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1.
Epidemiol Prev ; 43(4): 223-237, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: human exposure to mixtures of chemicals of toxicological interest, typically found in industrial contaminated sites (ICSs), has been associated with a broad range of different health outcomes. Deprived population groups endure most of the burden of disease and premature death associated to the exposure to those pollutants. Characterising the impacts on health of an ICS is a challenging process. Currently the two main methodological approaches used are Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) and Environmental Epidemiological (EE) studies. OBJECTIVES: review existing guidance and scientific evidence for HHRA and EE studies applied to contaminated sites that orientate in selecting the most suitable methodological approach for characterising health impacts in ICSs according to the site characteristics, and the availability of environmental, health and sociodemographic data. RESULTS: HHRA has evolved into a more holistic approach, placing more emphasis in planning, community involvement and adapting the dimension of the assessment to the problem formulation and to the availability of resources. Many different HHRA guidelines for contaminated sites has been published worldwide, and although they share a similar framework, the scientific evidence used for deriving reference values and the variet of policy options can result in a wide variability of health risk estimates. This paper condenses different options with the recommendations to use those tools, default values for environmental and exposure levels and toxicological reference values that most suit to the population and characteristics of the ICSs under evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: the suitability to use one or another approach to assess the impact of ICSs on health depends on the availability of data, cost-benefit aspects and the kind of problem that needs to be answered. Risk assessment based on toxicological data can be very rapid and cheap, providing direct information when the intervention to protect the health of population is urgent and no suitable dose-response functions are available from epidemiological studies. Conducting EE studies provide a deeper insight into the problem of the exposure to industrial pollutants that do not require extrapolation from data obtained from toxicological studies or other population, addressing the community concern's more directly. Complementing the results obtained from different approaches, including those from public health surveillance systems, might provide an efficient and complete response to the impact of ICSs.

2.
Epidemiol Prev ; 43(4): 238-248, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: industrially contaminated sites (ICSs) have been recognised as a major public health concern since they involve exposure to multiple environmental stressors, normally distributed unevenly within population. The COST Action on Industrially Contaminated Sites and Health Network (ICSHNet) comprises a European network of experts and institutions to clarify needs and priorities for better characterising the impact on environment and health of ICS. OBJECTIVES: evaluate the availability of information and studies concerning selected ICSs in participating Countries within the ICSHNet, with particular consideration on the accessibility to environmental, health and demographic data, and research and assessment tools. METHODS: to evaluate the availability of data, an Action Questionnaire (AQ) was developed based on previous questionnaires used in different European projects and on expert consultation. The AQ, with 84 items organised in eight sections, was adapted to an on-line version using the software LimeSurvey. The survey was sent to 47 participants within the ICSHNet, to report over a list of 99 ICSs previously identified. RESULTS: information was gathered from 81 sites out of the initially selected 99, reported by 45 participants from 27 Countries (82% of Countries in the ICSHNet). The predominant polluting activities were waste disposal (46%) and chemical industries (37%), affecting all environmental media, but more extensively surface and groundwater (70%) and soil (68%). Main categories of contaminants affecting different media were heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons, but also BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene) and ambient air pollutants (e.g., particulate matter, SOx). Human health risk assessment was the most prevalent methodological approach for characterising impacts on health (32%), followed by epidemiological studies (26%), and health impact assessment (12%). The low reporting, both referring to data availability or methodologies, could be due to absence of data, or to the fact that the reporting person (many of them from the public health sector) did not know how to reach the environmental information. CONCLUSIONS: survey findings suggest that improving the collection and access to specific environmental, health and demographic data related to ICSs is crucial to meet the methodological requirement to better analyse the health impact of ICSs.

