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1.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 213: 105270, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487976

RESUMO

Developmental studies have shown that infants exploit ordinal information to extract and generalize repetition-based rules from a sequence of items. Within the visual modality, this ability is constrained by the spatial layout within which items are delivered given that a left-to-right orientation boosts infants' rule learning, whereas a right-to-left orientation hinders this ability. Infants' rule learning operates across different domains and can also be transferred across modalities when learning is triggered by speech. However, no studies have investigated whether the transfer of rule learning occurs across different domains when language is not involved. Using a visual habituation procedure, we tested 7-month-old infants' ability to extract rule-like patterns from numerical sequences and generalize them to non-numerical sequences of visual shapes and whether this ability is affected by the spatial orientation. Infants were first habituated to left-to-right or right-to-left oriented numerical sequences instantiating an ABB rule and were then tested with the familiar rule instantiated across sequences of single geometrical shapes and a novel (ABA) rule. Results showed a transfer of learning from number to visual shapes for left-to-right oriented sequences but not for right-to-left oriented ones (Experiment 1) even when the direction of the numerical change (increasing vs. decreasing) within the habituation sequences violated a small-left/large-right number-space association (Experiment 2). These results provide the first demonstration that visual rule learning mechanisms in infancy operate at a high level of abstraction and confirm earlier findings that left-to-right oriented directional cues facilitate infants' representation of order.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Fala , Humanos , Lactente , Idioma , Percepção Espacial
2.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 215: 105326, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34883319

RESUMO

Adults present a large number of asymmetries in visuospatial behavior that are known to be supported by functional brain lateralization. Although there is evidence of lateralization for motor behavior and language processing in infancy, no study has explored visuospatial attention biases in the early stages of development. In this study, we tested for the presence of a leftward visuospatial bias (i.e., pseudoneglect) in 4- and 5-month-old infants using an adapted version of the line bisection task. Infants were trained to identify the center of a horizontal line (Experiment 1) while their eye gazes were monitored using a remote eye-tracking procedure to measure their potential gazing error. Infants exhibited a robust pseudoneglect, gazing leftward with respect to the veridical midpoint of the horizontal line. To investigate whether infants' pseudoneglect generalizes to any given object or is dependent on the horizontal dimension, in Experiment 2 we assessed infants' gaze deployment in vertically oriented lines. No leftward bias was found, suggesting that early visuospatial attention biases in infancy are constrained by the orientation of the visual plane in which the information is organized. The interplay between biological and cultural factors that might contribute to the early establishment of the observed leftward bias in the allocation of visuospatial attention is discussed.

3.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 15: 750964, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671249

RESUMO

Numbers are mapped onto space from birth on, as evidenced by a variety of interactions between the processing of numerical and spatial information. In particular, larger numbers are associated to larger spatial extents (number/spatial extent mapping) and to rightward spatial locations (number/location mapping), and smaller numbers are associated to smaller spatial extents and leftward spatial locations. These two main types of number/space mappings (number/spatial extent and number/location mappings) are usually assumed to reflect the fact that numbers are represented on an internal continuum: the mental number line. However, to date there is very little evidence that these two mappings actually reflect a single representational object. Across two experiments in adults, we investigated the interaction between number/location and number/spatial extent congruency effects, both when numbers were presented in a non-symbolic and in a symbolic format. We observed a significant interaction between the two mappings, but only in the context of an implicit numerical task. The results were unaffected by the format of presentation of numbers. We conclude that the number/location and the number/spatial extent mappings can stem from the activation of a single representational object, but only in specific experimental contexts.

