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1.
Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp201918101144, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352813

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Asymmetry is a subtle but pervasive aspect of the human brain, and it may be altered in several psychiatric conditions. MRI studies have shown subtle differences of brain anatomy between people with major depressive disorder and healthy control subjects, but few studies have specifically examined brain anatomical asymmetry in relation to this disorder, and results from those studies have remained inconclusive. At the functional level, some electroencephalography studies have indicated left fronto-cortical hypoactivity and right parietal hypoactivity in depressive disorders, so aspects of lateralized anatomy may also be affected. The authors used pooled individual-level data from data sets collected around the world to investigate differences in laterality in measures of cortical thickness, cortical surface area, and subcortical volume between individuals with major depression and healthy control subjects. METHODS: The authors investigated differences in the laterality of thickness and surface area measures of 34 cerebral cortical regions in 2,256 individuals with major depression and 3,504 control subjects from 31 separate data sets, and they investigated volume asymmetries of eight subcortical structures in 2,540 individuals with major depression and 4,230 control subjects from 32 data sets. T1-weighted MRI data were processed with a single protocol using FreeSurfer and the Desikan-Killiany atlas. The large sample size provided 80% power to detect effects of the order of Cohen's d=0.1. RESULTS: The largest effect size (Cohen's d) of major depression diagnosis was 0.085 for the thickness asymmetry of the superior temporal cortex, which was not significant after adjustment for multiple testing. Asymmetry measures were not significantly associated with medication use, acute compared with remitted status, first episode compared with recurrent status, or age at onset. CONCLUSIONS: Altered brain macro-anatomical asymmetry may be of little relevance to major depression etiology in most cases.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5986, 2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980028

RESUMO

Hand preference is a prominent behavioural trait linked to human brain asymmetry. A handful of genetic variants have been reported to associate with hand preference or quantitative measures related to it. Most of these reports were on the basis of limited sample sizes, by current standards for genetic analysis of complex traits. Here we performed a genome-wide association analysis of hand preference in the large, population-based UK Biobank cohort (N = 331,037). We used gene-set enrichment analysis to investigate whether genes involved in visceral asymmetry are particularly relevant to hand preference, following one previous report. We found no evidence supporting any of the previously suggested variants or genes, nor that genes involved in visceral laterality have a role in hand preference. It remains possible that some of the previously reported genes or pathways are relevant to hand preference as assessed in other ways, or else are relevant within specific disorder populations. However, some or all of the earlier findings are likely to be false positives, and none of them appear relevant to hand preference as defined categorically in the general population. Our analysis did produce a small number of novel, significant associations, including one implicating the microtubule-associated gene MAP2 in handedness.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 584, 2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679750

RESUMO

Hand preference is a conspicuous variation in human behaviour, with a worldwide proportion of around 90% of people preferring to use the right hand for many tasks, and 10% the left hand. We used the large cohort of the UK biobank (~500,000 participants) to study possible relations between early life factors and adult hand preference. The probability of being left-handed was affected by the year and location of birth, likely due to cultural effects. In addition, hand preference was affected by birthweight, being part of a multiple birth, season of birth, breastfeeding, and sex, with each effect remaining significant after accounting for all others. Analysis of genome-wide genotype data showed that left-handedness was very weakly heritable, but shared no genetic basis with birthweight. Although on average left-handers and right-handers differed for a number of early life factors, all together these factors had only a minimal predictive value for individual hand preference.

4.
Sci Data ; 5: 180164, 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30179233

RESUMO

Left-right asymmetry is subtle but pervasive in the human central nervous system. This asymmetry is initiated early during development, but its mechanisms are poorly known. Forebrains and midbrains were dissected from six human embryos at Carnegie stages 15 or 16, one of which was female. The structures were divided into left and right sides, and RNA was isolated. RNA was sequenced with 100 base-pair paired ends using Illumina Hiseq 4000. After quality control, five paired brain sides were available for midbrain and forebrain. A paired analysis between left- and right sides of a given brain structure across the embryos identified left-right differences. The dataset, consisting of Fastq files and a read count table, can be further used to study early development of the human brain.