3.
Epidemiol Prev ; 43(4): 249-259, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: the mixed and complex nature of industrially contaminated sites (ICSs) leads to heterogeneity in exposure and health risk of residents living nearby. Health, environment, and social aspects are strongly interconnected in ICSs, and local communities are often concerned about potential health impact and needs for remediation. The use of human biomonitoring (HBM) for impact assessment of environmental exposure is increasing in Europe. The COST Action IS1408 on Industrially Contaminated Sites and Health Network (ICSHNet) decided to reflect on the potential and limitations of HBM to assess exposure and early health effects associated with living near ICSs. OBJECTIVES: to discuss challenges and lessons learned for addressing environmental health impact near ICSs with HBM in order to identify needs and priorities for HBM guidelines in European ICSs. METHODS: based on the experience of the ICSHNet research team, six case studies from different European regions that applied HBM at ICSs were selected. The case studies were systematically compared distinguishing four phases: the preparatory phase; study design; study results; the impact of the results at scientific, societal, and political levels. RESULTS: all six case studies identified opportunities and challenges for applying HBM in ICS studies. A smart choice of (a combination of) sample matrices for biomarker analysis produced information about relevant time-windows of exposure which matched with the activities of the ICSs. Combining biomarkers of exposure with biomarkers of (early) biological effects, data from questionnaires or environmental data enabled fine-tuning of the results and allowed for more targeted remediating actions aimed to reduce exposure. Open and transparent communication of study results with contextual information and involvement of local stakeholders throughout the study helped to build confidence in the study results, gained support for remediating actions, and facilitated sharing of responsibilities. Using HBM in these ICS studies helped in setting priorities in policy actions and in further research. Limitations were the size of the study population, difficulties in recruiting vulnerable target populations, availability of validated biomarkers, and coping with exposure to mixtures of chemicals. CONCLUSIONS: based on the identified positive experiences and challenges, the paper concludes with formulating recommendations for a European protocol and guidance document for HBM in ICS. This could advance the use of HBM in local environmental health policy development and evaluation of exposure levels, and promote coordination and collaboration between researchers and risk managers.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(20): e013101, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576773

RESUMO

Background Prehospital delay reduces the proportion of patients with stroke treated with recanalization therapies. We aimed to identify novel and modifiable risk factors for prehospital delay. Methods and Results We included patients with an ischemic stroke confirmed by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, symptom onset within 24 hours and hospitalized in the Stroke Center of the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland. Trained study nurses interviewed patients and proxies along a standardized questionnaire. Prehospital delay was defined as >4.5 hours between stroke onset-or time point of wake-up-and admission. Overall, 336 patients were enrolled. Prehospital delay was observed in 140 patients (42%). The first healthcare professionals to be alarmed were family doctors for 29% of patients (97/336), and a quarter of these patients had a baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score of 4 or higher. The main modifiable risk factor for prehospital delay was a face-to-face visit to the family doctor (adjusted odds ratio, 4.19; 95% CI, 1.85-9.46). Despite transport by emergency medical services being associated with less prehospital delay (adjusted odds ratio, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.24-0.71), a minority of patients (39%) who first called their family doctor were transported by emergency medical services to the hospital. The second risk factor was lack of awareness of stroke symptoms (adjusted odds ratio, 4.14; 95% CI, 2.36-7.24). Conclusions Almost 1 in 3 patients with a diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed ischemic stroke first called the family doctor practice. Face-to-face visits to the family doctor quadrupled the odds of prehospital delay. Efforts to reduce prehospital delay should address family doctors and their staffs as important partners in the prehospital pathway. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02798770.

5.
Eur Respir J ; 54(4)2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that air pollution may contribute to childhood asthma development. We estimated the burden of incident childhood asthma that may be attributable to outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter ≤2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) and black carbon (BC) in Europe. METHODS: We combined country-level childhood incidence rates and pooled exposure-response functions with childhood (age 1-14 years) population counts, and exposure estimates at 1 540 386 1 km×1 km cells, across 18 European countries and 63 442 419 children. Annual average pollutant concentrations were obtained from a validated and harmonised European land-use regression model. We investigated two exposure reduction scenarios. For the first, we used recommended annual World Health Organization (WHO) air quality guideline values. For the second, we used the minimum air pollution levels recorded across 41 studies in the underlying meta-analysis. RESULTS: NO2 ranged from 1.4 to 70.0 µg·m-3, with a mean of 11.8 µg·m-3. PM2.5 ranged from 2.0 to 41.1 µg·m-3, with a mean of 11.6 µg·m-3. BC ranged from 0.003 to 3.7×10-5 m-1, with a mean of 1.0×10-5 m-1. Compliance with the NO2 and PM2.5 WHO guidelines was estimated to prevent 2434 (0.4%) and 66 567 (11%) incident cases, respectively. Meeting the minimum air pollution levels for NO2 (1.5 µg·m-3), PM2.5 (0.4 µg·m-3) and BC (0.4×10-5 m-1) was estimated to prevent 135 257 (23%), 191 883 (33%) and 89 191 (15%) incident cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of childhood asthma cases may be attributable to outdoor air pollution and these cases could be prevented. Our estimates underline an urgent need to reduce children's exposure to air pollution.

