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1.
J Clin Med ; 10(19)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Netherlands strives for hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination, in accordance with the World Health Organization targets. An accurate estimate when HCV elimination will be reached is elusive. We have embarked on a nationwide HCV elimination project (CELINE) that allowed us to harvest detailed data on the Dutch HCV epidemic. This study aims to provide a well-supported timeline towards HCV elimination in The Netherlands. METHODS: A previously published Markov model was used, adopting published data and unpublished CELINE project data. Two main scenarios were devised. In the Status Quo scenario, 2020 diagnosis and treatment levels remained constant in subsequent years. In the Gradual Decline scenario, an annual decrease of 10% in both diagnoses and treatments was implemented, starting in 2020. WHO incidence target was disregarded, due to low HCV incidence in The Netherlands (≤5 per 100,000). RESULTS: Following the Status Quo and Gradual Decline scenarios, The Netherlands would meet WHO's elimination targets by 2027 and 2032, respectively. From 2015 to 2030, liver-related mortality would be reduced by 97% in the Status Quo and 93% in the Gradual Decline scenario. Compared to the Status Quo scenario, the Gradual Decline scenario would result in 12 excess cases of decompensated cirrhosis, 18 excess cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, and 20 excess cases of liver-related death from 2020-2030. CONCLUSIONS: The Netherlands is on track to reach HCV elimination by 2030. However, it is vital that HCV elimination remains high on the agenda to ensure adequate numbers of patients are being diagnosed and treated.

2.
JHEP Rep ; 3(5): 100350, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34557660

RESUMO

Background & Aims: A recent consensus document has defined metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) as hepatic steatosis together with overweight, diabetes, and/or a combination of other metabolic risk factors. The clinical relevance of this novel diagnosis is unknown among patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We studied the association between MAFLD (with or without steatohepatitis) and adverse clinical outcomes in patients with CHB. Methods: We performed a retrospective long-term follow-up cohort study at 2 tertiary hospitals in patients with CHB who underwent liver biopsy. Biopsies were reassessed for steatosis, degree of fibrosis, and presence of steatohepatitis. Associations with event-free hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-free and transplant-free survival were explored. Results: In our cohort, 1076 patients were included, median follow-up was 9.8 years (25th-75th percentile: 6.6-14.0), and 107 events occurred in 78 patients, comprising death (n = 43), HCC (n = 36), liver decompensation (n = 21), and/or liver transplantation (n = 7). MAFLD was present in 296 (27.5%) patients and was associated with reduced event-free (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 2.00, 95% CI 1.26-3.19), HCC-free (aHR 1.93, 95% CI 1.17-3.21), and transplant-free survival (aHR 1.80, 95% CI 0.98-3.29) in multivariable analysis. Among patients with MAFLD, the presence of steatohepatitis (p = 0.95, log-rank test) was not associated with adverse outcomes. Conclusions: The presence of MAFLD in patients with CHB was associated with an increased risk for liver-related clinical events and death. Among patients with MAFLD, steatohepatitis did not increase the risk of adverse outcomes. Our findings highlight the importance of metabolic dysfunction in patients with CHB. Lay summary: Recently, metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) has been defined as fatty liver disease with signs of metabolic dysfunction. Among patients with chronic hepatitis B, MAFLD was associated with liver-related events and death. Metabolic health assessment should be encouraged among patients with chronic hepatitis B, especially in those with fatty liver disease.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17762, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493798

