study-specific adjusted relative risks for glioma in relation to 15 food groups, 14 nutrients, and 3 dietary patterns, which were combined, weighted by inverse variances of the relative risks. Separate analyses by <5 and ≥5 years follow-up assessed potential biases related to changes of diet before glioma diagnosis. RESULTS: The 1 262 104 participants (mean age, 60.6 y [SD 5.5] at baseline) were followed for 15.4 million person-years (mean 12.2 y/participant), during which 2313 incident gliomas occurred, at mean age 68.2 (SD 6.4). Overall, there was weak evidence for increased glioma risks associated with increasing intakes of total fruit, citrus fruit, and fiber and healthy dietary patterns, but these associations were generally null after excluding the first 5 years of follow-up. There was little evidence for heterogeneity of results by study or by sex. CONCLUSIONS: The largest prospective evidence to date suggests little, if any, association between major food groups, nutrients, or common healthy dietary patterns and glioma incidence. With the statistical power of this study and the comprehensive nature of the investigation here, it seems unlikely we have overlooked major effects of diet on risk of glioma that would be of public health concern.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Dieta/tendências , Glioma/diagnóstico , Glioma/epidemiologia , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/dietoterapia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glioma/dietoterapia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 3(3): pkz043, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566895

RESUMO

Excess sarcoma risks after childhood cancer are well established, but risks among young adulthood cancer survivors are poorly understood. Using US population-based cancer registry data, we compared bone and soft-tissue sarcoma risk vs the general population among 186 351 individuals who were diagnosed with nonsarcoma first primary malignancies at ages 20-39 years from 1975 to 2014 (follow-up through 2015) and survived at least 1 year. Bone sarcomas were rare (n = 50), but risk was statistically significantly elevated overall (2.9-fold) and greater than fivefold after Hodgkin lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and central nervous system tumors. Soft-tissue sarcomas were more common (n = 284) and risks were statistically significantly elevated approximately twofold overall and after melanoma and carcinomas of the breast, thyroid, and testis, and greater than fourfold after Hodgkin lymphoma and central nervous system tumors. Risks varied markedly by subtype, with the highest risks (greater than fourfold) for osteosarcoma and the soft-tissue subtypes of rhabdomyosarcoma and blood vessel and nerve sheath sarcomas. These data demonstrate elevated risk for sarcoma after a range of young adulthood cancers.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 144(9): 2144-2152, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474210

