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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150091, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution exposure has been associated with higher mortality risk in numerous studies. We assessed potential variability in the magnitude of this association for non-accidental, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and lung cancer mortality in a country-wide administrative cohort by exposure assessment method and by adjustment for geographic subdivisions. METHODS: We used the Belgian 2001 census linked to population and mortality register including nearly 5.5 million adults aged ≥30 (mean follow-up: 9.97 years). Annual mean concentrations for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC) and ozone (O3) were assessed at baseline residential address using two exposure methods; Europe-wide hybrid land use regression (LUR) models [100x100m], and Belgium-wide interpolation-dispersion (RIO-IFDM) models [25x25m]. We used Cox proportional hazards models with age as the underlying time scale and adjusted for various individual and area-level covariates. We further adjusted main models for two different area-levels following the European Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS); NUTS-1 (n = 3), or NUTS-3 (n = 43). RESULTS: We found no consistent differences between both exposure methods. We observed most robust associations with lung cancer mortality. Hazard Ratios (HRs) per 10 µg/m3 increase for NO2 were 1.060 (95%CI 1.042-1.078) [hybrid LUR] and 1.040 (95%CI 1.022-1.058) [RIO-IFDM]. Associations with non-accidental, respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease mortality were generally null in main models but were enhanced after further adjustment for NUTS-1 or NUTS-3. HRs for non-accidental mortality per 5 µg/m3 increase for PM2.5 for the main model using hybrid LUR exposure were 1.023 (95%CI 1.011-1.035). After including random effects HRs were 1.044 (95%CI 1.033-1.057) [NUTS-1] and 1.076 (95%CI 1.060-1.092) [NUTS-3]. CONCLUSION: Long-term air pollution exposure was associated with higher lung cancer mortality risk but not consistently with the other studied causes. Magnitude of associations varied by adjustment for geographic subdivisions, area-level socio-economic covariates and less by exposure assessment method.

2.
BMJ ; 374: n1904, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between air pollution and mortality, focusing on associations below current European Union, United States, and World Health Organization standards and guidelines. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of eight cohorts. SETTING: Multicentre project Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE) in six European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 325 367 adults from the general population recruited mostly in the 1990s or 2000s with detailed lifestyle data. Stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyse the associations between air pollution and mortality. Western Europe-wide land use regression models were used to characterise residential air pollution concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and black carbon. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Deaths due to natural causes and cause specific mortality. RESULTS: Of 325 367 adults followed-up for an average of 19.5 years, 47 131 deaths were observed. Higher exposure to PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon was associated with significantly increased risk of almost all outcomes. An increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 13% (95% confidence interval 10.6% to 15.5%) increase in natural deaths; the corresponding figure for a 10 µg/m3 increase in nitrogen dioxide was 8.6% (7% to 10.2%). Associations with PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon remained significant at low concentrations. For participants with exposures below the US standard of 12 µg/m3 an increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 29.6% (14% to 47.4%) increase in natural deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our study contributes to the evidence that outdoor air pollution is associated with mortality even at low pollution levels below the current European and North American standards and WHO guideline values. These findings are therefore an important contribution to the debate about revision of air quality limits, guidelines, and standards, and future assessments by the Global Burden of Disease.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
3.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(9): e620-e632, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, but evidence is unclear on the health effects of exposure to pollutant concentrations lower than current EU and US standards and WHO guideline limits. Within the multicentre study Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE), we investigated the associations of long-term exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2·5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon, and warm-season ozone (O3) with the incidence of stroke and acute coronary heart disease. METHODS: We did a pooled analysis of individual data from six population-based cohort studies within ELAPSE, from Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Germany (recruited 1992-2004), and harmonised individual and area-level variables between cohorts. Participants (all adults) were followed up until migration from the study area, death, or incident stroke or coronary heart disease, or end of follow-up (2011-15). Mean 2010 air pollution concentrations from centrally developed European-wide land use regression models were assigned to participants' baseline residential addresses. We used Cox proportional hazards models with increasing levels of covariate adjustment to investigate the association of air pollution exposure with incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease. We assessed the shape of the concentration-response function and did subset analyses of participants living at pollutant concentrations lower than predefined values. FINDINGS: From the pooled ELAPSE cohorts, data on 137 148 participants were analysed in our fully adjusted model. During a median follow-up of 17·2 years (IQR 13·8-19·5), we observed 6950 incident events of stroke and 10 071 incident events of coronary heart disease. Incidence of stroke was associated with PM2·5 (hazard ratio 1·10 [95% CI 1·01-1·21] per 5 µg/m3 increase), NO2 (1·08 [1·04-1·12] per 10 µg/m3 increase), and black carbon (1·06 [1·02-1·10] per 0·5 10-5/m increase), whereas coronary heart disease incidence was only associated with NO2 (1·04 [1·01-1·07]). Warm-season O3 was not associated with an increase in either outcome. Concentration-response curves indicated no evidence of a threshold below which air pollutant concentrations are not harmful for cardiovascular health. Effect estimates for PM2·5 and NO2 remained elevated even when restricting analyses to participants exposed to pollutant concentrations lower than the EU limit values of 25 µg/m3 for PM2·5 and 40 µg/m3 for NO2. INTERPRETATION: Long-term air pollution exposure was associated with incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease, even at pollutant concentrations lower than current limit values. FUNDING: Health Effects Institute.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587471