RESUMO

To establish age- and sex-specific distribution of the infrarenal abdominal aortic diameters (IAD) among non-aneurysmal elderly population and to investigate the associations between traditional cardiovascular risk factors and IAD in men and women. We included 4032 participants (mean age 67.2 years; 60.4% women) from the population-based Rotterdam Study, free of cardiovascular disease, who underwent IAD ultrasound assessment between 2009-2014. Linear regression analysis was used to identify determinants of IAD. The medians (inter-quartile range) of absolute IAD and body surface area (BSA)-adjusted IAD were 17.0 (15.0-18.0) mm and 9.3 (8.5-10.2) mm for women and 19.0 (18.0-21.0) mm and 9.4 (8.6-10.3) mm for men, respectively. There was a non-linear relationship between age and IAD. IAD increased steeply with advancing age and up to 70 years. After around 75 years of age, the diameter values reached a plateau. Waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure were associated with larger diameters in both sexes. Body mass index [Effect estimate (95% CI): 0.04 (0.00 to 0.08)], systolic blood pressure [- 0.01(- 0.02 to 0.00)], current smoking [0.35 (0.06 to 0.65)], total cholesterol levels [- 0.21 (- 0.31 to - 0.11)], and lipid-lowering medication [- 0.43 (- 0.67 to - 0.19)] were significantly associated with IAD in women. Sex differences in IAD values diminished after taking BSA into account. The increase in diameters was attenuated after 70 years. Differences were observed in the associations of several cardiovascular risk factors with IAD among men and women.

4.
Hepatology ; 2021 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537988

RESUMO

Cirrhosis, highly prevalent worldwide, develops after years of hepatic inflammation triggering progressive fibrosis. Currently, the main etiologies of cirrhosis are non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcohol-related liver disease (ALD), although chronic hepatitis B and C infections are still major etiological factors in some areas of the world. Recent studies have shown that liver fibrosis can be assessed with relatively high accuracy non-invasively by serological tests, transient elastography, and radiological methods. These modalities may be utilized for screening for liver fibrosis in at-risk populations. Thus far, a limited number of population-based studies using non-invasive tests in different areas of the world indicate that a significant percentage of subjects without known liver disease (around 5% in general populations and a higher rate -18 to 27%- in populations with risk factors for liver disease) have significant undetected liver fibrosis or established cirrhosis. Larger international studies are required to show the harms and benefits before concluding that screening for liver fibrosis should be applied to populations at risk for chronic liver diseases. Screening for liver fibrosis has the potential for changing the current approach from diagnosing chronic liver diseases late when patients have already developed complications of cirrhosis to diagnosing liver fibrosis in asymptomatic subjects providing the opportunity of preventing disease progression.

6.
J Clin Virol ; 141: 104870, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis D virus infection (HDV) is considered the most severe form of viral hepatitis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of HDV infection in a tertiary center of a large, multi-ethnic city in the Netherlands. Moreover, we validate the reliability of a novel anti-HDV CLIA assay. METHODS: All HBsAg-positive patients visiting the outpatient clinic between 2017 and 2019 were tested for HDV serology. Seropositive serum samples were further assessed by HDV RNA PCR and Sanger sequencing to identify the HDV genotype. RESULTS: The CLIA assay was 100% sensitive and 98% specific. Out of 925 patients 3.7% tested seropositive for HDV, and HDV viremia was confirmed in 2.0%. The majority of patients had a non-Dutch background and did not speak English or Dutch. We detected HDV genotype 5 (N = 3), and genotype 1 (N = 15). Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated HDV1 clusters composed of sub-Saharan Africa isolates, central Asian, Turkish, Iranian and European isolates. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HDV infection in a tertiary center in the Netherlands was 2.0% among HBsAg-positive individuals, and mainly in non-Dutch individuals. Only HDV genotype 1 and 5 isolates were detected, which was found to match with the patient's country of origin.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Hepatite B , Hepatite D , Genótipo , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Hepatite D/epidemiologia , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/genética , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Liver Transpl ; 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081828