6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(17): 10279-10287, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415154

RESUMO

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) remains an important traffic-related pollutant associated with both short- and long-term health effects. We aim to model daily average NO2 concentrations in Switzerland in a multistage framework with mixed-effect and random forest models to respectively downscale satellite measurements and incorporate local sources. Spatial and temporal predictor variables include data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument, Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service, land use, and meteorological variables. We derived robust models explaining ∼58% (R2 range, 0.56-0.64) of the variation in measured NO2 concentrations using mixed-effect models at a 1 × 1 km resolution. The random forest models explained ∼73% (R2 range, 0.70-0.75) of the overall variation in the residuals at a 100 × 100 m resolution. This is one of the first studies showing the potential of using earth observation data to develop robust models with fine-scale spatial (100 × 100 m) and temporal (daily) variation of NO2 across Switzerland from 2005 to 2016. The novelty of this study is in demonstrating that methods originally developed for particulate matter can also successfully be applied to NO2. The predicted NO2 concentrations will be made available to facilitate health research in Switzerland.

7.
Eur Respir J ; 54(1)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285306

RESUMO

Ambient air pollution increases the risk of respiratory mortality, but evidence for impacts on lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is less well established. The aim was to evaluate whether ambient air pollution is associated with lung function and COPD, and explore potential vulnerability factors.We used UK Biobank data on 303 887 individuals aged 40-69 years, with complete covariate data and valid lung function measures. Cross-sectional analyses examined associations of land use regression-based estimates of particulate matter (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 and 10 µm: PM2.5 and PM10, respectively; and coarse particles with diameter between 2.5 µm and 10 µm: PMcoarse) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), the FEV1/FVC ratio and COPD (FEV1/FVC

8.
Environ Int ; : 104845, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated congenital anomalies in relation to municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) and results are inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a national investigation into the risk of congenital anomalies in babies born to mothers living within 10 km of an MWI associated with: i) modelled concentrations of PM10 as a proxy for MWI emissions more generally and; ii) proximity of residential postcode to nearest MWI, in areas in England and Scotland that are covered by a congenital anomaly register. METHODS: Retrospective population-based cohort study within 10 km of 10 MWIs in England and Scotland operating between 2003 and 2010. Exposure was proximity to MWI and log of daily mean modelled ground-level particulate matter ≤10 µm diameter (PM10) concentrations. RESULTS: Analysis included 219,486 births, stillbirths and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly of which 5154 were cases of congenital anomalies. Fully adjusted odds ratio (OR) per doubling in PM10 was: 1·00 (95% CI 0·98-1·02) for all congenital anomalies; 0·99 (0·97-1·01) for all congenital anomalies excluding chromosomal anomalies. For every 1 km closer to an MWI adjusted OR was: 1·02 (1·00-1·04) for all congenital anomalies combined; 1·02 (1·00-1·04) for all congenital anomalies excluding chromosomal anomalies; and, for specific anomaly groups, 1·04 (1·01-1·08) for congenital heart defect sand 1·07 (1·02-1·12) for genital anomalies. DISCUSSION: We found no increased risk of congenital anomalies in relation to modelled PM10 emissions, but there were small excess risks associated with congenital heart defects and genital anomalies in proximity to MWIs. These latter findings may well reflect incomplete control for confounding, but a possible causal effect cannot be excluded.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146441

RESUMO

Ambient air pollution is a leading environmental risk factor and its broad spectrum of adverse health effects includes a decrease in lung function. Socioeconomic status (SES) is known to be associated with both air pollution exposure and respiratory function. This study assesses the role of SES either as confounder or effect modifier of the association between ambient air pollution and lung function. Cross-sectional data from three European multicenter adult cohorts were pooled to assess factors associated with lung function, including annual means of home outdoor NO2. Pre-bronchodilator lung function was measured according to the ATS-criteria. Multiple mixed linear models with random intercepts for study areas were used. Three different factors (education, occupation and neighborhood unemployment rate) were considered to represent SES. NO2 exposure was negatively associated with lung function. Occupation and neighborhood unemployment rates were not associated with lung function. However, the inclusion of the SES-variable education improved the models and the air pollution-lung function associations got slightly stronger. NO2 associations with lung function were not substantially modified by SES-variables. In this multicenter European study we could show that SES plays a role as a confounder in the association of ambient NO2 exposure with lung function.