RESUMO

Rationale Infants born prematurely have impaired capacity to deal with oxidative stress shortly after birth. Objectives We hypothesize that the relative impact of exposure to air pollution on lung function is higher in preterm than in term infants. Methods In the prospective BILD-birth-cohort of 254 preterm and 517 term infants, we investigated associations of particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide with lung function at 44 weeks postconceptional age and exhaled markers of inflammation and oxidative stress response (fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO)) in an explorative hypothesis-driven study design. Multilevel mixed-effects models were used and adjusted for known confounders. Measurements and Main Results Significant associations of PM10 during the second trimester of pregnancy with lung function and FeNO were found in term and preterm infants. Importantly, we observed stronger positive associations in preterm infants (born 32 - 36 weeks), with an increase of [184.9 (79.1, 290.7) mL/min] minute ventilation per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10 than in term infants [75.3 (19.7, 130.8) mL/min] (pprematurity × PM10 interaction = 0.04, after multiple comparison adjustment padj = 0.09). Associations of PM10 and FeNO differed between moderate to late preterm [3.4 (-0.1, 6.8) ppb] and term [-0.3 (-1.5, 0.9) ppb] infants, the interaction with prematurity was significant (pprematurity × PM10 interaction = 0.006, padj = 0.036). Conclusion Preterm infants showed significant higher susceptibility even to low-to-moderate prenatal air pollution exposure than term infants, leading to increased impairment of postnatal lung function. FeNO results further elucidate differences in inflammatory/oxidative stress response comparing preterms to terms.

5.
Environ Pollut ; 291: 118066, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536646

RESUMO

Ambient air pollution is the leading cause of environmental mortality and morbidity worldwide. However, the individual contributions to acute mortality of traffic-related air pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are still debated. We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study for a population located around Zurich airport in Switzerland, including 24,886 adult cardiovascular deaths from the Swiss National Cohort. We estimated the risk of cause-specific cardiovascular mortality associated with daily NO2 and PM2.5 concentrations at home using distributed lag models up to 7 days preceding death, adjusted for daily temperature, precipitation, acute night-time aircraft noise, firework celebrations, and holidays. Cardiovascular mortality was associated with NO2, whereas the association with PM2.5 disappeared upon adjustment for NO2. The strongest association was observed between NO2 and ischemic stroke mortality (odds ratio = 1.55 per 10 µg/m3, 95% confidence intervals = 1.20-2.00). Cause-specific mortality analyses showed differences in terms of delayed effect: odds ratios were highest at 1-3 days after exposure for most outcomes but at lags of 3-5 days for heart failure. Individual vulnerabilities to NO2 associated cardiovascular mortality also varied by cause of death, possibly highlighting the role of different behaviours and risk factors in the most susceptible groups. The risk of cardiovascular mortality was also increased on firework days and after public holidays, independent from NO2 and PM2.5 concentrations. This study confirms the association between ambient NO2, as a marker for primary emissions, and acute cardiovascular mortality in a specific setting around a major airport. Future research should clarify the role of additional air pollutants including ultra-fine particles on cardiovascular diseases to inform most efficient control measures.