RESUMO

Spontaneous operational tolerance to the allograft develops in a proportion of liver transplantation (LT) recipients weaned off immunosuppressive (IS) drugs. Several studies have investigated whether peripheral blood circulating T cells could play a role in the development or identify operational tolerance, but never characterized alloreactive T cells in detail due to the lack of a marker for these T cells. In this study, we comprehensively investigated phenotypic and functional characteristics of alloreactive circulating T cell subsets in tolerant LT recipients (n = 15) using multiparameter flow cytometry and compared these with LT recipients on IS drugs (n = 23) and healthy individuals (n = 16). Activation-induced CD137 was used as a marker for alloreactive T cells upon allogenic stimulation. We found that central and effector memory CD4+ T cells were hyporesponsive against donor and third-party splenocyte stimulation in tolerant LT recipients, whereas an overall hyperresponsiveness was observed in alloreactive terminally differentiated effector memory CD4+ T cells. In addition, elevated percentages of circulating activated T helper cells were observed in these recipients. Lastly, tolerant and control LT recipients did not differ in donor-specific antibody formation. In conclusion, a combination of circulating hyperresponsive highly differentiated alloreactive CD4+ T cells and circulating activated T helper cells could discriminate tolerant recipients from a larger group of LT recipients.

8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2830, 2021 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990564

RESUMO

Coffee and tea are extensively consumed beverages worldwide which have received considerable attention regarding health. Intake of these beverages is consistently linked to, among others, reduced risk of diabetes and liver diseases; however, the mechanisms of action remain elusive. Epigenetics is suggested as a mechanism mediating the effects of dietary and lifestyle factors on disease onset. Here we report the results from epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) on coffee and tea consumption in 15,789 participants of European and African-American ancestries from 15 cohorts. EWAS meta-analysis of coffee consumption reveals 11 CpGs surpassing the epigenome-wide significance threshold (P-value <1.1×10-7), which annotated to the AHRR, F2RL3, FLJ43663, HDAC4, GFI1 and PHGDH genes. Among them, cg14476101 is significantly associated with expression of the PHGDH and risk of fatty liver disease. Knockdown of PHGDH expression in liver cells shows a correlation with expression levels of genes associated with circulating lipids, suggesting a role of PHGDH in hepatic-lipid metabolism. EWAS meta-analysis on tea consumption reveals no significant association, only two CpGs annotated to CACNA1A and PRDM16 genes show suggestive association (P-value <5.0×10-6). These findings indicate that coffee-associated changes in DNA methylation levels may explain the mechanism of action of coffee consumption in conferring risk of diseases.


Assuntos
Café/efeitos adversos , Metilação de DNA , Epigenoma , Chá/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoglicerato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfoglicerato Desidrogenase/genética , Fatores de Risco
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2579, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972514

RESUMO

Serum concentration of hepatic enzymes are linked to liver dysfunction, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We perform genetic analysis on serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) using data on 437,438 UK Biobank participants. Replication in 315,572 individuals from European descent from the Million Veteran Program, Rotterdam Study and Lifeline study confirms 517 liver enzyme SNPs. Genetic risk score analysis using the identified SNPs is strongly associated with serum activity of liver enzymes in two independent European descent studies (The Airwave Health Monitoring study and the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966). Gene-set enrichment analysis using the identified SNPs highlights involvement in liver development and function, lipid metabolism, insulin resistance, and vascular formation. Mendelian randomization analysis shows association of liver enzyme variants with coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke. Genetic risk score for elevated serum activity of liver enzymes is associated with higher fat percentage of body, trunk, and liver and body mass index. Our study highlights the role of molecular pathways regulated by the liver in metabolic disorders and cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Fígado/enzimologia , Doenças Metabólicas/genética , gama-Glutamiltransferase/genética , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/enzimologia , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Doenças Metabólicas/enzimologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is a new terminology updated from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we aim to estimate the global prevalence of MAFLD specifically in overweight and obese adults from the general population by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis through mining the existing epidemiological data on fatty liver disease. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane and google scholar database from inception to November, 2020. DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model with Logit transformation was performed for data analysis. Sensitivity analysis and meta-regression were used to explore predictors of MAFLD prevalence in pooled statistics with high heterogeneity. RESULTS: We identified 116 relevant studies comprised of 2,667,052 participants in general population with an estimated global MAFLD prevalence as 50.7% (95% CI 46.9-54.4) among overweight/obese adults regardless of diagnostic techniques. Ultrasound was the most commonly used diagnostic technique generating prevalence rate of 51.3% (95% CI, 49.1-53.4). Male (59.0%; 95% CI, 52.0-65.6) had a significantly higher MAFLD prevalence than female (47.5%; 95% CI, 40.7-54.5). Interestingly, MAFLD prevalence rates are comparable based on classical NAFLD and non-NAFLD studies in general population. The pooled estimate prevalence of comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome was 19.7% (95% CI, 12.8-29.0) and 57.5% (95% CI, 49.9-64.8), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: MAFLD has an astonishingly high prevalence rate in overweight and obese adults. This calls for attention and dedicated action from primary care physicians, specialists, health policy makers and the general public alike.

