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1.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Barth syndrome (BTHS) is a rare X-linked condition resulting in cardiomyopathy, however; the effects of BTHS on myocardial substrate metabolism and its relationships with cardiac high-energy phosphate metabolism and left ventricular (LV) function are unknown. We sought to characterize myocardial glucose, fatty acid (FA), and leucine metabolism in BTHS and unaffected controls and examine their relationships with cardiac high-energy phosphate metabolism and LV function. METHODS/RESULTS: Young adults with BTHS (n = 14) and unaffected controls (n = 11, Control, total n = 25) underwent bolus injections of 15O-water and 1-11C-glucose, palmitate, and leucine and concurrent positron emission tomography imaging. LV function and cardiac high-energy phosphate metabolism were examined via echocardiography and 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Myocardial glucose extraction fraction (21 ± 14% vs 10 ± 8%, P = .03) and glucose utilization (828.0 ± 470.0 vs 393.2 ± 361.0 µmol·g-1·min-1, P = .02) were significantly higher in BTHS vs Control. Myocardial FA extraction fraction (31 ± 7% vs 41 ± 6%, P < .002) and uptake (0.25 ± 0.04 vs 0.29 ± 0.03 mL·g-1·min-1, P < .002) were significantly lower in BTHS vs Control. Altered myocardial metabolism was associated with lower cardiac function in BTHS. CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial substrate metabolism is altered and may contribute to LV dysfunction in BTHS. Clinical Trials #: NCT01625663.

2.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(10): 458-485, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510778

RESUMO

One of 5 people will develop heart failure over his or her lifetime. Early diagnosis and better understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease are critical to optimal treatment. The "omics"-genomics, pharmacogenomics, epigenomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and microbiomics- of heart failure represent rapidly expanding fields of science that have, to date, not been integrated into a single body of work. The goals of this statement are to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of these omics as they relate to the development and progression of heart failure and to consider the current and potential future applications of these data for precision medicine with respect to prevention, diagnosis, and therapy.

3.
Glob Heart ; 14(2): 135-141, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and in low- and middle-income countries, and hypertension (HTN) is a major risk factor for CVD. Although effective evidence-based interventions for control of HTN in high-income countries exist, implementation of these in low- and middle-income countries has been challenging due to limited capacity and infrastructure for late-phase translational research. In Rwanda, the 2015 STEPS NCD (STEPwise Approach to Surveillance of Noncommunicable Diseases) risk survey reported an overall prevalence of HTN of 15% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 13.8 to 16.3) for those ages 15 to 64 years; prevalence increased with increasing age to 39% (95% CI: 35.7 to 43.1) for those ages 55 to 64 years; CVD was the third most common cause of mortality (7%). Suboptimal infrastructure and capacity in Rwanda hinders research and community knowledge for HTN control. OBJECTIVES: To address the issue of suboptimal capacity to implement evidence-based interventions in HTN, this project was designed with the following objectives: 1) to develop a regional needs assessment of infrastructure for dissemination and implementation (D & I) strategies for HTN-CVD control; 2) to develop HTN-CVD research capacity through creation of countrywide resources such as core research facilities and training in the fields of HTN-CVD, D & I, and biostatistics; and 3) to engage and train multiple stakeholders in D & I and HTN-CVD evidence-based interventions. METHODS: A weeklong training program in HTN-CVD, biostatistics, and D & I was conducted in Rwanda in August 2018, and pre- and post-D & I training competency questionnaires were administered. RESULTS: Questionnaire results show a statistically significant increase in D & I knowledge and skills as a result of training (full scale pre- to post-test scores: 2.12 ± 0.78 vs. 3.94 ± 0.42; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Using principles of community engagement and train-the-trainer methods, we will continue to adapt guidelines and treatments for HTN-CVD developed in high-income countries to the context of Rwanda with the goal of establishing a sustainable platform to address the burden of disease from HTN-CVD.