RESUMO

In Japan, cervical cancer incidence has increased since the late 1990s especially among young women, despite a decreasing trend in most developed countries. Here, we examined age, period and birth cohort trends in cervical cancer incidence rates from 1985 to 2012. Incidence rates were ascertained using three population-based cancer registries and analyzed using Joinpoint regression and age-period-cohort models. We compared the findings in Japan to trends among Japanese-Americans in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registries and among women in South Korea using the Korea Central Registry. Age-standardized incidence rates in Japan decreased by 1.7% per year (95% confidence interval - 3.3%, 0.0%) until 1997 and thereafter increased by 2.6% per year (1.1%, 4.2%). Incidence rates increased among women under age 50, were stable among women aged 50-54, and decreased or remained stable among women aged 55 and over. The age-standardized incidence rate ratio by birth cohort showed a U-shaped pattern with the lowest rates in women born in the late 1930s and 1940s. In comparison, women born before 1920 and after 1970 had about double the incidence. Increasing risk in recent birth cohorts was not evident in Japanese-American or South Korean women. The trends in Japan may be attributable to increasing prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among young women. Screening and vaccination have been shown to be highly effective and would help reverse these trends.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Sistema de Registros , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(3): 522-530, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain and other central nervous system (CNS) cancers are the leading cause of U.S. pediatric cancer mortality. Incidence trends can provide etiologic insight. We report trends in incidence rates of pediatric malignant CNS cancers and pilocytic astrocytoma (nonmalignant but historically registered) in the United States. METHODS: Age-standardized incidence rates and annual percent changes (APC) in rates during 1998 to 2013 were calculated for children aged 0 to 19, stratified by subtype, age, sex, and for gliomas, histology and location. We estimated the absolute change in number of cases diagnosed U.S.-wide during 2013 compared with the expected number of cases had 1998 rates remained stable. RESULTS: Rates of all pediatric malignant CNS cancer combined (n = 18,612) did not change [APC: 0.16; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.21-0.53]. There were statistically significant changes in several subtypes; however, glioma incidence (n = 10,664) increased by 0.77% per year (95% CI: 0.29-1.26), embryonal cancer rates (n = 5,423) decreased by 0.88% per year (95% CI: -1.33 to -0.43), and pilocytic astrocytoma rates (n = 6,858) increased by 0.89% per year (95% CI: 0.21-1.58). Of the 1,171 malignant tumors and 450 pilocytic astrocytomas diagnosed in U.S. children in 2013, we estimated 120 excess gliomas, 94 excess pilocytic astrocytomas, and 72 fewer embryonal CNS tumors than would be expected had 1998 rates remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: The gradual changes in incidence we observed for specific types of pediatric CNS cancers are likely due to a combination of changes in classification and diagnosis and true changes in CNS cancer. IMPACT: Continued surveillance of pediatric CNS tumors should remain a priority, given their significant contribution to pediatric cancer-related deaths.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Programa de SEER/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Lancet Public Health ; 3(8): e374-e384, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30037721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although life expectancy has been projected to increase across high-income countries, gains for the USA are anticipated to be among the smallest, and overall US death rates actually increased from 2014 to 2015, with divergence for specific US populations. Therefore, projecting future premature mortality is essential for clinical and public health service planning, curbing rapidly increasing causes of death, and sustaining progress in declining causes of death. We aimed to project premature mortality (here defined as deaths of individuals aged 25-64 years) trends through 2030, and to estimate the total number of projected deaths, the projected number of potential years of life lost due to premature mortality, and the effect of reducing projected accidental death rates by 2% per year. METHODS: We obtained death certificate data for the US population aged 25-64 years for 1990-2015 from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics. We obtained US mortality data for 2016 for non-American Indian or Alaska native groups from CDC WONDER; data for 2016 were not available for American Indians or Alaska natives. Our analysis focused on all-cause premature mortality and the commonest causes of premature death (cancer, heart disease, accidents, suicide, and chronic liver disease or cirrhosis) among white, black, Hispanic, Asian or Pacific islanders, and American Indian or Alaska native men and women. We estimated age-standardised premature mortality and corresponding annual percentage changes for 2017-30 by sex and race or ethnic origin by use of age-period-cohort forecasting models. We also did a sensitivity analysis projecting future mortality from cross-sectional mortality and a JoinPoint of the (log) period rate ratio curve. We calculated absolute death counts by use of corresponding age-specific and year-specific US census population projections, and estimated years of potential life lost. FINDINGS: During 2017-30, all-cause deaths are projected to increase among white women and American Indians or Alaska natives, resulting in 239 700 excess premature deaths relative to 2017 rates (a 10% increase). Mortality declines in white men and black, Hispanic, and Asian or Pacific islander men and women will result in 945 900 fewer deaths (a 14% reduction). Cancer mortality rates are projected to decline among white, black, Hispanic, and Asian or Pacific islander women and men, with the largest declines among black women (age-standardised premature mortality rate 2016: 104·5 deaths per 100 000 woman-years; 2030: 77·1 per 100 000 woman-years) and men (2016: 116·8 per 100 000 man-years; 2030: 81·6 per 100 000 man-years). Heart disease death rates are projected to increase in American Indian or Alaska native men (2015: 150·9 per 100 000 man-years; 2030: 175·9 per 100 000 man-years) and decline in other groups, albeit only slightly in white (2016: 35·6 per 100 000 woman-years; 2030: 31·1 per 100 000 woman-years) and American Indian or Alaska native women (2015: 64·4 per 100 000 woman-years; 2030: 62·8 per 100 000 woman-years). Accidental death rates are projected to increase in all US populations except Asian or Pacific islander women, and will increase most rapidly among white women (2030: 60·5 per 100 000 woman-years) and men (2030: 101·9 per 100 000 man-years) and American Indian or Alaska native women (2030: 97·5 per 100 000 woman-years) and men (2030: 298·7 per 100 000 man-years). Suicide rates are projected to increase for all groups, and chronic liver disease and cirrhosis deaths are projected to increase for all groups except black men. A 2% per year reduction in projected accidental deaths would eliminate an estimated 178 700 deaths during 2017-30. INTERPRETATION: To reduce future premature mortality, effective interventions are needed to address rapidly rising mortality rates due to accidents, suicides, and chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. FUNDING: National Cancer Institute Intramural Research Program.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Adulto , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Mortalidade Prematura/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Radiat Res ; 190(4): 433-444, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044713