4.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1477(1): 71-78, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808292

RESUMO

Forty-eight newborn infants were tested in one of three multimodal stimulus conditions, in which auditory quantities were presented alongside visual object arrays in two test trials. These tests varied with respect to which side (either left or right) numerically matched the auditory number. The infants looked longer to the test trials in which the left side of the visual display exhibited a quantity that matched the presented auditory quantity. This study provides the first evidence for an untrained, innate bias for humans to preferentially process quantity information presented in the left field of vision.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
5.
Cognition ; 195: 104091, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739006

RESUMO

The ability to discriminate the ordinal information embedded in magnitude-based sequences has been shown in 4-month-old infants, both for numerical and size-based sequences. At this early age, however, this ability is confined to increasing sequences, with infants failing to extract and represent decreasing order. Here we investigate whether the ability to represent order extends to duration-based sequences in 4-month-old infants, and whether it also shows the asymmetry signature previously observed for number and size. Infants were tested in an order discrimination task in which they were habituated to either increasing or decreasing variations in temporal duration, and were then tested with novel sequences composed of new temporal items whose durations varied following the familiar and the novel orders in alternation. Across three experiments, we manipulated the duration of the single temporal items and therefore of the whole sequences, which resulted in imposing more or less constraints on infants' working memory, or general processing capacities. Results showed that infants failed at discriminating the ordinal direction in temporal sequences when the sequences had an overall long duration (Experiment 1), but succeeded when the duration of the sequences was shortened (Experiments 2 and 3). Moreover, there was no sign of the asymmetry signature previously reported for number and size, as successful discrimination was present for infants habituated to both increasing and decreasing sequences. These results suggest that sensitivity to temporal order is present very early in development, and that its functional properties are not shared with other magnitude dimensions, such as size and number.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia , Habituação Psicofisiológica/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
6.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223192, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574110

RESUMO

Human neonates spontaneously associate changes in magnitude across the dimensions of number, length, and duration. Do these particular associations generalize to other pairs of magnitudes in the same way at birth, or do they reflect an early predisposition to expect specific relations between spatial, temporal, and numerical representations? To begin to answer this question, we investigated how strongly newborns associated auditory sequences changing in number/duration with visual objects changing in levels of brightness. We tested forty-eight newborn infants in one of three, bimodal stimulus conditions in which auditory numbers/durations increased or decreased from a familiarization trial to the two test trials. Auditory numbers/durations were paired with visual objects in familiarization that remained the same on one test trial but changed in luminance/contrast or shape on the other. On average, results indicated that newborns looked longer when changes in brightness accompanied the number/duration change as compared to no change, a preference that was most consistent when the brightness change was congruent with the number/duration change. For incongruent changes, this preference depended on trial order. Critically, infants showed no preference for a shape change over no shape change, indicating that infants likely treated brightness differently than a generic feature. Though this performance pattern is somewhat similar to previously documented associations, these findings suggest that cross-magnitude associations among number, length, and duration may be more specialized at birth, rather than emerge gradually from postnatal experience or maturation.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa
7.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 179: 260-275, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30562633

RESUMO

When adding or subtracting quantities, adults tend to overestimate addition outcomes and underestimate subtraction outcomes. They also shift visuospatial attention to the right when adding and to the left when subtracting. These operational momentum phenomena are thought to reflect an underlying representation in which small magnitudes are associated with the left side of space and large magnitudes with the right side of space. Currently, there is limited research on operational momentum in early childhood or for operations other than addition and subtraction. The current study tested whether English-speaking 3- and 4-year-old children and college-aged adults exhibit operational momentum when ordering quantities. Participants were presented with two experimental blocks. In one block of trials, they were tasked with choosing the same quantity they had previously seen three times; in the other block, they were asked to generate the next quantity in a doubling sequence composed of three ascending quantities. A bias to shift attention to the right after an ascending operation was found in both age groups, and a bias to overestimate the next sequential quantity during an ascending ordering operation was found in adults under conditions of uncertainty. These data suggest that, for children, the spatial biases during operating are more pronounced than the mis-estimation biases. These findings highlight the spatial underpinnings of operational momentum and suggest that both very young children and adults conceptualize quantity along a horizontal continuum during ordering operations, even before formal schooling.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito/fisiologia , Matemática/métodos , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Atenção/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Cortex ; 114: 17-27, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30219571