12.
Hepatology ; 73(3): 968-982, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Previous small studies have appraised the gut microbiome (GM) in steatosis, but large-scale studies are lacking. We studied the association of the GM diversity and composition, plasma metabolites, predicted functional metagenomics, and steatosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study. We used 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and determined taxonomy using the SILVA reference database. Alpha diversity and beta diversity were calculated using the Shannon diversity index and Bray-Curtis dissimilarities. Differences were tested across steatosis using permutational multivariate analysis of variance. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed by ultrasonography. We subsequently selected genera using regularized regression. The functional metagenome was predicted based on the GM using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Serum metabolomics were assessed using high-throughput proton nuclear magnetic resonance. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, alcohol, diet, and proton-pump inhibitors. We included 1,355 participants, of whom 472 had steatosis. Alpha diversity was lower in steatosis (P = 1.1∙10-9 ), and beta diversity varied across steatosis strata (P = 0.001). Lasso selected 37 genera of which three remained significantly associated after adjustment (Coprococcus3: ß = -65; Ruminococcus Gauvreauiigroup: ß = 62; and Ruminococcus Gnavusgroup: ß = 45, Q-value = 0.037). Predicted metagenome analyses revealed that pathways of secondary bile-acid synthesis and biotin metabolism were present, and D-alanine metabolism was absent in steatosis. Metabolic profiles showed positive associations for aromatic and branched chain amino acids and glycoprotein acetyls with steatosis and R. Gnavusgroup, whereas these metabolites were inversely associated with alpha diversity and Coprococcus3. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed, on a large-scale, the lower microbial diversity and association of Coprococcus and Ruminococcus Gnavus with steatosis. We additionally showed that steatosis and alpha diversity share opposite metabolic profiles.