10.
Environ Int ; 130: 104934, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229871

RESUMO

Empirical spatial air pollution models have been applied extensively to assess exposure in epidemiological studies with increasingly sophisticated and complex statistical algorithms beyond ordinary linear regression. However, different algorithms have rarely been compared in terms of their predictive ability. This study compared 16 algorithms to predict annual average fine particle (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations across Europe. The evaluated algorithms included linear stepwise regression, regularization techniques and machine learning methods. Air pollution models were developed based on the 2010 routine monitoring data from the AIRBASE dataset maintained by the European Environmental Agency (543 sites for PM2.5 and 2399 sites for NO2), using satellite observations, dispersion model estimates and land use variables as predictors. We compared the models by performing five-fold cross-validation (CV) and by external validation (EV) using annual average concentrations measured at 416 (PM2.5) and 1396 sites (NO2) from the ESCAPE study. We further assessed the correlations between predictions by each pair of algorithms at the ESCAPE sites. For PM2.5, the models performed similarly across algorithms with a mean CV R2 of 0.59 and a mean EV R2 of 0.53. Generalized boosted machine, random forest and bagging performed best (CV R2~0.63; EV R2 0.58-0.61), while backward stepwise linear regression, support vector regression and artificial neural network performed less well (CV R2 0.48-0.57; EV R2 0.39-0.46). Most of the PM2.5 model predictions at ESCAPE sites were highly correlated (R2 > 0.85, with the exception of predictions from the artificial neural network). For NO2, the models performed even more similarly across different algorithms, with CV R2s ranging from 0.57 to 0.62, and EV R2s ranging from 0.49 to 0.51. The predicted concentrations from all algorithms at ESCAPE sites were highly correlated (R2 > 0.9). For both pollutants, biases were low for all models except the artificial neural network. Dispersion model estimates and satellite observations were two of the most important predictors for PM2.5 models whilst dispersion model estimates and traffic variables were most important for NO2 models in all algorithms that allow assessment of the importance of variables. Different statistical algorithms performed similarly when modelling spatial variation in annual average air pollution concentrations using a large number of training sites.

11.
Environ Int ; 129: 145-153, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to air pollution affects health, but little is known about exposure to atmospheric metals. Estimating exposure to atmospheric metals across large spatial areas remains challenging. Metal concentrations in mosses could constitute a useful proxy. Here, we linked moss biomonitoring and epidemiological data to investigate the associations between long-term exposure to metals and mortality. METHODS: We modelled and mapped 13 atmospheric metals from a 20-year national moss biomonitoring program to derive exposure estimates across France. In the population-based Gazel cohort, we included 11,382 participants from low to intermediate population density areas and assigned modelled metals to their residential addresses. We distinguished between airborne metals that are primarily of natural origin and those primarily of anthropogenic origin. Associations were estimated between exposure to metals and mortality (natural-cause, cardiovascular and respiratory), using Cox models, with confounder adjustment at individual level. FINDINGS: Between 1996 and 2017, there were 1313 deaths in the cohort (including 181 cardiovascular and 33 respiratory). Exposure to the anthropogenic metals was associated with an increased risk of natural-cause mortality (hazard ratio of 1.16 [1.08-1.24] per interquartile range of exposure), while metals from natural sources were not. INTERPRETATION: Some atmospheric anthropogenic metals may be associated with excess mortality - even in areas with relatively low levels of exposure to air pollution. Consistent with the previous literature, our findings support the use of moss biomonitoring as a tool to assess health effects of air pollution exposure at individual level.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/farmacologia , Briófitas/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais/farmacologia , Poluição do Ar , Estudos de Coortes , Monitoramento Ambiental , França , Humanos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Tempo
12.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e025079, 2019 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005914