RESUMO

A current intense discussion in numerical cognition concerns the relationship between the processing of numerosity and other non-numerical quantities. In particular, it is a matter of debate whether number and other quantities (e.g., size, length) are represented separately in the brain or whether they share a common generalized magnitude representation. We acquired high-resolution functional MRI data while adult subjects engaged in a magnitude comparison task involving either numerosity (i.e., which of the two sets has more elements?) or line length (i.e., which of the two lines is longer?). We compared the activation evoked by the two different types of quantity and observed a common recruitment of a vast portion of occipital and parietal cortices. Using MVPA, we demonstrated that some of the commonly activated regions represented the discrete and continuous quantities via a similar distance-dependent magnitude code. However, we found no effect of distance across the two quantity representations, failing to support the existence of a common, dimension invariant, generalized quantity code. Taken together, these findings indicate that although the processing of number and length is supported by partially overlapping neural resources, representations within these regions do not appear to be based on a common neural code.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
10.
Curr Biol ; 27(24): 3879-3884.e2, 2017 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29225024

RESUMO

Humans use spatial representations to structure abstract concepts [1]. One of the most well-known examples is the "mental number line"-the propensity to imagine numbers oriented in space [2, 3]. Human infants [4, 5], children [6, 7], adults [8], and nonhuman animals [9, 10] associate small numbers with the left side of space and large numbers with the right. In humans, cultural artifacts, such as the direction of reading and writing, modulate the directionality of this representation, with right-to-left reading cultures associating small numbers with right and large numbers with left [11], whereas the opposite association permeates left-to-right reading cultures [8]. Number-space mapping plays a central role in human mathematical concepts [12], but its origins remain unclear: is it the result of an innate bias or does it develop after birth? Infant humans are passively exposed to a spatially coded environment, so experience and culture could underlie the mental number line. To rule out this possibility, we tested neonates' responses to small or large auditory quantities paired with geometric figures presented on either the left or right sides of the screen. We show that 0- to 3-day-old neonates associate a small quantity with the left and a large quantity with the right when the multidimensional stimulus contains discrete numerical information, providing evidence that representations of number are associated to an oriented space at the start of postnatal life, prior to experience with language, culture, or with culture-specific biases.


Assuntos
Conceitos Matemáticos , Percepção Espacial , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
11.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 2437, 2017 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28550288

RESUMO

A wealth of studies show that human adults map ordered information onto a directional spatial continuum. We asked whether mapping ordinal information into a directional space constitutes an early predisposition, already functional prior to the acquisition of symbolic knowledge and language. While it is known that preverbal infants represent numerical order along a left-to-right spatial continuum, no studies have investigated yet whether infants, like adults, organize any kind of ordinal information onto a directional space. We investigated whether 7-month-olds' ability to learn high-order rule-like patterns from visual sequences of geometric shapes was affected by the spatial orientation of the sequences (left-to-right vs. right-to-left). Results showed that infants readily learn rule-like patterns when visual sequences were presented from left to right, but not when presented from right to left. This result provides evidence that spatial orientation critically determines preverbal infants' ability to perceive and learn ordered information in visual sequences, opening to the idea that a left-to-right spatially organized mental representation of ordered dimensions might be rooted in biologically-determined constraints on human brain development.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Orientação Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Viés , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Distribuição Aleatória
12.
Behav Brain Sci ; 40: e169, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29342652

RESUMO

Leibovich et al. opened up an important discussion on the nature and origins of numerosity perception. The authors rightly point out that non-numerical features of stimuli influence this ability. Despite these biases, there is evidence that from birth, humans perceive and represent numerosities, and not just non-numerical quantitative features such as item size, density, and convex hull.


Assuntos
Cognição , Percepção , Humanos
13.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 24(2): 352-369, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27488555

RESUMO

It is well known that humans describe and think of numbers as being represented in a spatial configuration, known as the 'mental number line'. The orientation of this representation appears to depend on the direction of writing and reading habits present in a given culture (e.g., left-to-right oriented in Western cultures), which makes this factor an ideal candidate to account for the origins of the spatial representation of numbers. However, a growing number of studies have demonstrated that non-verbal subjects (preverbal infants and non-human animals) spontaneously associate numbers and space. In this review, we discuss evidence showing that pre-verbal infants and non-human animals associate small numerical magnitudes with short spatial extents and left-sided space, and large numerical magnitudes with long spatial extents and right-sided space. Together this evidence supports the idea that a more biologically oriented view can account for the origins of the 'mental number line'. In this paper, we discuss this alternative view and elaborate on how culture can shape a core, fundamental, number-space association.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Matemática , Orientação , Psicologia da Criança , Percepção de Tamanho , Aprendizagem Espacial , Especificidade da Espécie , Animais , Formação de Conceito , Sinais (Psicologia) , Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ilusões Ópticas
14.
Cognition ; 158: 177-188, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27835788