6.
Environ Pollut ; 289: 117832, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution is a major global public health problem. The situation is most severe in low- and middle-income countries, where pollution control measures and monitoring systems are largely lacking. Data to quantify the exposure to air pollution in low-income settings are scarce. METHODS: In this study, land use regression models (LUR) were developed to predict the outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration in the study area of the Western Region Birth Cohort in São Paulo. NO2 measurements were performed for one week in winter and summer at eighty locations. Additionally, weekly measurements at one regional background location were performed over a full one-year period to create an annual prediction. RESULTS: Three LUR models were developed (annual, summer, winter) by using a supervised stepwise linear regression method. The winter, summer and annual models explained 52 %, 75 % and 66 % of the variance (R2) respectively. Cross-holdout validation tests suggest robust models. NO2 levels ranged from 43.2 µg/m3 to 93.4 µg/m3 in the winter and between 28.1 µg/m3 and 72.8 µg/m3 in summer. Based on our annual prediction, about 67 % of the population living in the study area is exposed to NO2 values over the WHO suggested annual guideline of 40 µg/m3 annual average. CONCLUSION: In this study we were able to develop robust models to predict NO2 residential exposure. We could show that average measures, and therefore the predictions of NO2, in such a complex urban area are substantially high and that a major variability within the area and especially within the season is present. These findings also suggest that in general a high proportion of the population is exposed to high NO2 levels.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Brasil , Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
7.
Environ Int ; 157: 106839, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rhinitis is one of the most common disease worldwide with a high and increasing prevalence. There is limited knowledge on the link between long-term exposure to air pollution and rhinitis. OBJECTIVES: We aim to study the associations between long-term exposure to air pollutants and self-reported current rhinitis among adults from Constances, a large French population-based cohort. METHODS: Current rhinitis was defined at inclusion from questionnaire by the presence of sneezing, runny or blocked nose in the last 12 months without a cold or the flu. Annual concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) were estimated at the participants' residential address by European land-use regression models. Cross-sectional associations between annual exposure to each air pollutant and current rhinitis were estimated using logistic models adjusted for age, sex, smoking, education level and French deprivation index. The health prevention centers were taken into account by marginal models with generalized estimating equations. Several supplementary analyses were performed. RESULTS: Analyses were performed on 127,108 participants (47 years old on average, 54% women, 19% current smokers). The prevalence of current rhinitis, allergic (AR) and non-allergic (NAR) rhinitis were 36%, 25% and 11% respectively. Adjusted ORs for current rhinitis were 1.13 (1.08, 1.17), 1.12 (1.07, 1.17), and 1.11 (1.06, 1.17) per one interquartile range increase of PM2.5 (4.85 µg/m3), BC (0.88 · 10-5 m-1) and NO2 (17.3 µg/m3) respectively. Significant and positive associations were also found for both AR and NAR. Results were similar in men and women, and in the different smoking strata, and were consistent with meta-analysis or after imputing missing covariates. DISCUSSION: An increase of modeled annual average residential exposure to PM2.5, BC, and NO2 was significantly associated with an increase of prevalence of current rhinitis in adults in the French general population. The results suggest that among air pollutants, BC may be of special interest.

