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1.
Anesth Analg ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: International standards for safe anesthetic care have been developed by the World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists (WFSA) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Whether these standards are met is unknown in many nations, including Guatemala, a country with universal health coverage. We aimed to establish an overview of anesthesia care capacity in public surgical hospitals in Guatemala to help guide public sector health care development. METHODS: In partnership with the Guatemalan Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance (MSPAS), a national survey of all public hospitals providing surgical care was conducted using the WFSA anesthesia facility assessment tool (AFAT) in 2018. Each facility was assessed for infrastructure, service delivery, workforce, medications, equipment, and monitoring practices. Descriptive statistics were calculated and presented. RESULTS: Of the 46 public hospitals in Guatemala in 2018, 36 (78%) were found to provide surgical care, including 20 district, 14 regional, and 2 national referral hospitals. We identified 573 full-time physician surgeons, anesthesiologists, and obstetricians (SAO) in the public sector, with an estimated SAO density of 3.3/100,000 population. There were 300 full-time anesthesia providers working at public hospitals. Physician anesthesiologists made up 47% of these providers, with an estimated physician anesthesiologist density of 0.8/100,000 population. Only 10% of district hospitals reported having an anesthesia provider continuously present intraoperatively during general or neuraxial anesthesia cases. No hospitals reported assessing pain in the immediate postoperative period. While the availability of some medications such as benzodiazepines and local anesthetics was robust (100% availability across all hospitals), not all hospitals had essential medications such as ketamine, epinephrine, or atropine. There were deficiencies in the availability of essential equipment and basic intraoperative monitors, such as end-tidal carbon dioxide detectors (17% availability across all hospitals). Postoperative care and access to resuscitative equipment, such as defibrillators, were also lacking. CONCLUSIONS: This first countrywide, MSPAS-led assessment of anesthesia capacity at public facilities in Guatemala revealed a lack of essential materials and personnel to provide safe anesthesia and surgery. Hospitals surveyed often did not have resources regardless of hospital size or level, which may suggest multiple factors preventing availability and use. Local and national policy initiatives are needed to address these deficiencies.

2.
Rev. Fac. Med. (Guatemala) ; 1(25 Segunda Época): 56-63, Jun - Dic 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128256

RESUMO

Introducción: El paracetamol intravenoso fue autorizado en el año 2001 para Europa, en el 2016 se autoriza en Guatemala. Esta presentación ha generado diferentes expectativas alrededor del mundo, por lo que se evaluó su administración al agregarse al tratamiento de analgesia postoperatoria multimodal. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto analgésico en el tratamiento multimodal de dolor agudo postoperatorio con paracetamol IV en la población guatemalteca. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo caso-control para la evaluación del dolor postoperatorio inmediato (24 horas) al agregar paracetamol IV al protocolo de analgesia estándar. En pacientes de ambos géneros, entre 18 y 70 años de edad, con peso mayor o igual a 50 Kg. con una cirugía electiva abierta o por vía laparoscópica, en una muestra de 110 pacientes dividida en dos grupos. Se comparó el número de pacientes que necesitaron dosis de rescate y el nivel de dolor según la Escala Visual Análoga (EVA) durante 4 evaluaciones en el postoperatorio agudo. Para determinar la correlación entre las variables se utilizó la prueba de independencia de Ji cuadrado. Resultados: Se demostró que agregar paracetamol IV al tratamiento estándar disminuye la cantidad de pacientes que requieren dosis de rescate y mejoran su analgesia durante el postoperatorio agudo. Conclusiones: El paracetamol IV es de beneficio al ser agregado al tratamiento de analgesia multimodal convencional de un hospital privado de Z.10. Palabras clave: Analgesia, anestesia, Escala Visual Análoga, multimodal, paracetamol, control post operativo del dolor