RESUMO

Ordinality is a fundamental aspect of numerical cognition. However, preverbal infants' ability to represent numerical order is poorly understood. In the present study we extended the evidence provided by Macchi Cassia, Picozzi, Girelli, and de Hevia (2012), showing that 4-month-old infants detect ordinal relationships within size-based sequences, to numerical sequences. In three experiments, we showed that at 4months of age infants fail to represent increasing and decreasing numerical order when numerosities differ by a 1:2 ratio (Experiment 1), but they succeed when numerosities differ by a 1:3 ratio (Experiments 2 and 3). Critically, infants showed the same behavioral signature (i.e., asymmetry) described by Macchi Cassia et al. for discrimination of ordinal changes in area: they succeed at detecting increasing but not decreasing order (Experiments 2 and 3). These results support the idea of a common (or at least parallel) development of ordinal representation for the two quantitative dimensions of size and number. Moreover, the finding that the asymmetry signature, previously reported for size-based sequences, extends to numerosity, points to the existence of a common constraint in ordinal magnitude processing in the first months of life. The present findings are discussed in the context of possible evolutionary and developmental sources of the ordinal asymmetry, as well as their implication for other related cognitive abilities.


Assuntos
Cognição , Conceitos Matemáticos , Psicologia da Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos
15.
Sci Rep ; 6: 30114, 2016 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27465742

RESUMO

A large body of literature shows that non-human animals master a variety of numerical tasks, but studies involving proportional discrimination are sparse and primarily done with mature animals. Here we trained 4-day-old domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) to respond to stimuli depicting multiple examples of the proportion 4:1 when compared with the proportion 2:1. Stimuli were composed of green and red dot arrays; for the rewarded 4:1 proportion, 4 green dots for every red dot (e.g. ratios: 32:8, 12:3, and 44:11). The birds continued to discriminate when presented with new ratios at test (such as 20:5), characterized by new numbers of dots and new spatial configurations (Experiment 1). This indicates that chicks can extract the common proportional value shared by different ratios and apply it to new ones. In Experiment 2, chicks identified a specific proportion (2:1) from either a smaller (4:1) or a larger one (1:1), demonstrating an ability to represent the specific, and not relative, value of a particular proportion. Again, at test, chicks selectively responded to the previously reinforced proportion from new ratios. These findings provide strong evidence for very young animals' ability to extract, identify, and productively use proportion information across a range of different amounts.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Aprendizagem por Discriminação/fisiologia , Animais , Cor , Recompensa , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
16.
Psychol Res ; 80(3): 360-7, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26898647

RESUMO

Recent evidence has shown that, like adults and children, 9-month-old infants manifest an operational momentum (OM) effect during non-symbolic arithmetic, whereby they overestimate the outcomes to addition problems, and underestimate the outcomes to subtraction problems. Here we provide the first evidence that OM occurs for transformations of non-numerical magnitudes (i.e., spatial extent) during ordering operations. Twelve-month-old infants were tested in an ordinal task in which they detected and represented ascension or descension in physical size, and then responded to ordinal sequences that exhibited greater or lesser sizes. Infants displayed longer looking time to the size change whose direction violated the operational momentum experienced during habituation (i.e., the smaller sequence in the ascension condition and the larger sequence in the descension condition). The presence of momentum for ordering size during infancy suggests that continuous quantities are represented spatially during the first year of life.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Formação de Conceito , Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Feminino , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
17.
Dev Sci ; 19(3): 394-401, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26074348

RESUMO

Numbers are represented as ordered magnitudes along a spatially oriented number line. While culture and formal education modulate the direction of this number-space mapping, it is a matter of debate whether its emergence is entirely driven by cultural experience. By registering 8-9-month-old infants' eye movements, this study shows that numerical cues are critical in orienting infants' visual attention towards a peripheral region of space that is congruent with the number's relative position on a left-to-right oriented representational continuum. This finding provides the first direct evidence that, in humans, the association between numbers and oriented spatial codes occurs before the acquisition of symbols or exposure to formal education, suggesting that the number line is not merely a product of human invention.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Lactente , Matemática , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Distribuição Aleatória , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 10(3): e0120868, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25798931