8.
Environ Int ; 157: 106805, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current evidence on health effects of long-term exposure to outdoor airborne black carbon (BC) exposure remains scarce. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between long-term exposure to BC and mortality in a large population-based French cohort, with 28 years of follow-up. METHODS: Data from the GAZEL cohort were collected between 1989 and 2017. Land use regression model with temporal extrapolation wa used to estimate yearly BC and PM2.5 exposure at the residential addresses from 1989 until censoring for 19,906 participants. Time-varying Cox models with attained age as time-scale was used to estimate the associations between BC and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, after adjusting for individual and area-level covariates. To handle confounding by PM2.5, we used the residual of BC regressed on PM2.5 as an alternate exposure variable. For all-cause mortality, we also examined effect modification by sex, smoking status, BMI and fruit/vegetable intake. RESULTS: The median of 20-year moving average of BC exposure was 2.02 10-5/m in study population. We found significant associations between BC exposure and all-cause mortality (n = 2357) using both 20-year moving average of BC and residual of BC, with corresponding hazard ratios (HR) of 1.14 (95 %CI: 1.07-1.22) and 1.17 (95 %CI: 1.10-1.24) for an inter-quartile range (IQR) increase (0.86 10-5/m for BC and 0.57 10-5/m for residual of BC). We found a similar association between BC and cardiovascular mortality (n = 277) with a HR of 1.15 (95 %CI: 0.95-1.38). The dose-response relationship between BC and all-cause mortality was monotonic but nonlinear with a steeper slope at high BC levels. In addition, the effect of BC was higher among never-smokers and among those having fruit/vegetables less than twice a week. CONCLUSIONS: There was a positive association between long-term exposure to BC and increased mortality risk, reinforcing the emerging evidence that BC is a harmful component of PM2.5.

9.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w20544, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375987

RESUMO

Respiratory disease is common in children and strongly associated with lifestyle and environmental exposures. Thus, it is important to study the epidemiology locally. The LuftiBus in the School (LUIS) study was set up to assess the respiratory health of schoolchildren in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland. LUIS is a cross-sectional population-based study that was carried out 2013 to 2016. Children aged 6–17 years living in the canton of Zurich were eligible to participate. All schools in the canton were approached and the school head decided whether the school would participate and with which classes. Consenting parents answered a standardised questionnaire at home and assenting children completed a shorter questionnaire by interview at school. Trained technicians measured children’s lung function, including spirometry, double tracer gas single-breath washout (DTG-SBW) and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Address histories of participants were geocoded to be linked with area-based socioeconomic measures and environmental exposures such as spatiotemporal air pollution estimates for specific time periods and locations. A subgroup was seen again 12 months later using the same procedures to collect longitudinal data. The study included 3870 children at baseline and 655 at the 1-year follow-up. Median age was 12.7 years; 281 (8%) had wheezed in the past year. At baseline we collected 3457 (89%) parental and 3546 (92%) child questionnaires, and 3393 (88%) FeNO, 3446 (89%) spirometry, and 1795 (46%) DTG-SBW measurements. LUIS is a rich resource of health-related data, with information on lung function, environmental exposures and respiratory health on Swiss schoolchildren.

10.
Environ Res ; 202: 111633, 2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution and greenness are associated with short- and long-term respiratory health in children but the underlying mechanisms are only scarcely investigated. The nasal microbiota during the first year of life has been shown to be associated with respiratory tract infections and asthma development. Thus, an interplay between greenness, air pollution and the early nasal microbiota may contribute to short- and long-term respiratory health. We aimed to examine associations between fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and greenness with the nasal microbiota of healthy infants during the first year of life in a European context with low-to-moderate air pollution levels. METHODS: Microbiota characterization was performed using 16 S rRNA pyrosequencing of 846 nasal swabs collected fortnightly from 47 healthy infants of the prospective Basel-Bern Infant Lung Development (BILD) cohort. We investigated the association of satellite-based greenness and an 8-day-average exposure to air pollution (PM2.5, NO2) with the nasal microbiota during the first year of life. Exposures were individually estimated with novel spatial-temporal models incorporating satellite data. Generalized additive mixed models adjusted for known confounders and considering the autoregressive correlation structure of the data were used for analysis. RESULTS: Mean (SD) PM2.5 level was 17.1 (3.8 µg/m3) and mean (SD) NO2 level was 19.7 (7.9 µg/m3). Increased PM2.5 and increased NO2 were associated with reduced within-subject Ruzicka dissimilarity (PM2.5: per 1 µg/m3 -0.004, 95% CI -0.008, -0.001; NO2: per 1 µg/m3 -0.004, 95% CI -0.007, -0.001). Whole microbial community comparison with nonmetric multidimensional scaling revealed distinct microbiota profiles for different PM2.5 exposure levels. Increased NO2 was additionally associated with reduced abundance of Corynebacteriaceae (per 1 µg/m3: -0.027, 95% CI -0.053, -0.001). No associations were found between greenness and the nasal microbiota. CONCLUSION: Air pollution was associated with Ruzicka dissimilarity and relative abundance of Corynebacteriaceae. This suggests that even low-to-moderate exposure to air pollution may impact the nasal microbiota during the first year of life. Our results will be useful for future studies assessing the clinical relevance of air-pollution-induced alterations of the nasal microbiota with subsequent respiratory disease development.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 149(11): 1887-1897, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278567