5.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 12606, 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181561

RESUMO

Left-right laterality is an important aspect of human -and in fact all vertebrate- brain organization for which the genetic basis is poorly understood. Using RNA sequencing data we contrasted gene expression in left- and right-sided samples from several structures of the anterior central nervous systems of post mortem human embryos and foetuses. While few individual genes stood out as significantly lateralized, most structures showed evidence of laterality of their overall transcriptomic profiles. These left-right differences showed overlap with age-dependent changes in expression, indicating lateralized maturation rates, but not consistently in left-right orientation over all structures. Brain asymmetry may therefore originate in multiple locations, or if there is a single origin, it is earlier than 5 weeks post conception, with structure-specific lateralized processes already underway by this age. This pattern is broadly consistent with the weak correlations reported between various aspects of adult brain laterality, such as language dominance and handedness.

6.
JAMA Neurol ; 74(10): 1228-1236, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28806457

RESUMO

Importance: Knowing the range of symptoms seen in patients with a missense or loss-of-function variant in KCNB1 and how these symptoms correlate with the type of variant will help clinicians with diagnosis and prognosis when treating new patients. Objectives: To investigate the clinical spectrum associated with KCNB1 variants and the genotype-phenotype correlations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study summarized the clinical and genetic information of patients with a presumed pathogenic variant in KCNB1. Patients were identified in research projects or during clinical testing. Information on patients from previously published articles was collected and authors contacted if feasible. All patients were seen at a clinic at one of the participating institutes because of presumed genetic disorder. They were tested in a clinical setting or included in a research project. Main Outcomes and Measures: The genetic variant and its inheritance and information on the patient's symptoms and characteristics in a predefined format. All variants were identified with massive parallel sequencing and confirmed with Sanger sequencing in the patient. Absence of the variant in the parents could be confirmed with Sanger sequencing in all families except one. Results: Of 26 patients (10 female, 15 male, 1 unknown; mean age at inclusion, 9.8 years; age range, 2-32 years) with developmental delay, 20 (77%) carried a missense variant in the ion channel domain of KCNB1, with a concentration of variants in region S5 to S6. Three variants that led to premature stops were located in the C-terminal and 3 in the ion channel domain. Twenty-one of 25 patients (84%) had seizures, with 9 patients (36%) starting with epileptic spasms between 3 and 18 months of age. All patients had developmental delay, with 17 (65%) experiencing severe developmental delay; 14 (82%) with severe delay had behavioral problems. The developmental delay was milder in 4 of 6 patients with stop variants and in a patient with a variant in the S2 transmembrane element rather than the S4 to S6 region. Conclusions and Relevance: De novo KCNB1 missense variants in the ion channel domain and loss-of-function variants in this domain and the C-terminal likely cause neurodevelopmental disorders with or without seizures. Patients with presumed pathogenic variants in KCNB1 have a variable phenotype. However, the type and position of the variants in the protein are (imperfectly) correlated with the severity of the disorder.


Assuntos
Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Canais de Potássio Shab/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Psychiatr Genet ; 27(4): 152-158, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28368970