13.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 53(3): 432-442, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatty liver disease (FLD) is the most common cause of liver dysfunction in developed countries. There is great interest in developing clinically valid and minimally invasive biomarkers to enhance early diagnosis of FLD. AIM: To investigate the potential of circulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) as biomarkers of FLD at the population level. METHODS: Plasma levels of 2083 miRNAs were measured by RNA sequencing in 1999 participants from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study cohort. The Hounsfield Unit (HU) attenuation of liver was measured using non-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan. Logistic and linear regression models adjusting for potential confounders were used to examine the association of circulatory miRNAs with liver enzymes (n = 1991) and CT-based FLD (n = 954). Moreover, the association of miRNAs with hepatic steatosis and liver fibrosis was assessed longitudinally in individuals who underwent abdominal ultrasound (n = 1211) and transient elastography (n = 777) after a median follow-up of >6 years. RESULTS: Cross-sectional analysis showed 61 miRNAs significantly associated with serum gamma-glutamyl transferase and/or alkaline phosphatase levels (Bonferroni-corrected P < 8.46 × 10-5 ). Moreover, 17 miRNAs were significantly associated with CT-based FLD (P < 8.46 × 10-5 ); 14 were among miRNAs associated with liver enzymes. Longitudinal analysis showed that 4 of these 14 miRNAs (miR-193a-5p, miR-122-5p, miR-378d and miR-187-3p) were significantly associated with hepatic steatosis (P < 3.57 × 10-3 ) and three (miR-193a-5p, miR-122-5p and miR-193b-3p) were nominally associated with liver fibrosis (P < 0.05). Nine of the 14 identified miRNAs were involved in pathways underlying liver diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma levels of several miRNAs can be used as biomarkers of FLD, laying the groundwork for future clinical applications.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias , MicroRNAs , Biomarcadores , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
J Hepatol ; 74(5): 1053-1063, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: HCV-infected patients with cirrhosis achieve high sustained virological response (SVR) rates with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) even after hepatic decompensation. We aimed to assess the clinical outcome following DAAs among patients with compensated and decompensated cirrhosis in relation to SVR and changes in model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score. METHODS: Consecutive DAA-treated chronic HCV-infected patients with cirrhosis from 4 hepatology clinics were included. The primary endpoint in survival analyses was clinical disease progression, defined as liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplantation or death. RESULTS: In total, 868 patients were included with a median age of 59 (IQR 54-65) years; 719 (83%) with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis and 149 (17%) with Child-Pugh B/C cirrhosis. SVR was attained by 647 (90%) Child-Pugh A patients and 120 (81%) Child-Pugh B/C patients. During a median follow-up of 28 (IQR 20-36) months, 102 (14%) Child-Pugh A patients and 96 (64%) Child-Pugh B/C patients experienced clinical disease progression. SVR was independently associated with an improved event-free survival in patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.47; 95% CI 0.27-0.82, p = 0.007), but not in patients with Child-Pugh B/C cirrhosis (adjusted HR 1.23; 95% CI 0.67-2.26; p = 0.51). Twelve weeks post-DAAs, 28 (19%) patients with Child-Pugh B/C cirrhosis had ≥2-point MELD decline, but their 2-year event-free survival did not differ from those with a stable MELD (47.9%; 95% CI 28.7-67.1 vs. 48.9%; 95% CI 38.1-59.7, respectively, p = 0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with chronic HCV infection, DAA-induced SVR was associated with a reduced risk of clinical disease progression in patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis but not in patients with Child-Pugh B/C cirrhosis. In Child-Pugh B/C cirrhosis, a ≥2-point MELD decline did not translate into improved clinical outcome. LAY SUMMARY: Chronic HCV infection can be cured with antiviral therapy. In this study, we evaluated the long-term effects of antiviral therapy on liver-related complications in patients with cirrhosis. Our results suggest that patients with compensated cirrhosis who were cured of their HCV infection have a lower rate of complications. In contrast, the rate of complications was not related to virological cure among those with decompensated cirrhosis. While these patients seem to remain in need of liver transplantation, antiviral therapy may lower their priority on the liver transplantation waiting list.