RESUMO

Particulate matter air pollution and diesel engine exhaust have been classified as carcinogenic for lung cancer, yet few studies have explored associations with liver cancer. We used six European adult cohorts which were recruited between 1985 and 2005, pooled within the "Effects of low-level air pollution: A study in Europe" (ELAPSE) project, and followed for the incidence of liver cancer until 2011 to 2015. The annual average exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), particulate matter with diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5 ), black carbon (BC), warm-season ozone (O3 ), and eight elemental components of PM2.5 (copper, iron, zinc, sulfur, nickel, vanadium, silicon, and potassium) were estimated by European-wide hybrid land-use regression models at participants' residential addresses. We analyzed the association between air pollution and liver cancer incidence by Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for potential confounders. Of 330 064 cancer-free adults at baseline, 512 developed liver cancer during a mean follow-up of 18.1 years. We observed positive linear associations between NO2 (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.02-1.35 per 10 µg/m3 ), PM2.5 (1.12, 0.92-1.36 per 5 µg/m3 ), and BC (1.15, 1.00-1.33 per 0.5 10-5 /m) and liver cancer incidence. Associations with NO2 and BC persisted in two-pollutant models with PM2.5 . Most components of PM2.5 were associated with the risk of liver cancer, with the strongest associations for sulfur and vanadium, which were robust to adjustment for PM2.5 or NO2 . Our study suggests that ambient air pollution may increase the risk of liver cancer, even at concentrations below current EU standards.

12.
Eur Respir J ; 57(6)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been linked to childhood-onset asthma, although evidence is still insufficient. Within the multicentre project Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE), we examined the associations of long-term exposures to particulate matter with a diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and black carbon (BC) with asthma incidence in adults. METHODS: We pooled data from three cohorts in Denmark and Sweden with information on asthma hospital diagnoses. The average concentrations of air pollutants in 2010 were modelled by hybrid land-use regression models at participants' baseline residential addresses. Associations of air pollution exposures with asthma incidence were explored with Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of 98 326 participants, 1965 developed asthma during a mean follow-up of 16.6 years. We observed associations in fully adjusted models with hazard ratios of 1.22 (95% CI 1.04-1.43) per 5 µg·m-3 for PM2.5, 1.17 (95% CI 1.10-1.25) per 10 µg·m-3 for NO2 and 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23) per 0.5×10-5 m-1 for BC. Hazard ratios were larger in cohort subsets with exposure levels below the European Union and US limit values and possibly World Health Organization guidelines for PM2.5 and NO2. NO2 and BC estimates remained unchanged in two-pollutant models with PM2.5, whereas PM2.5 estimates were attenuated to unity. The concentration-response curves showed no evidence of a threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to air pollution, especially from fossil fuel combustion sources such as motorised traffic, was associated with adult-onset asthma, even at levels below the current limit values.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Incidência , Material Particulado/análise , Suécia
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 790: 147958, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098271