RESUMO

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious and heritable psychiatric disorder. To date, studies of copy number variants (CNVs) have been limited and inconclusive because of small sample sizes. We conducted a case-only genome-wide CNV survey in 1983 female AN cases included in the Genetic Consortium for Anorexia Nervosa. Following stringent quality control procedures, we investigated whether pathogenic CNVs in regions previously implicated in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders were present in AN cases. We observed two instances of the well-established pathogenic CNVs in AN cases. In addition, one case had a deletion in the 13q12 region, overlapping with a deletion reported previously in two AN cases. As a secondary aim, we also examined our sample for CNVs over 1 Mbp in size. Out of the 40 instances of such large CNVs that were not implicated previously for AN or neuropsychiatric phenotypes, two of them contained genes with previous neuropsychiatric associations, and only five of them had no associated reports in public CNV databases. Although ours is the largest study of its kind in AN, larger datasets are needed to comprehensively assess the role of CNVs in the etiology of AN.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/genética , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Adulto , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
8.
Biol Psychiatry ; 82(3): 204-212, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28267988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left-right asymmetry is a fundamental organizing feature of the human brain, and neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia sometimes involve alterations of brain asymmetry. As early as 8 weeks postconception, the majority of human fetuses move their right arms more than their left arms, but because nerve fiber tracts are still descending from the forebrain at this stage, spinal-muscular asymmetries are likely to play an important developmental role. METHODS: We used RNA sequencing to measure gene expression levels in the left and right spinal cords, and the left and right hindbrains, of 18 postmortem human embryos aged 4 to 8 weeks postconception. Genes showing embryonic lateralization were tested for an enrichment of signals in genome-wide association data for schizophrenia. RESULTS: The left side of the embryonic spinal cord was found to mature faster than the right side. Both sides transitioned from transcriptional profiles associated with cell division and proliferation at earlier stages to neuronal differentiation and function at later stages, but the two sides were not in synchrony (p = 2.2 E-161). The hindbrain showed a left-right mirrored pattern compared with the spinal cord, consistent with the well-known crossing over of function between these two structures. Genes that showed lateralization in the embryonic spinal cord were enriched for association signals with schizophrenia (p = 4.3 E-05). CONCLUSIONS: These are the earliest stage left-right differences of human neural development ever reported. Disruption of the lateralized developmental program may play a role in the genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Rombencéfalo/embriologia , Rombencéfalo/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/embriologia , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Lateralidade Funcional , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Rombencéfalo/patologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/patologia
9.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 4(5): 568-80, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27652284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many genes are candidates for involvement in epileptic encephalopathy (EE) because one or a few possibly pathogenic variants have been found in patients, but insufficient genetic or functional evidence exists for a definite annotation. METHODS: To increase the number of validated EE genes, we sequenced 26 known and 351 candidate genes for EE in 360 patients. Variants in 25 genes known to be involved in EE or related phenotypes were followed up in 41 patients. We prioritized the candidate genes, and followed up 31 variants in this prioritized subset of candidate genes. RESULTS: Twenty-nine genotypes in known genes for EE (19) or related diseases (10), dominant as well as recessive or X-linked, were classified as likely pathogenic variants. Among those, likely pathogenic de novo variants were found in EE genes that act dominantly, including the recently identified genes EEF1A2, KCNB1 and the X-linked gene IQSEC2. A de novo frameshift variant in candidate gene HNRNPU was the only de novo variant found among the followed-up candidate genes, and the patient's phenotype was similar to a few recent publications. CONCLUSION: Mutations in genes described in OMIM as, for example, intellectual disability gene can lead to phenotypes that get classified as EE in the clinic. We confirmed existing literature reports that de novo loss-of-function HNRNPUmutations lead to severe developmental delay and febrile seizures in the first year of life.

10.
J Med Genet ; 53(12): 850-858, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27358180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the KIAA2022 gene have been reported in male patients with X-linked intellectual disability, and related female carriers were unaffected. Here, we report 14 female patients who carry a heterozygous de novo KIAA2022 mutation and share a phenotype characterised by intellectual disability and epilepsy. METHODS: Reported females were selected for genetic testing because of substantial developmental problems and/or epilepsy. X-inactivation and expression studies were performed when possible. RESULTS: All mutations were predicted to result in a frameshift or premature stop. 12 out of 14 patients had intractable epilepsy with myoclonic and/or absence seizures, and generalised in 11. Thirteen patients had mild to severe intellectual disability. This female phenotype partially overlaps with the reported male phenotype which consists of more severe intellectual disability, microcephaly, growth retardation, facial dysmorphisms and, less frequently, epilepsy. One female patient showed completely skewed X-inactivation, complete absence of RNA expression in blood and a phenotype similar to male patients. In the six other tested patients, X-inactivation was random, confirmed by a non-significant twofold to threefold decrease of RNA expression in blood, consistent with the expected mosaicism between cells expressing mutant or normal KIAA2022 alleles. CONCLUSIONS: Heterozygous loss of KIAA2022 expression is a cause of intellectual disability in females. Compared with its hemizygous male counterpart, the heterozygous female disease has less severe intellectual disability, but is more often associated with a severe and intractable myoclonic epilepsy.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/metabolismo , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Mosaicismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Inativação do Cromossomo X , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos X , Códon sem Sentido , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/genética , Feminino , Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome
11.
Neurology ; 86(23): 2171-8, 2016 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27164704