RESUMO

The importance of reproductive history in breast tissue development and etiology of sporadic breast cancer in females is well established. However, there is limited evidence of factors, other than age, that modify risk of radiation-related breast cancer. In this study, we evaluated breast cancer incidence in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors, adding 11 years of follow-up and incorporating reproductive history data. We used Poisson regression models to describe radiation risks and modifying effects of age and reproductive factors. Among 62,534 females, we identified 1,470 breast cancers between 1958 and 2009. Of 397 new cases diagnosed since 1998, 75% were exposed before age 20. We found a strong linear dose response with excess relative risk (ERR) of 1.12 per Gy [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73 to 1.59] for females at age 70 after exposure at age 30. The ERR decreased with increasing attained age ( P = 0.007) while excess absolute rate (EAR) increased with attained age up to age 70 ( P < 0.001). Age at menarche was a strong modifier of the radiation effect: for a given dose, both the ERR and EAR decreased with increasing age at menarche ( P = 0.007 and P < 0.001). Also, independently, age-at-exposure effects on ERR and EAR differed before and after menarche ( P = 0.043 and P = 0.015, respectively, relative to log-linear trends), with highest risks for exposures around menarche. Despite the small number of male breast cancers (n = 10), the data continue to suggest a dose response (ERR per Gy = 5.7; 95% CI: 0.3 to 30.8; P = 0.018). Persistently increased risk of female breast cancer after radiation exposure and its modification pattern suggests heightened breast sensitivity during puberty.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Armas Nucleares , Sobreviventes , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição à Radiação
15.
Radiat Res ; 189(1): 5-18, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29136393

RESUMO

This commentary summarizes the presentations and discussions from the 2016 Gilbert W. Beebe symposium "30 years after the Chernobyl accident: Current and future studies on radiation health effects." The symposium was hosted by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (the National Academies). The symposium focused on the health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, looking retrospectively at what has been learned and prospectively at potential future discoveries using emerging 21st Century research methodologies.


Assuntos
Acidente Nuclear de Chernobyl , Lesões por Radiação/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/psicologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Lesões por Radiação/psicologia , Radiobiologia
16.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 178(1): 116-121, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28981878

RESUMO

Despite decades of epidemiological research, it remains uncertain whether ionizing radiation can cause lymphomas. Most epidemiological studies of lymphoma risk following non-uniform exposure used dose to red bone marrow (RBM), constituting a small fraction of the lymphocytes, as a surrogate of dose to the lymphocytes. We developed a method to estimate dose to the lymphocytes using the reference distribution of lymphocytes throughout the body and Monte Carlo simulations of computational human phantoms. We applied our method to estimating lymphocyte doses for a pediatric CT patient cohort in the United Kingdom. Estimated dose to the RBM was greater than lymphocyte dose for most scan types (up to 2.6-fold higher, a 5-year-old brain scan) except abdomen scan (RBM dose was about half the lymphocyte dose, a 5-year-old abdomen scan). The lymphocyte dose in the UK cohort showed that T-spine and whole body scans delivered the highest lymphocyte doses (up to 22.4 mGy).