RESUMO

Since the 2003 heatwave in Europe, evidence has been rapidly increasing on the association between extreme temperature and all-cause mortality. Little is known, however, about cause-specific cardiovascular mortality, effect modification by air pollution and aircraft noise, and which population groups are the most vulnerable to extreme temperature. We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study in Zurich, Switzerland, including all adult cardiovascular deaths between 2000 and 2015 with precise individual exposure estimates at home location. We estimated the risk of 24,884 cardiovascular deaths associated with heat and cold using distributed non-linear lag models. We investigated potential effect modification of temperature-related mortality by fine particles, nitrogen dioxide, and night-time aircraft noise and performed stratified analyses across individual and social characteristics. We found increased risk of mortality for heat (odds ratio OR = 1.28 [95% confidence interval: 1.11-1.49] for 99th percentile of daily Tmean (24 °C) versus optimum temperature at 20 °C) and cold (OR = 1.15 [0.95-1.39], 5th percentile of daily Tmean (-3 °C) versus optimum temperature at 20 °C). Heat-related mortality was particularly strong for myocardial infarctions and hypertension related deaths, and among older women (>75 years). Analysis of effect modification also indicated that older women with lower socio-economic position and education are at higher risk for heat-related mortality. PM2.5 increased the risk of heat-related mortality for heart failure, but not all-cause cardiovascular mortality. This study provides useful information for preventing cause-specific cardiovascular temperature-related mortality in moderate climate zones comparable to Switzerland.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Temperatura Baixa , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Mortalidade , Suíça/epidemiologia , Temperatura
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 787: 147553, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Greenspace exposure has been suggested to be associated with a range of health outcomes. The available evidence on the association of this exposure with cancer is still very scarce and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the association between greenspace exposure and all-site and site-specific (prostate, breast, colorectal, bladder, lung, and malignant melanoma of skin) cancer incidence in the GAZEL cohort. METHODS: This study was based on over 27 years of follow-up (1989-2016) of 19,408 participants across France. We assessed the residential greenspace exposure within several buffers as well as residential proximity to green spaces (agricultural, urban, and forests) in each follow-up. We used time-dependent Cox models, controlling for time-varying personal and area-level variables, with different lags between exposure and outcome. Additional analysis was conducted according to the urban-rural residence of the participants' over follow-up. RESULTS: Over the 294,645 person-years of follow-up, we registered 4075 incident cases of cancer. We found an increase in the risk for all-sites cancer with an inter-quartile range increase of Normalized Difference in Vegetation Index across different buffers (hazard ratio (HR) of 1.08; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.14 for the 100 m buffer). We found a positive association of all-sites cancer with proximity to agricultural lands (HR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.05), and forests (HR:1.04; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.07), but not with urban green spaces. The cancer site-specific analyses suggested a protective role of greenspace for breast, lung, and colorectal cancers (e.g. breast cancer HR at 100 m buffer: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.99). Non-significant associations were observed for prostate, bladder, and skin cancer. Stratified analyses based on urban, semi-urban, and rural classification did not suggest any differential pattern. CONCLUSION: We identified an increased risk of all-site cancer with increased greenspace and proximity to agricultural lands and forests; whereas potential protective role of greenspace for breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Parques Recreativos , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/epidemiologia
15.
Environ Res ; 199: 111231, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971126