15.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 53(2): 314-320, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) RNA may reflect intrahepatic HBV replication. Novel anti-viral drugs have shown potent HBV RNA decline without concomitant hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) decrease. How this relates to off-treatment response is yet unclear. AIM: To study the degree of on-treatment viral antigen decline among patients with pronounced HBV RNA decrease in relation to off-treatment sustained response and HBsAg loss. METHODS: HBV RNA, HBsAg and hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) were quantified in patients with chronic hepatitis B who participated in two randomised controlled trials of peginterferon-based therapy. Sustained response (HBV DNA <2000 IU/mL) and/or HBsAg loss were assessed in patients with and without on-treatment HBV RNA response (either >2 log HBV RNA decline or >1 log decline resulting in an undetectable value at on-treatment week 24), stratified by concomitant HBsAg decline (<0.5/0.5-1/>1 log). RESULTS: We enrolled 279 patients; 176 were hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive, and 103 were HBeAg-negative. Sustained response was achieved in 20.4% of patients. At on-treatment week 24, HBV RNA response was associated with higher sustained response rates (27.4% vs 13.0% in non-responders, P =  0.004). However, among patients with an HBV RNA response (n = 135), 56.4% did not experience >0.5 log HBsAg decline. Among HBV RNA responders, sustained response was achieved in 47.6% of those with >1 log HBsAg decline (n = 20/42), vs 16.0% with <0.5 log decline (n = 12/75, P = 0.001). Similar results were obtained with HBcrAg and when response was defined as HBsAg loss. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, many patients with HBV RNA response during peginterferon-based treatment did not experience HBsAg and/or HBcrAg decline. The absence of concomitant decline in these viral antigens was associated with low rates of treatment response and HBsAg loss. Future trials should therefore consider kinetics of combined biomarkers to assess anti-viral efficacy. Trial registration, ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00114361, NCT00146705.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Hepatite B Crônica , Antígenos Virais/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , DNA Viral , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Antígenos E da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Probabilidade , RNA/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Infect Dis ; 224(3): 443-452, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis is associated with poor liver-related outcomes and mortality. People with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH) may be at increased risk. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with liver fibrosis in PWH compared to population controls. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional cohort study comparing 342 PWH with 2190 population controls aged 50-70 years.Transient elastography was performed and elevated liver stiffness measurement (LSM) defined as 7.6 kPa as a proxy for significant liver fibrosis. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were computed by logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of elevated LSM was higher in PWH than in uninfected controls (12% vs 7%; P < .01). Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was independently associated with elevated LSM. In multivariate analysis, elevated LSM was associated with HIV (aOR, 1.84 [95% CI, 1.17-2.88]; P < .01); higher age (per decade: aOR, 3.34 [95% CI, 1.81-6.18]; P < .01); alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (per 10 IU/L: aOR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.05-1.49]; P < .01); body mass index (BMI) (per 1 kg/m2: aOR, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.05-1.29]; P < .01), and previous exposure to didanosine (per year: aOR, 2.26 [95% CI, 1.01-5.06]; P = .04). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of elevated LSM was higher in PWH compared to population controls. Higher age, BMI, ALT, previous exposure to didanosine, and positive HIV status were independently associated with higher odds of elevated LSM.

17.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 52(8): 1399-1406, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend liver biopsy to rule out significant inflammatory activity in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with elevated hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA but without other indications for treatment. AIM: To study rates and determinants of clinically significant liver inflammation. METHODS: We selected patients with HBV DNA > 2000 IU/mL from the SONIC-B database. The presence of significant inflammation (METAVIR ≥ A2 or HAI ≥ 9) was assessed by liver biopsy and correlated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (according to AASLD upper limits of normal [ULN]) and stratified by the presence of significant liver fibrosis (Ishak ≥ 3 or METAVIR ≥ F2). RESULTS: The cohort included 2991 patients; 1672 were HBeAg-positive. ALT was < ULN in 270 (9%), 1-2 times ULN in 852 (29%) and > 2 times ULN in 1869 (63%). Significant fibrosis was found in 1419 (47%) and significant inflammatory activity in 630 (21%). Significant inflammatory activity was found in 34% of patients with liver fibrosis, compared to 9.5% of those without (P < 0.001). Among patients without fibrosis, significant inflammatory activity was detected in 3.6% of those with normal ALT, 5.0% of those with ALT 1-2 times ULN and in 13% of those with ALT > 2 times ULN (P < 0.001). ALT < 2 times ULN had a negative predictive value of 95% for ruling out significant inflammatory activity among patients without liver fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients without significant fibrosis, an ALT level < 2 times ULN is associated with < 5% probability of significant inflammatory activity. If fibrosis can be ruled out using non-invasive methods, liver biopsy solely to assess inflammatory activity should be discouraged.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite/diagnóstico , Hepatite/etiologia , Adulto , Biópsia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hepatite/sangue , Hepatite/epidemiologia , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite B Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Inflamação/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probabilidade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus infection is finite and leads to relatively higher functional cure rates (HBsAg loss) than nucleo(s)tide analogue (NA) therapy. Effects of pegylated (PEG)/conventional IFN-α treatment on clinical outcomes were evaluated in an ultra-long-term follow-up of CHB patients. METHODS: HBeAg-positive patients treated with (PEG)IFN-α at a tertiary referral centre between 1977-2014 were included. We reviewed medical charts and consulted the municipal registry for patient information. Patients were invited for a single visit at the outpatient clinic in the case of missing follow-up data. The endpoints included serum HBeAg/HBsAg loss and incidence of clinical events, using life table methods and person-years to analyze the incidence of events. Patients were censored upon retreatment. RESULTS: The study cohort included 267 patients, 67% male, 58% Caucasian, with a median age of 32 years. The median follow-up duration was 11.5 years. The 5 and 10-year cumulative incidence of HBsAg loss were 14% and 32%, respectively. Baseline factors associated with a higher rate of HBsAg loss were male sex, Caucasian race, genotype A, age ≥40 years, and cirrhosis. HBsAg loss rates did not differ significantly between those who received short-term (≤24 weeks) vs long-term (>24 weeks) therapy. Both HBeAg and HBsAg loss were significantly associated with improved clinical outcomes. Early response (HBeAg loss) was associated with more HBsAg loss and better patient outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: During long-term follow-up, high rates of HBsAg loss were observed from a single (PEG)IFN-α course. Its persistent effects suggest that a role for IFN-α remains, potentially in novel combination therapies in search of a functional cure.