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess pathways and associated costs of seeking care from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis in patients with confirmed and presumptive tuberculosis (TB). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: District hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. PARTICIPANTS: Bacteriologically confirmed TB and presumptive TB patients. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We calculated distance in metres and visualised pathways to healthcare up to five visits for the current episode of sickness. Costs were described by medians and IQRs, with comparisons by gender and poverty status. RESULTS: Of 100 confirmed and 100 presumptive TB patients, 44% of confirmed patients sought care first at pharmacies after the onset of symptoms, and 42% of presumptive patients did so at hospitals. The median visits made by confirmed patients was 2 (range 1-5) and 2 (range 1-3) by presumptive patients. Patients spent a median of 31% of their monthly household income on health expenditures for all visits. The median total direct costs were higher in confirmed compared with presumptive patients (USD 27.4 [IQR 18.7-48.4] vs USD 19.8 [IQR 13.8-34.0], p=0.02), as were the indirect costs (USD 66.9 [IQR 35.5-150.0] vs USD 46.8 [IQR 20.1-115.3], p<0.001). The indirect costs were higher in men compared with women (USD 64.6 [IQR 31.8-159.1] vs USD 55.6 [IQR 25.1-141.1], p<0.001). The median total distance from patients' household to healthcare facilities for patients with confirmed and presumptive TB was 2338 m (IQR 1373-4122) and 2009 m (IQR 986-2976) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with confirmed TB have complex pathways and higher costs of care compared with patients with presumptive TB, but the costs of the latter are also substantial. Improving access to healthcare and ensuring integration of different healthcare providers including private, public health practitioners and patients themselves could help in reducing the complex pathways during healthcare seeking and optimal healthcare utilisation.

13.
Int J Public Health ; 64(4): 499-510, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701279

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We tested whether objectively assessed neighbourhood characteristics are associated with moderate-to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cycling in Swiss children and adolescents and assessed the mediating role of the perception of the environment. METHODS: The cross-sectional analyses were based on data of 1306 participants aged 6-16 years of the population-based SOPHYA study. MVPA was measured by accelerometry, time spent cycling and the perceived environment by questionnaire. Objective environmental parameters at the residential address were GIS derived. In all analyses, personal, social and environmental factors were considered. RESULTS: MVPA showed significant positive associations with perceived personal safety and perceived access to green spaces but not with respective objective parameters. Objectively assessed main street density and shorter distance to the next public transport were associated with less cycling in adolescents. Parents' perceptions did not mediate the observed associations of the objectively assessed environment with MVPA and cycling. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between the environment and physical activity differ by domain. In spatial planning efforts to improve objective environments should be complemented with efforts to increase parental sense of security.


Assuntos
Planejamento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício/psicologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suíça
14.
Environ Int ; 124: 170-179, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654325

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is one of the major causes of death worldwide, with demonstrated adverse effects from both short-term and long-term exposure. Most of the epidemiological studies have been conducted in cities because of the lack of reliable spatiotemporal estimates of particles exposure in nonurban settings. The objective of this study is to estimate daily PM10 (PM < 10 µm), fine (PM < 2.5 µm, PM2.5) and coarse particles (PM between 2.5 and 10 µm, PM2.5-10) at 1-km2 grid for 2013-2015 using a machine learning approach, the Random Forest (RF). Separate RF models were defined to: predict PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 concentrations in monitors where only PM10 data were available (stage 1); impute missing satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data using estimates from atmospheric ensemble models (stage 2); establish a relationship between measured PM and satellite, land use and meteorological parameters (stage 3); predict stage 3 model over each 1-km2 grid cell of Italy (stage 4); and improve stage 3 predictions by using small-scale predictors computed at the monitor locations or within a small buffer (stage 5). Our models were able to capture most of PM variability, with mean cross-validation (CV) R2 of 0.75 and 0.80 (stage 3) and 0.84 and 0.86 (stage 5) for PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. Model fitting was less optimal for PM2.5-10, in summer months and in southern Italy. Finally, predictions were equally good in capturing annual and daily PM variability, therefore they can be used as reliable exposure estimates for investigating long-term and short-term health effects.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Florestas , Itália , Aprendizado de Máquina , Modelos de Interação Espacial , Estações do Ano
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 658: 1630-1639, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678019