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the phenotypic spectrum caused by mutations in GRIN1 encoding the NMDA receptor subunit GluN1 and to investigate their underlying functional pathophysiology. METHODS: We collected molecular and clinical data from several diagnostic and research cohorts. Functional consequences of GRIN1 mutations were investigated in Xenopus laevis oocytes. RESULTS: We identified heterozygous de novo GRIN1 mutations in 14 individuals and reviewed the phenotypes of all 9 previously reported patients. These 23 individuals presented with a distinct phenotype of profound developmental delay, severe intellectual disability with absent speech, muscular hypotonia, hyperkinetic movement disorder, oculogyric crises, cortical blindness, generalized cerebral atrophy, and epilepsy. Mutations cluster within transmembrane segments and result in loss of channel function of varying severity with a dominant-negative effect. In addition, we describe 2 homozygous GRIN1 mutations (1 missense, 1 truncation), each segregating with severe neurodevelopmental phenotypes in consanguineous families. CONCLUSIONS: De novo GRIN1 mutations are associated with severe intellectual disability with cortical visual impairment as well as oculomotor and movement disorders being discriminating phenotypic features. Loss of NMDA receptor function appears to be the underlying disease mechanism. The identification of both heterozygous and homozygous mutations blurs the borders of dominant and recessive inheritance of GRIN1-associated disorders.


Assuntos
Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/genética , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Consanguinidade , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Transtornos dos Movimentos/genética , Transtornos dos Movimentos/metabolismo , Oócitos , Fenótipo , Convulsões/genética , Convulsões/metabolismo , Xenopus laevis
12.
J Neurol ; 263(1): 11-6, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26459092

RESUMO

We report a new family with autosomal dominant epilepsy with auditory features (ADEAF) including focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) in the proband. We aim to identify the molecular cause in this family and clarify the relationship between FCD and ADEAF. A large Iranian Jewish family including 14 individuals with epileptic seizures was phenotyped including high-resolution 3-T MRI. We performed linkage analysis and exome sequencing. LGI1, KANK1 and RELN were Sanger sequenced. Seizure semiology of 11 individuals was consistent with ADEAF. The proband underwent surgery for right mesiotemporal FCD. 3-T MRIs in four individuals were unremarkable. Linkage analysis revealed peaks on chromosome 9p24 (LOD 2.43) and 10q22-25 (LOD 2.04). A novel heterozygous LGI1 mutation was identified in all affected individuals except for the proband indicating a phenocopy. Exome sequencing did not reveal variants within the chromosome 9p24 region. Closely located variants in KANK1 and a RELN variant did not segregate with the phenotype. We provide detailed description of the phenotypic spectrum within a large ADEAF family with a novel LGI1 mutation that was conspicuously absent in the proband with FCD, demonstrating that despite identical clinical symptoms, phenocopies in ADEAF families may exist. This family illustrates that rare epilepsy syndromes within a single family can have both genetic and structural etiologies.