RESUMO

Infants are known to possess two different cognitive systems to encode numerical information. The first system encodes approximate numerosities, has no known upper limit and is functional from birth on. The second system relies on infants' ability to track up to 3 objects in parallel, and enables them to represent exact numerosity for such small sets. It is unclear, however, whether infants may be able to represent numerosities from all ranges in a common format. In various studies, infants failed to discriminate a small vs. a large numerosity (e.g., 2 vs. 4, 3 vs. 6), although more recent studies presented evidence that infants can succeed at these discriminations in some situations. Here, we used a transfer paradigm between the tactile and visual modalities in 5-month-olds, assuming that such cross-modal paradigm may promote access to abstract representations of numerosities, continuous across the small and large ranges. Infants were first familiarized with 2 to 4 objects in the tactile modality, and subsequently tested for their preference between 2 vs. 4, or 3 vs. 6 visual objects. Results were mixed, with only partial evidence that infants may have transferred numerical information across modalities. Implications on 5-month-old infants' ability to represent small and large numerosities in a single or in separate formats are discussed.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Tato , Percepção Visual , Análise de Variância , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
19.
PLoS One ; 9(6): e99499, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24932753

RESUMO

A number of studies have shown strong relations between numbers and oriented spatial codes. For example, perceiving numbers causes spatial shifts of attention depending upon numbers' magnitude, in a way suggestive of a spatially oriented, mental representation of numbers. Here, we investigated whether this phenomenon extends to non-symbolic numbers, as well as to the processing of the continuous dimensions of size and brightness, exploring whether different quantitative dimensions are equally mapped onto space. After a numerical (symbolic Arabic digits or non-symbolic arrays of dots; Experiment 1) or a non-numerical cue (shapes of different size or brightness level; Experiment 2) was presented, participants' saccadic response to a target that could appear either on the left or the right side of the screen was registered using an automated eye-tracker system. Experiment 1 showed that, both in the case of Arabic digits and dot arrays, right targets were detected faster when preceded by large numbers, and left targets were detected faster when preceded by small numbers. Participants in Experiment 2 were faster at detecting right targets when cued by large-sized shapes and left targets when cued by small-sized shapes, whereas brightness cues did not modulate the detection of peripheral targets. These findings indicate that looking at a symbolic or a non-symbolic number induces attentional shifts to a peripheral region of space that is congruent with the numbers' relative position on a mental number line, and that a similar shift in visual attention is induced by looking at shapes of different size. More specifically, results suggest that, while the dimensions of number and size spontaneously map onto an oriented space, the dimension of brightness seems to be independent at a certain level of magnitude elaboration from the dimensions of spatial extent and number, indicating that not all continuous dimensions are equally mapped onto space.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial , Simbolismo , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 9(5): e96412, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24802083

RESUMO

While associations between number and space, in the form of a spatially oriented numerical representation, have been extensively reported in human adults, the origins of this phenomenon are still poorly understood. The commonly accepted view is that this number-space association is a product of human invention, with accounts proposing that culture, symbolic knowledge, and mathematics education are at the roots of this phenomenon. Here we show that preverbal infants aged 7 months, who lack symbolic knowledge and mathematics education, show a preference for increasing magnitude displayed in a left-to-right spatial orientation. Infants habituated to left-to-right oriented increasing or decreasing numerical sequences showed an overall higher looking time to new left-to-right oriented increasing numerical sequences at test (Experiment 1). This pattern did not hold when infants were presented with the same ordinal numerical information displayed from right to left (Experiment 2). The different pattern of results was congruent with the presence of a malleable, context-dependent baseline preference for increasing, left-to-right oriented, numerosities (Experiment 3). These findings are suggestive of an early predisposition in humans to link numerical order with a left-to-right spatial orientation, which precedes the acquisition of symbolic abilities, mathematics education, and the acquisition of reading and writing skills.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Idioma , Masculino , Matemática/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Leitura
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