Assuntos
Linfócitos/efeitos da radiação , Doses de Radiação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Método de Monte Carlo , Imagens de Fantasmas , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
18.
Br J Haematol ; 166(5): 667-76, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24861847

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare but highly fatal malignancy. High body weight is associated with this cancer, but several questions remain regarding the aetiological relevance of timing and location of body weight. To address these questions, we conducted a pooled analysis of MM mortality using 1·5 million participants (including 1388 MM deaths) from 20 prospective cohorts in the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium. Proportional hazards regression was used to calculate pooled multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Associations with elevated MM mortality were observed for higher early-adult body mass index (BMI; HR = 1·22, 95% CI: 1·09-1·35 per 5 kg/m(2) ) and for higher cohort-entry BMI (HR 1·09, 95% CI: 1·03-1·16 per 5 kg/m(2) ) and waist circumference (HR = 1·06, 95% CI: 1·02-1·10 per 5 cm). Women who were the heaviest, both in early adulthood (BMI 25+) and at cohort entry (BMI 30+) were at greater risk compared to those with BMI 18·5 ≤ 25 at both time points (HR = 1·95, 95% CI: 1·33-2·86). Waist-to-hip ratio and height were not associated with MM mortality. These observations suggest that overall, and possibly also central, obesity influence myeloma mortality, and women have the highest risk of death from this cancer if they remain heavy throughout adulthood.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Mieloma Múltiplo/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 7(4): 418-25, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24449056

RESUMO

The higher incidence of thyroid cancer in women compared with men suggests an influence of sex steroid hormones in the etiology of this malignancy. We investigated a comprehensive set of potential indicators of lifetime sex steroid hormone exposure in relation to thyroid cancer risk. Using data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, which enrolled 70,047 women, 50 to 78 years old, we prospectively examined associations of self-reported history of benign breast and gynecologic conditions, reproductive factors, and exogenous sex hormone use with thyroid cancer risk. Multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated in models using age as the time metric. During follow-up (median, 11 years), 127 women were diagnosed with first primary thyroid cancer. Older age at natural menopause (≥55 vs. <50 years; HR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.20-4.18), greater estimated lifetime number of ovulatory cycles (≥490 vs. <415 cycles; HR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.33-4.30), greater number of live births (≥5 vs. 1-2; HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.05-2.82), and history of uterine fibroids (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.18-2.50) were associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer. Earlier age at menarche, greater number of reproductive years, history of a tubal ligation, and history of ovarian cysts were nonsignificantly associated with increased thyroid cancer risk. No associations were observed for oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy, or history of benign breast disease or endometriosis. In general, we found that factors reflecting a greater length of exposure to endogenous hormones, particularly during the reproductive years, were associated with risk of postmenopausal thyroid cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Carcinoma Papilar/etiologia , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/complicações , História Reprodutiva , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/etiologia , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Papilar/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Papilar/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/patologia , Humanos , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
20.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 22(1): 260-8, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23512729

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In a large prospective cohort, we examined the relationship of body mass index (BMI) with mortality among blacks and compared the results to those among whites in this population. DESIGN AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 7,446 non-Hispanic black and 130,598 white participants, ages 49-78 at enrollment, in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. BMI at baseline, BMI at age 20, and BMI change were calculated using self-reported and recalled height and weight. Relative risks were stratified by race and sex and adjusted for age, education, marital status, and smoking. RESULTS: During follow-up, 1,495 black and 18,236 white participants died (mean = 13 years). Clear J-shaped associations between BMI and mortality were observed among white men and women. Among black men and women, the bottoms of these curves were flatter, and increasing risks of death with greater BMI were observed only at higher BMI levels (≥35.0). Associations for BMI at age 20 and BMI change also appeared to be stronger in magnitude in whites versus blacks, and these racial differences appeared to be more pronounced among women. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that BMI may be more weakly associated with mortality in blacks, particularly black women, than in whites.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Mortalidade/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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