RESUMO

Noise pollution has negative health consequences, which becomes increasingly relevant with rapid urbanization. In low- and middle-income countries research on health effects of noise is hampered by scarce exposure data and noise maps. In this study, we developed land use regression (LUR) models to assess spatial variability of community noise in the Western Region of São Paulo, Brazil.We measured outdoor noise levels continuously at 42 homes once or twice for one week in the summer and the winter season. These measurements were integrated with various geographic information system variables to develop LUR models for predicting average A-weighted (dB(A)) day-evening-night equivalent sound levels (Lden) and night sound levels (Lnight). A supervised mixed linear regression analysis was conducted to test potential noise predictors for various buffer sizes and distances between home and noise source. Noise exposure levels in the study area were high with a site average Lden of 69.3 dB(A) ranging from 60.3 to 82.3 dB(A), and a site average Lnight of 59.9 dB(A) ranging from 50.7 to 76.6 dB(A). LUR models had a good fit with a R2 of 0.56 for Lden and 0.63 for Lnight in a leave-one-site-out cross validation. Main predictors of noise were the inverse distance to medium roads, count of educational facilities within a 400 m buffer, mean Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within a 100 m buffer, residential areas within a 50 m (Lden) or 25 m (Lnight) buffer and slum areas within a 400 m buffer. Our study suggests that LUR modelling with geographic predictor data is a promising and efficient approach for noise exposure assessment in low- and middle-income countries, where noise maps are not available.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Ruído , Brasil , Exposição Ambiental , Análise de Regressão , Estações do Ano
16.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(4): 47009, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inconsistent associations between long-term exposure to particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm [fine particulate matter (PM2.5)] components and mortality have been reported, partly related to challenges in exposure assessment. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the associations between long-term exposure to PM2.5 elemental components and mortality in a large pooled European cohort; to compare health effects of PM2.5 components estimated with two exposure modeling approaches, namely, supervised linear regression (SLR) and random forest (RF) algorithms. METHODS: We pooled data from eight European cohorts with 323,782 participants, average age 49 y at baseline (1985-2005). Residential exposure to 2010 annual average concentration of eight PM2.5 components [copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), nickel (Ni), sulfur (S), silicon (Si), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)] was estimated with Europe-wide SLR and RF models at a 100×100 m scale. We applied Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the associations between components and natural and cause-specific mortality. In addition, two-pollutant analyses were conducted by adjusting each component for PM2.5 mass and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) separately. RESULTS: We observed 46,640 natural-cause deaths with 6,317,235 person-years and an average follow-up of 19.5 y. All SLR-modeled components were statistically significantly associated with natural-cause mortality in single-pollutant models with hazard ratios (HRs) from 1.05 to 1.27. Similar HRs were observed for RF-modeled Cu, Fe, K, S, V, and Zn with wider confidence intervals (CIs). HRs for SLR-modeled Ni, S, Si, V, and Zn remained above unity and (almost) significant after adjustment for both PM2.5 and NO2. HRs only remained (almost) significant for RF-modeled K and V in two-pollutant models. The HRs for V were 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.05) and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.10) for SLR- and RF-modeled exposures, respectively, per 2 ng/m3, adjusting for PM2.5 mass. Associations with cause-specific mortality were less consistent in two-pollutant models. CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to V in PM2.5 was most consistently associated with increased mortality. Associations for the other components were weaker for exposure modeled with RF than SLR in two-pollutant models. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8368.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805155

RESUMO

Good quality and completeness of ambient air quality monitoring data is central in supporting actions towards mitigating the impact of ambient air pollution. In South Africa, however, availability of continuous ground-level air pollution monitoring data is scarce and incomplete. To address this issue, we developed and compared different modeling approaches to impute missing daily average particulate matter (PM10) data between 2010 and 2017 using spatiotemporal predictor variables. The random forest (RF) machine learning method was used to explore the relationship between average daily PM10 concentrations and spatiotemporal predictors like meteorological, land use and source-related variables. National (8 models), provincial (32) and site-specific (44) RF models were developed to impute missing daily PM10 data. The annual national, provincial and site-specific RF cross-validation (CV) models explained on average 78%, 70% and 55% of ground-level PM10 concentrations, respectively. The spatial components of the national and provincial CV RF models explained on average 22% and 48%, while the temporal components of the national, provincial and site-specific CV RF models explained on average 78%, 68% and 57% of ground-level PM10 concentrations, respectively. This study demonstrates a feasible approach based on RF to impute missing measurement data in areas where data collection is sparse and incomplete.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , África do Sul
18.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(3): 37005, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Black carbon (BC), a component of fine particulate matter [particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5)], may contribute to carcinogenic effects of air pollution. Until recently however, there has been little evidence to evaluate this hypothesis. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to estimate the associations between long-term exposure to BC and risk of cancer. This study was conducted within the French Gazel cohort of 20,625 subjects. METHODS: We assessed exposure to BC by linking subjects' histories of residential addresses to a map of European black carbon levels in 2010 with back- and forward-extrapolation between 1989 and 2015. We used extended Cox models, with attained age as time-scale and time-varying cumulative exposure to BC, adjusted for relevant sociodemographic and lifestyle variables. To consider latency between exposure and cancer diagnosis, we implemented a 10-y lag, and as a sensitivity analysis, a lag of 2 y. To isolate the effect of BC from that of total PM2.5, we regressed BC on PM2.5 and used the residuals as the exposure variable. RESULTS: During the 26-y follow-up period, there were 3,711 incident cancer cases (all sites combined) and 349 incident lung cancers. Median baseline exposure in 1989 was 2.65 10-5/m [interquartile range (IQR): 2.23-3.33], which generally slightly decreased over time. Using 10 y as a lag-time in our models, the adjusted hazard ratio per each IQR increase of the natural log-transformed cumulative BC was 1.17 (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.29) for all-sites cancer combined and 1.31 (0.93, 1.83) for lung cancer. Associations with BC residuals were also positive for both outcomes. Using 2 y as a lag-time, the results were similar. DISCUSSION: Our findings for a cohort of French adults suggest that BC may partly explain the association between PM2.5 and lung cancer. Additional studies are needed to confirm our results and further disentangle the effects of BC, total PM2.5, and other constituents. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8719.