Assuntos
Epilepsia do Lobo Frontal , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical , Proteínas/genética , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia do Lobo Frontal/genética , Epilepsia do Lobo Frontal/patologia , Epilepsia do Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Éxons , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Israel , Judeus/genética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/genética , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/patologia , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/genética , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/patologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Brain ; 138(Pt 11): 3238-50, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26384929

RESUMO

The epileptic encephalopathies are a clinically and aetiologically heterogeneous subgroup of epilepsy syndromes. Most epileptic encephalopathies have a genetic cause and patients are often found to carry a heterozygous de novo mutation in one of the genes associated with the disease entity. Occasionally recessive mutations are identified: a recent publication described a distinct neonatal epileptic encephalopathy (MIM 615905) caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the SLC13A5 gene. Here, we report eight additional patients belonging to four different families with autosomal recessive mutations in SLC13A5. SLC13A5 encodes a high affinity sodium-dependent citrate transporter, which is expressed in the brain. Neurons are considered incapable of de novo synthesis of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates; therefore they rely on the uptake of intermediates, such as citrate, to maintain their energy status and neurotransmitter production. The effect of all seven identified mutations (two premature stops and five amino acid substitutions) was studied in vitro, using immunocytochemistry, selective western blot and mass spectrometry. We hereby demonstrate that cells expressing mutant sodium-dependent citrate transporter have a complete loss of citrate uptake due to various cellular loss-of-function mechanisms. In addition, we provide independent proof of the involvement of autosomal recessive SLC13A5 mutations in the development of neonatal epileptic encephalopathies, and highlight teeth hypoplasia as a possible indicator for SLC13A5 screening. All three patients who tried the ketogenic diet responded well to this treatment, and future studies will allow us to ascertain whether this is a recurrent feature in this severe disorder.


Assuntos
Anodontia/genética , Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Simportadores/genética , Adolescente , Encefalopatias/genética , Criança , Feminino , Genes Recessivos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Linhagem , Simportadores/metabolismo
14.
Neurology ; 85(7): 596-603, 2015 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26203087

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of vaccination-associated seizure onset on disease course and estimate the risk of subsequent seizures after infant pertussis combination and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccinations in Dravet syndrome (DS). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from hospital medical files, child health clinics, and the vaccination register for children with DS and pathogenic SCN1A mutations. Seizures within 24 hours after infant whole-cell, acellular, or nonpertussis combination vaccination or within 5 to 12 days after MMR vaccination were defined as "vaccination-associated." Risks of vaccination-associated seizures for the different vaccines were analyzed in univariable and in multivariable logistic regression for pertussis combination vaccines and by a self-controlled case series analysis using parental seizure registries for MMR vaccines. Disease courses of children with and without vaccination-associated seizure onset were compared. RESULTS: Children who had DS (n = 77) with and without vaccination-associated seizure onset (21% and 79%, respectively) differed in age at first seizure (median 3.7 vs 6.1 months, p < 0.001) but not in age at first nonvaccination-associated seizure, age at first report of developmental delay, or cognitive outcome. The risk of subsequent vaccination-associated seizures was significantly lower for acellular pertussis (9%; odds ratio 0.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05-0.71) and nonpertussis (8%; odds ratio 0.11, 95% CI 0.02-0.59) than whole-cell pertussis (37%; reference) vaccines. Self-controlled case series analysis showed an increased incidence rate ratio of seizures of 2.3 (95% CI 1.5-3.4) within the risk period of 5 to 12 days following MMR vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that vaccination-associated earlier seizure onset does not alter disease course in DS, while the risk of subsequent vaccination-associated seizures is probably vaccine-specific.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche Acelular/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/fisiopatologia , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/efeitos adversos , Convulsões/etiologia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/complicações , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.1/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Eat Disord ; 48(7): 814-25, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26171770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even though the evidence supporting the presence of a heritable component in the aetiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) is strong, the underlying genetic mechanisms remain poorly understood. The recent publication of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of AN (Boraska, Mol Psychiatry, 2014) was an important step in genetic research in AN. OBJECTIVE: To briefly sum up strengths and weaknesses of candidate-gene and genome-wide approaches, to discuss the genome-wide association studies of AN and to make predictions about the genetic architecture of AN by comparing it to that of schizophrenia (since the diseases share some similarities and genetic research in schizophrenia is more advanced). METHOD: Descriptive literature review. RESULTS: Despite remarkable efforts, the gene-association studies in AN did not advance our knowledge as much as had been hoped, although some results still await replication. DISCUSSION: Continuous effort of participants, clinicians and researchers remains necessary to ensure that genetic research in AN follows a similarly successful path as in schizophrenia. Identification of genetic susceptibility loci provides a basis for follow-up studies.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Feminino , Pesquisa em Genética , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Epilepsy Res ; 115: 141-4, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26220391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: De novo SCN8A missense mutations have been identified as a rare dominant cause of epileptic encephalopathy. We described a person with epileptic encephalopathy associated with a mosaic deletion of the SCN8A gene. METHODS: Array comparative genome hybridization was used to identify chromosomal abnormalities. Next Generation Sequencing was used to screen for variants in known and candidate epilepsy genes. A single nucleotide polymorphism array was used to test whether the SCN8A variants were in cis or in trans. RESULTS: We identified a de novo mosaic deletion of exons 2-14 of SCN8A, and a rare maternally inherited missense variant on the other allele in a woman presenting with absence seizures, challenging behavior, intellectual disability and QRS-fragmentation on the ECG. We also found a variant in SCN5A. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of a rare missense variant with a de novo mosaic deletion of a large part of the SCN8A gene suggests that other possible mechanisms for SCN8A mutations may cause epilepsy; loss of function, genetic modifiers and cellular interference may play a role. This case expands the phenotype associated with SCN8A mutations, with absence epilepsy and regression in language and memory skills.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/genética , Epilepsia Tipo Ausência/genética , Taxa de Mutação , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.6/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Epilepsia Tipo Ausência/fisiopatologia , Éxons , Feminino , Humanos , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.5/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.6/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
17.
Seizure ; 29: 90-6, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26076849