4.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127295

RESUMO

Elevated blood pressure (BP), a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, is influenced by both genetic and lifestyle factors. Cigarette smoking is one such lifestyle factor. Across five ancestries, we performed a genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) in 129 913 individuals in stage 1 and follow-up analysis in 480 178 additional individuals in stage 2. We report here 136 loci significantly associated with MAP and/or PP. Of these, 61 were previously published through main-effect analysis of BP traits, 37 were recently reported by us for systolic BP and/or diastolic BP through gene-smoking interaction analysis and 38 were newly identified (P < 5 × 10-8, false discovery rate < 0.05). We also identified nine new signals near known loci. Of the 136 loci, 8 showed significant interaction with smoking status. They include CSMD1 previously reported for insulin resistance and BP in the spontaneously hypertensive rats. Many of the 38 new loci show biologic plausibility for a role in BP regulation. SLC26A7 encodes a chloride/bicarbonate exchanger expressed in the renal outer medullary collecting duct. AVPR1A is widely expressed, including in vascular smooth muscle cells, kidney, myocardium and brain. FHAD1 is a long non-coding RNA overexpressed in heart failure. TMEM51 was associated with contractile function in cardiomyocytes. CASP9 plays a central role in cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Identified only in African ancestry were 30 novel loci. Our findings highlight the value of multi-ancestry investigations, particularly in studies of interaction with lifestyle factors, where genomic and lifestyle differences may contribute to novel findings.

6.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(3): 480-493, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924938

RESUMO

Barth syndrome (BTHS) is a rare X-linked condition resulting in abnormal mitochondria, cardioskeletal myopathy, and growth delay; however, the effects of BTHS on substrate metabolism regulation and their relationships with tissue function in humans are unknown. We sought to characterize glucose and fat metabolism during rest, submaximal exercise, and postexercise rest in children, adolescents, and young adults with BTHS and unaffected controls and examine their relationships with cardioskeletal energetics and function. Children/adolescents and young adults with BTHS (n = 29) and children/adolescent and young adult control participants (n = 28, total n = 57) underwent an infusion of 6'6'H2 glucose and U-13 C palmitate and indirect calorimetry during rest, 30-minutes of moderate exercise (50% V ˙ O 2 peak ), and recovery. Cardiac function, cardioskeletal mitochondrial energetics, and exercise capacity were examined via echocardiography, 31 P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and peak exercise testing, respectively. The glucose turnover rate was significantly higher in individuals with BTHS during rest (33.2 ± 9.8 vs 27.2 ± 8.1 µmol/kgFFM/min, P < .01) and exercise (34.7 ± 11.2 vs 29.5 ± 8.8 µmol/kgFFM/min, P < .05) and tended to be higher postexercise (33.7 ± 10.2 vs 28.8 ± 8.0 µmol/kgFFM/min, P < .06) compared to controls. Increases in total fat (-3.9 ± 7.5 vs 10.5 ± 8.4 µmol/kgFFM/min, P < .0001) and plasma fatty acid oxidation rates (0.0 ± 1.8 vs 5.1 ± 3.9 µmol/kgFFM/min, P < .0001) from rest to exercise were severely blunted in BTHS compared to controls. Conclusion: An inability to upregulate fat metabolism during moderate intensity exercise appears to be partially compensated by elevations in glucose metabolism. Derangements in fat and glucose metabolism are characteristic of the pathophysiology of BTHS. A severely blunted ability to upregulate fat metabolism during a modest level of physical activity is a defining pathophysiologic characteristic in children, adolescents, and young adults with BTHS.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 112-138, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595373

RESUMO

Mitochondria (MT), the major site of cellular energy production, are under dual genetic control by 37 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes and numerous nuclear genes (MT-nDNA). In the CHARGEmtDNA+ Consortium, we studied genetic associations of mtDNA and MT-nDNA associations with body mass index (BMI), waist-hip-ratio (WHR), glucose, insulin, HOMA-B, HOMA-IR, and HbA1c. This 45-cohort collaboration comprised 70,775 (insulin) to 170,202 (BMI) pan-ancestry individuals. Validation and imputation of mtDNA variants was followed by single-variant and gene-based association testing. We report two significant common variants, one in MT-ATP6 associated (p ≤ 5E-04) with WHR and one in the D-loop with glucose. Five rare variants in MT-ATP6, MT-ND5, and MT-ND6 associated with BMI, WHR, or insulin. Gene-based meta-analysis identified MT-ND3 associated with BMI (p ≤ 1E-03). We considered 2,282 MT-nDNA candidate gene associations compiled from online summary results for our traits (20 unique studies with 31 dataset consortia's genome-wide associations [GWASs]). Of these, 109 genes associated (p ≤ 1E-06) with at least 1 of our 7 traits. We assessed regulatory features of variants in the 109 genes, cis- and trans-gene expression regulation, and performed enrichment and protein-protein interactions analyses. Of the identified mtDNA and MT-nDNA genes, 79 associated with adipose measures, 49 with glucose/insulin, 13 with risk for type 2 diabetes, and 18 with cardiovascular disease, indicating for pleiotropic effects with health implications. Additionally, 21 genes related to cholesterol, suggesting additional important roles for the genes identified. Our results suggest that mtDNA and MT-nDNA genes and variants reported make important contributions to glucose and insulin metabolism, adipocyte regulation, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Metabolismo/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Relação Cintura-Quadril
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 376, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670697