19.
Environ Int ; 152: 106476, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Air pollution is hypothesized to affect pubertal development. However, the few studies on this topic yielded overall mixed results. These studies did not consider important pollutants like ozone, and none of them involved pubertal development assessed by estradiol and testosterone measurements. We aimed to analyze associations between long-term exposure to four pollutants and pubertal development based on sex hormone concentrations among 10-year-old children. METHODS: These cross-sectional analyses were based on the 10-year follow-up medical examinations of 1945 children from the Munich and Wesel centers of the GINIplus and LISA German birth cohorts. Female and male pubertal development was assessed by dichotomizing the concentration of hormones in serum at 18.4 pmol/L and 0.087 nmol/L using the lower limits of quantification for estradiol and testosterone, respectively. Land-use regression models derived annual average concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 and 10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10), as well as spatial models assessed yearly average concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone, were calculated at the 10-year residential addresses. To evaluate associations, we utilized logistic regressions adjusted for potential covariates. The analyses were stratified by area and sex. RESULTS: Around 73% of the 943 females and 25% of the 1002 males had a high level of hormones and had already started puberty at the age of 10. Overall, we found no statistically significant associations between exposure to particles (PM2.5 or PM10) and pubertal development. Results on NO2 and ozone were not significant as well; for instance, per 10 µg/m3 increase in ozone concentration, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 0.900 (0.605, 1.339) and 0.830 (0.573, 1.203) for females and males, respectively. Stratified by area, the aforementioned results did not reveal any associations either. CONCLUSIONS: Our study did not observe the associations between ambient air pollutants and pubertal development determined by estradiol and testosterone levels in children. However, due to the current limited number of studies on this topic, our results should be cautiously interpreted. Future longitudinal studies are needed to assess the association.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Hormônios , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
20.
Environ Pollut ; 274: 116513, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548669

RESUMO

The objective of this paper was to incorporate source-meteorological interaction information from two commonly employed atmospheric dispersion models into the land use regression technique for predicting ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM10). The study was undertaken across two regions in Durban, South Africa, one with a high industrial profile and a nearby harbour, and the other with a primarily commercial and residential profile. Multiple hybrid models were developed by integrating air pollution dispersion modelling predictions for source specific NO2, SO2, and PM10 concentrations into LUR models following the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) methodology to characterise exposure, in Durban. Industrial point sources, ship emissions, domestic fuel burning, and vehicle emissions were key emission sources. Standard linear regression was used to develop annual, summer and winter hybrid models to predict air pollutant concentrations. Higher levels of NO2 and SO2 were predicted in south Durban as compared to north Durban as these are industrial related pollutants. Slightly higher levels of PM10 were predicted in north Durban as compared to south Durban and can be attributed to either traffic, bush burning or domestic fuel burning. The hybrid NO2 models for annual, summer and winter explained 60%, 58% and 63%, respectively, of the variance with traffic, population and harbour being identified as important predictors. The SO2 models were less robust with lower R2 annual (44%), summer (53%) and winter (46%), in which industrial and traffic variables emerged as important predictors. The R2 for PM10 models ranged from 80% to 85% with population and urban land use type emerging as predictor variables.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , África do Sul
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