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine clinical phenotypes, evolution and genetic background of a large family with a combination of two unusual forms of reflex epilepsies. METHOD: Phenotyping was performed in eighteen family members (10 F, 8 M) including standardized EEG recordings with intermittent photic stimulation (IPS). Genetic analyses (linkage scans, Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) and Functional studies) were performed using photoparoxysmal EEG responses (PPRs) as affection status. RESULTS: The proband suffered from speaking induced jaw-jerks and increasing limb jerks evoked by flickering sunlight since about 50 years of age. Three of her family members had the same phenotype. Generalized PPRs were found in seven members (six above 50 years of age) with myoclonus during the PPR. Evolution was typical: Sensitivity to lights with migraine-like complaints around adolescence, followed by jerks evoked by lights and spontaneously with dropping of objects, and strong increase of light sensitivity and onset of talking induced jaw jerks around 50 years. Linkage analysis showed suggestive evidence for linkage to four genomic regions. All photosensitive family members shared a heterozygous R129C mutation in the SCNM1 gene that regulates splicing of voltage gated ion channels. Mutation screening of 134 unrelated PPR patients and 95 healthy controls, did not replicate these findings. CONCLUSION: This family presents a combination of two rare reflex epilepsies. Genetic analysis favors four genomic regions and points to a shared SCNM1 mutation that was not replicated in a general cohort of photosensitive subjects. Further genetic studies in families with similar combination of features are warranted.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Epilepsia Reflexa/genética , Epilepsia Reflexa/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Países Baixos , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Estimulação Luminosa , Fatores de Processamento de RNA , Adulto Jovem
18.
Brain ; 138(Pt 5): 1198-207, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25783594