RESUMO

Urban areas in Europe are facing a range of environmental public health challenges, such as air pollution, traffic noise and road injuries. The identification and quantification of the public health risks associated with exposure to environmental conditions is important for prioritising policies and interventions that aim to diminish the risks and improve the health of the population. With this purpose in mind, the EURO-HEALTHY project used a consistent approach to assess the impact of key environmental risk factors and urban environmental determinants on public health in European metropolitan areas. A number of environmental public health indicators, which are closely tied to the physical and built environment, were identified through stakeholder consultation; data were collected from six European metropolitan areas (Athens, Barcelona, Lisbon, London, Stockholm and Turin) covering the period 2000-2014, and a health impact assessment framework enabled the quantification of health effects (attributable deaths) associated with these indicators. The key environmental public health indicators were related to air pollution and certain urban environmental conditions (urban green spaces, road safety). The air pollution was generally the highest environmental public health risk; the associated number of deaths in Athens, Barcelona and London ranged between 800 and 2300 attributable deaths per year. The number of victims of road traffic accidents and the associated deaths were lowest in the most recent year compared with previous years. We also examined the positive impacts on health associated with urban green spaces by calculating reduced mortality impacts for populations residing in areas with greater green space coverage; results in Athens showed reductions of all-cause mortality of 26 per 100,000 inhabitants for populations with benefits of local greenspace. Based on our analysis, we discuss recommendations of potential interventions that could be implemented to reduce the environmental public health risks in the European metropolitan areas covered by this study.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Poluição do Ar/análise , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Ruído , Cidades , Saúde Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Saúde Pública
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388884

RESUMO

There is an increase in the awareness of the importance of spatial data in epidemiology and exposure assessment (EA) studies. Most studies use governmental and ordnance surveys, which are often expensive and sparsely updated, while in most developing countries, there are often no official geo-spatial data sources. OpenStreetMap (OSM) is an open source Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) mapping project. Yet very few environmental epidemiological and EA studies have used OSM as a source for road data. Since VGI data is either noncommercial or governmental, the validity of OSM is often questioned. We investigate the robustness and validity of OSM data for use in epidemiological and EA studies. We compared OSM and Governmental Major Road Data (GRD) in three different regions: Massachusetts, USA; Bern, Switzerland; and Beer-Sheva, South Israel. The comparison was done by calculating data completeness, positional accuracy, and EA using traditional exposure methods. We found that OSM data is fairly complete and accurate in all regions. The results in all regions were robust, with Massachusetts showing the best fits (R² 0.93). Results in Bern (R² 0.78) and Beer-Sheva (R² 0.77) were only slightly lower. We conclude by suggesting that OSM data can be used reliably in environmental assessment studies.

17.
Environ Int ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30472002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some studies have reported associations between municipal waste incinerator (MWI) exposures and adverse birth outcomes but there are few studies of modern MWIs operating to current European Union (EU) Industrial Emissions Directive standards. METHODS: Associations between modelled ground-level particulate matter ≤10 µm in diameter (PM10) from MWI emissions (as a proxy for MWI emissions) within 10 km of each MWI, and selected birth and infant mortality outcomes were examined for all 22 MWIs operating in Great Britain 2003-10. We also investigated associations with proximity of residence to a MWI. Outcomes used were term birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA) at term, stillbirth, neonatal, post-neonatal and infant mortality, multiple births, sex ratio and preterm delivery sourced from national registration data from the Office for National Statistics. Analyses were adjusted for relevant confounders including year of birth, sex, season of birth, maternal age, deprivation, ethnicity and area characteristics and random effect terms were included in the models to allow for differences in baseline rates between areas and in incinerator feedstock. RESULTS: Analyses included 1,025,064 births and 18,694 infant deaths. There was no excess risk in relation to any of the outcomes investigated during pregnancy or early life of either mean modelled MWI PM10 or proximity to an MWI. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that exposure to PM10 from, or living near to, an MWI operating to current EU standards was associated with harm for any of the outcomes investigated. Results should be generalisable to other MWIs operating to similar standards.