19.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(5): 483-517, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367290

RESUMO

The Rotterdam Study is an ongoing prospective cohort study that started in 1990 in the city of Rotterdam, The Netherlands. The study aims to unravel etiology, preclinical course, natural history and potential targets for intervention for chronic diseases in mid-life and late-life. The study focuses on cardiovascular, endocrine, hepatic, neurological, ophthalmic, psychiatric, dermatological, otolaryngological, locomotor, and respiratory diseases. As of 2008, 14,926 subjects aged 45 years or over comprise the Rotterdam Study cohort. Since 2016, the cohort is being expanded by persons aged 40 years and over. The findings of the Rotterdam Study have been presented in over 1700 research articles and reports. This article provides an update on the rationale and design of the study. It also presents a summary of the major findings from the preceding 3 years and outlines developments for the coming period.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Projetos de Pesquisa Epidemiológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(11): 1069-1085, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323115

RESUMO

Dietary lifestyle intervention is key in treating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to examine the longitudinal relation between well-established dietary patterns as well as population-specific dietary patterns and NAFLD. Participants from two subsequent visits of the Rotterdam Study were included. All underwent serial abdominal ultrasonography (median follow-up: 4.4 years) and filled in a food frequency questionnaire. Secondary causes of steatosis were excluded. Dietary data from 389 items were collapsed into 28 food groups and a posteriori dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis. Additionally, we scored three a priori dietary patterns (Mediterranean Diet Score, Dutch Dietary Guidelines and WHO-score). Logistic mixed regression models were used to examine the relation between dietary patterns and NAFLD. Analyses were adjusted for demographic, lifestyle and metabolic factors. We included 963 participants of whom 343 had NAFLD. Follow-up data was available in 737 participants. Incident NAFLD was 5% and regressed NAFLD was 30%. We identified five a posteriori dietary patterns (cumulative explained variation [R2] = 20%). The patterns were characterised as: vegetable and fish, red meat and alcohol, traditional, salty snacks and sauces, high fat dairy & refined grains pattern. Adherence to the traditional pattern (i.e. high intake of vegetable oils/stanols, margarines/butters, potatoes, whole grains and sweets/desserts) was associated with regression of NAFLD per SD increase in Z-score (0.40, 95% CI 0.15-1.00). Adherence to the three a priori patterns all showed regression of NAFLD, but only the WHO-score showed a distinct association (0.73, 95% CI 0.53-1.00). Hence, in this large elderly population, adherence to a plant-based, high-fibre and low-fat diet was related to regression of NAFLD.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Grãos Integrais/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta Mediterrânea , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Verduras
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