Background: In 2001 was authorized IV paracetamol for its use in Europe. In Guatemala it was used for the first time until 2016. This formulation has awakened different expectations around the world, for this reason its administration was evaluated when added to the multimodal postoperative analgesia treatment to demonstrate its efficiency. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the analgesic effect in the multimodal treatment for acute postoperative pain with IV paracetamol in a group of Guatemalans patients. Methods: Retrospective case-control study for the evaluation of acute postoperative pain (24 hours) by adding IV paracetamol to the standard analgesic protocol. Patients of both sexes, between 18 and 70 years old, with a weight greater than or equal to 50 kg with open or laparoscopically elective surgery, in a sample of 110 patients divided into two groups. The number of patients needing rescue dose and the level of pain according to the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were compared during 4 evaluations in the acute postoperative period. To determine the correlation between the variables, the chi square independence test was used. Results: Adding IV paracetamol to standard treatment decreases the number of patients who require rescue doses with opioids and improves their analgesia during the acute postoperative period. Conclusions: IV paracetamol is of benefit when added to the conventional multimodal postoperative analgesia treatment of a private hospital. Keywords: Analgesia, anesthesia, Visual Analogue Scale, multimodal, paracetamol, postoperative pain control

3.
Rev. Fac. Med. (Guatemala) ; 1(21 Segunda Época): 50-54, jul - dic 2016.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-969505

RESUMO

Introducción: la oximetría de pulso es un método de monitoreo que permite evaluar la saturación arterial y la frecuencia cardíaca y con el cual es posible detectar de forma temprana episodios de hipoxia, bradicardia o taquicardia. Se ha implementado su uso como estrategia para disminuir las tasas de mortalidad. Guatemala recibió la donación de 142 oxímetros de pulso a 33 hospitales departamentales en noviembre del 2013. Objetivos: evaluar el impacto de la oximetría de pulso a través de la medición de la razón de mortalidad materna antes y después de su implementación en el área de recuperación de los hospitales departamentales del país. Métodos: Conocer la mortalidad materna por medio de datos publicados por el Ministerio de Salud de los años 2013 (antes de la implementación) y 2014 (después de la implementación). Resultados: La mortalidad materna disminuyó un 13.26% luego de la implementación de la oximetría de pulso, sin embargo no existe una diferencia significativa. Discusión: No es posible concluir que la causa de la disminución de la mortalidad materna se deba a la implementación de la oximetría pues, otros factores como mejora de calidad de vida, mayor acceso a servicios de salud se ven involucrados


Introduction: Pulse oximetry is a monitoring method that measure a patient´s arterial saturation and heart rate allowing to detect early signs of hypoxia, bradycardia or tachycardia. Its use has been implemented as a strategy to lower mortality rates. Guatemala received the donation of 142 pulse oximeters to 33 regional hospitals on November 2013. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of pulse oximetry by measuring maternal mortality ratio before and after its implementation in these hospitals recovery rooms. Methods: Estimation of maternal mortality ratio from data published by the Ministry of Health during the years 2013 (before its implementation) and 2014 (after its implementation). Results: Maternal mortality ratio was 13.26% lower after the implementation of pulse oximetry, however there is no statistical significant difference. Discussion: Is not possible to conclude that the implementation of the pulse oximetry is the only reason in the decrease in maternal mortality since other factors like improvement in quality of life and more access to health services are also involved

4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 12: 169, 2012 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22721269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have highlighted the effects the use of the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist can have on lowering mortality and surgical complications. Implementation of the checklist is not easy and several barriers have been identified. Few studies have addressed personnel's acceptance and attitudes toward the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist. Determining personnel's acceptance might reflect their intention to use the checklist while their awareness and knowledge of the checklist might assess the effectiveness of the training process. METHODS: Through an anonymous self- responded questionnaire, general characteristics of the respondents (age, gender, profession and years spent studying or working at the hospital), knowledge of the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist (awareness of existence, knowledge of objectives, knowledge of correct use), acceptance of the checklist and its implementation (including personal belief of benefits of using the checklist), current use, teamwork and safety climate appreciation were determined. RESULTS: Of the 147 surgical personnel who answered the questionnaire, 93.8% were aware of the existence of the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist and 88.8% of them reported knowing its objectives. More nurses than other personnel knew the checklist had to be used before the induction of anesthesia, skin incision, and before the patient leaves the operating room. Most personnel thought using the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist is beneficial and that its implementation was a good decision. Between 73.7% and 100% of nurses in public and private hospitals, respectively, reported the checklist had been used either always or almost always in the general elective surgeries they had participated in during the current year. CONCLUSIONS: Despite high acceptance of the checklist among personnel, gaps in knowledge about when the checklist should be used still exist. This can jeopardize effective implementation and correct use of the checklist in hospitals in Guatemala City. Efforts should aim to universal awareness and complete knowledge on why and how the checklist should be used.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Cirurgia Geral , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/psicologia , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Cidades , Feminino , Guatemala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
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