RESUMO

Photosensitivity is a heritable abnormal cortical response to flickering light, manifesting as particular electroencephalographic changes, with or without seizures. Photosensitivity is prominent in a very rare epileptic encephalopathy due to de novo CHD2 mutations, but is also seen in epileptic encephalopathies due to other gene mutations. We determined whether CHD2 variation underlies photosensitivity in common epilepsies, specific photosensitive epilepsies and individuals with photosensitivity without seizures. We studied 580 individuals with epilepsy and either photosensitive seizures or abnormal photoparoxysmal response on electroencephalography, or both, and 55 individuals with photoparoxysmal response but no seizures. We compared CHD2 sequence data to publicly available data from 34 427 individuals, not enriched for epilepsy. We investigated the role of unique variants seen only once in the entire data set. We sought CHD2 variants in 238 exomes from familial genetic generalized epilepsies, and in other public exome data sets. We identified 11 unique variants in the 580 individuals with photosensitive epilepsies and 128 unique variants in the 34 427 controls: unique CHD2 variation is over-represented in cases overall (P = 2.17 × 10(-5)). Among epilepsy syndromes, there was over-representation of unique CHD2 variants (3/36 cases) in the archetypal photosensitive epilepsy syndrome, eyelid myoclonia with absences (P = 3.50 × 10(-4)). CHD2 variation was not over-represented in photoparoxysmal response without seizures. Zebrafish larvae with chd2 knockdown were tested for photosensitivity. Chd2 knockdown markedly enhanced mild innate zebrafish larval photosensitivity. CHD2 mutation is the first identified cause of the archetypal generalized photosensitive epilepsy syndrome, eyelid myoclonia with absences. Unique CHD2 variants are also associated with photosensitivity in common epilepsies. CHD2 does not encode an ion channel, opening new avenues for research into human cortical excitability.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Epilepsia Reflexa/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação/genética , Animais , Eletroencefalografia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes/métodos , Humanos , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Peixe-Zebra
19.
Neurology ; 84(5): 480-9, 2015 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25568300

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: SCN8A encodes the sodium channel voltage-gated α8-subunit (Nav1.6). SCN8A mutations have recently been associated with epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders. We aimed to delineate the phenotype associated with SCN8A mutations. METHODS: We used high-throughput sequence analysis of the SCN8A gene in 683 patients with a range of epileptic encephalopathies. In addition, we ascertained cases with SCN8A mutations from other centers. A detailed clinical history was obtained together with a review of EEG and imaging data. RESULTS: Seventeen patients with de novo heterozygous mutations of SCN8A were studied. Seizure onset occurred at a mean age of 5 months (range: 1 day to 18 months); in general, seizures were not triggered by fever. Fifteen of 17 patients had multiple seizure types including focal, tonic, clonic, myoclonic and absence seizures, and epileptic spasms; seizures were refractory to antiepileptic therapy. Development was normal in 12 patients and slowed after seizure onset, often with regression; 5 patients had delayed development from birth. All patients developed intellectual disability, ranging from mild to severe. Motor manifestations were prominent including hypotonia, dystonia, hyperreflexia, and ataxia. EEG findings comprised moderate to severe background slowing with focal or multifocal epileptiform discharges. CONCLUSION: SCN8A encephalopathy presents in infancy with multiple seizure types including focal seizures and spasms in some cases. Outcome is often poor and includes hypotonia and movement disorders. The majority of mutations arise de novo, although we observed a single case of somatic mosaicism in an unaffected parent.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Mutação/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.6/genética , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Internacionalidade , Masculino
20.
Nat Genet ; 46(12): 1327-32, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25362483

RESUMO

Febrile seizures affect 2-4% of all children and have a strong genetic component. Recurrent mutations in three main genes (SCN1A, SCN1B and GABRG2) have been identified that cause febrile seizures with or without epilepsy. Here we report the identification of mutations in STX1B, encoding syntaxin-1B, that are associated with both febrile seizures and epilepsy. Whole-exome sequencing in independent large pedigrees identified cosegregating STX1B mutations predicted to cause an early truncation or an in-frame insertion or deletion. Three additional nonsense or missense mutations and a de novo microdeletion encompassing STX1B were then identified in 449 familial or sporadic cases. Video and local field potential analyses of zebrafish larvae with antisense knockdown of stx1b showed seizure-like behavior and epileptiform discharges that were highly sensitive to increased temperature. Wild-type human syntaxin-1B but not a mutated protein rescued the effects of stx1b knockdown in zebrafish. Our results thus implicate STX1B and the presynaptic release machinery in fever-associated epilepsy syndromes.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Mutação , Convulsões Febris/genética , Sintaxina 1/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Códon sem Sentido , Estudos de Coortes , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Exoma , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Ligação Genética , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Temperatura Ambiente , Peixe-Zebra
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