18.
Eur Heart J ; 2018 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30357335

RESUMO

Aims: The present study aimed to disentangle the risk of the three major transportation noise sources-road, railway, and aircraft traffic-and the air pollutants NO2 and PM2.5 on myocardial infarction (MI) mortality in Switzerland based on high quality/fine resolution exposure modelling. Methods and results: We modelled long-term exposure to outdoor road traffic, railway, and aircraft noise levels, as well as NO2 and PM2.5 concentration for each address of the 4.40 million adults (>30 years) in the Swiss National Cohort (SNC). We investigated the association between transportation noise/air pollution exposure and death due to MI during the follow-up period 2000-08, by adjusting noise [Lden(Road), Lden(Railway), and Lden(Air)] estimates for NO2 and/or PM2.5 and vice versa by multipollutant Cox regression models considering potential confounders. Adjusting noise risk estimates of MI for NO2 and/or PM2.5 did not change the hazard ratios (HRs) per 10 dB increase in road traffic (without air pollution: 1.032, 95% CI: 1.014-1.051, adjusted for NO2 and PM2.5: 1.034, 95% CI: 1.014-1.055), railway traffic (1.020, 95% CI: 1.007-1.033 vs. 1.020, 95% CI: 1.007-1.033), and aircraft traffic noise (1.025, 95% CI: 1.006-1.045 vs. 1.025, 95% CI: 1.005-1.046). Conversely, noise adjusted HRs for air pollutants were lower than corresponding estimates without noise adjustment. Hazard ratio per 10 µg/m³ increase with and without noise adjustment were 1.024 (1.005-1.043) vs. 0.990 (0.965-1.016) for NO2 and 1.054 (1.013-1.093) vs. 1.019 (0.971-1.071) for PM2.5. Conclusion: Our study suggests that transportation noise is associated with MI mortality, independent from air pollution. Air pollution studies not adequately adjusting for transportation noise exposure may overestimate the cardiovascular disease burden of air pollution.

19.
Indoor Air ; 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339304

RESUMO

The health impact of indoor air pollution in informal settlement households has not been extensively studied in South Africa. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between asthma and common indoor exposures among schoolchildren from four informal settlements located in two municipalities in the Western Cape Province. A total of 590 children, aged 9-11 years, were recruited. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire was administered to caregivers. Pulmonary function assessment included spirometry and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Phadiatop test for atopy was done. The prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma was 3.4% (n = 20) among whom only 50% were on treatment. The prevalence of current wheeze was 12.9%, and 17.6% had airway obstruction (FEV1  < lower limit of normal), while 10.2% had airway inflammation (FeNO > 35 ppb). In adjusted logistic regression models, dampness, visible mold growth, paraffin use for cooking, and passive smoking were associated with a twofold to threefold increased risk in upper and lower airway outcomes. The strongest association was that of visible mold growth with rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio-aOR 3.37, 95% CI: 1.69-6.71). Thus, there is a need for improved diagnosis of childhood asthma and Indoor Air Quality in informal settlement households.

20.
Epidemiol Prev ; 42(5-6S1): 11-20, 2018 Sep-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30322232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: this paper is based upon work from COST Action ICSHNet. Public health surveillance (PHS) of industrially contaminated sites (ICSs) is likely to play a role in supporting the monitoring of harmful aspects of ICSs and related interventions. Environmental public health tracking (EPHT) has been proposed and developed as an approach to PHS when environmental factors affecting health are involved. OBJECTIVES: to identify existing arrangements for continuous collection and analysis of environmental and health data to guide the development of an optimal EPHT approach which would support the characterization of the impact on health of ICS. METHODS: a literature search was conducted in PubMed following a structured approach to identify methodological aspects relevant to surveillance of ICSs. In addition, eight further studies on this topic, mainly from three European Countries (Spain, Italy, and France), were included by the research team. RESULTS: the identified 17 examples of surveillance studies include a heterogeneous variety of industrial activities, covering from cross-national to local scenarios. Continuous monitoring systems for gathering environmental data related to ICSs were used only in two cases; a qualitative approach and/or punctual sampling for soil, air, and water of local foodstuff took place in the rest. Exposure assessment was conducted according to four main methods: qualitative definition for the presence/absence of a source, distance to a source, dispersion modelling, and biomonitoring. Health data relied on routinely vital statistics, hospital admission records, specific morbidity registers, and cancer and congenital abnormalities registries. DISCUSSION: our revision identified an overall lack of national surveillance programmes of ICSs, rather than gaps in individual dimensions of surveillance. The epidemiological approaches reviewed provided methods, some of which could be adopted for an EPHT in ICSs. However, a large proportion of examples suffers from poor exposure characterization, relying on a qualitative definition approach, which cannot account for the multiple pathways that take place in ICSs. Use of more individual data from health registries combined with improved environmental data collection and exposure assessment would improve future surveillance.

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