RESUMO

Many genetic loci affect circulating lipid levels, but it remains unknown whether lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, modify these genetic effects. To identify lipid loci interacting with physical activity, we performed genome-wide analyses of circulating HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in up to 120,979 individuals of European, African, Asian, Hispanic, and Brazilian ancestry, with follow-up of suggestive associations in an additional 131,012 individuals. We find four loci, in/near CLASP1, LHX1, SNTA1, and CNTNAP2, that are associated with circulating lipid levels through interaction with physical activity; higher levels of physical activity enhance the HDL cholesterol-increasing effects of the CLASP1, LHX1, and SNTA1 loci and attenuate the LDL cholesterol-increasing effect of the CNTNAP2 locus. The CLASP1, LHX1, and SNTA1 regions harbor genes linked to muscle function and lipid metabolism. Our results elucidate the role of physical activity interactions in the genetic contribution to blood lipid levels.


Assuntos
Exercício , Loci Gênicos/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Brasil , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/genética , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/genética , Adulto Jovem
11.
JIMD Rep ; 2018 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29654548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardioskeletal myopathy is thought to contribute to exercise intolerance, and reduced quality of life (QOL) in Barth syndrome (BTHS). The objectives of this study were to examine: (1) skeletal muscle strength/performance in adolescents and young adults with BTHS and (2) the safety, feasibility, and initial efficacy of 12 weeks of progressive resistance exercise training (RET) on muscle strength, mass, and performance, bone mineral density, exercise tolerance, cardiac function, and QOL in individuals with BTHS. METHODS: Individuals with BTHS (n = 9, 23 ± 6 years), and age-, sex-, and activity level-matched unaffected Controls (n = 7, 26 ± 5 years) underwent baseline testing to assess muscle performance, exercise capacity, cardiac structure and function, body composition, and health-related QOL. Subsequently, n = 3 participants with BTHS performed 12 weeks of supervised RET (60 min per session, 3 sessions/week). All testing was repeated post-RET. RESULTS: BTHS had lower strength and lean muscle mass compared to Controls (all p < 0.05). BTHS also had diminished lower extremity, upper extremity, thoracic spine, lumbar spine, and pelvic bone mineral density (all p < 0.05) and reduced exercise capacity (p < 0.001) compared to Controls. RET was well-tolerated and attended, was not associated with any adverse events, and significantly increased muscle strength (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with BTHS demonstrate reduced muscle strength and mass, bone mineral density, and exercise capacity. RET appears safe and well-tolerated in BTHS and promotes increased muscle strength. Larger studies are needed to confirm these improvements and to fully determine the effects of RET in individuals with BTHS.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(3): 375-400, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29455858

RESUMO

Genome-wide association analysis advanced understanding of blood pressure (BP), a major risk factor for vascular conditions such as coronary heart disease and stroke. Accounting for smoking behavior may help identify BP loci and extend our knowledge of its genetic architecture. We performed genome-wide association meta-analyses of systolic and diastolic BP incorporating gene-smoking interactions in 610,091 individuals. Stage 1 analysis examined ∼18.8 million SNPs and small insertion/deletion variants in 129,913 individuals from four ancestries (European, African, Asian, and Hispanic) with follow-up analysis of promising variants in 480,178 additional individuals from five ancestries. We identified 15 loci that were genome-wide significant (p < 5 × 10-8) in stage 1 and formally replicated in stage 2. A combined stage 1 and 2 meta-analysis identified 66 additional genome-wide significant loci (13, 35, and 18 loci in European, African, and trans-ancestry, respectively). A total of 56 known BP loci were also identified by our results (p < 5 × 10-8). Of the newly identified loci, ten showed significant interaction with smoking status, but none of them were replicated in stage 2. Several loci were identified in African ancestry, highlighting the importance of genetic studies in diverse populations. The identified loci show strong evidence for regulatory features and support shared pathophysiology with cardiometabolic and addiction traits. They also highlight a role in BP regulation for biological candidates such as modulators of vascular structure and function (CDKN1B, BCAR1-CFDP1, PXDN, EEA1), ciliopathies (SDCCAG8, RPGRIP1L), telomere maintenance (TNKS, PINX1, AKTIP), and central dopaminergic signaling (MSRA, EBF2).

13.
J Card Fail ; 24(7): 428-438, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29482026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor response to loop diuretic therapy is a marker of risk during heart failure hospitalization. We sought to describe baseline determinants of diuretic response and to further explore the relationship between this response and clinical outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patient data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Heart Failure Network ROSE-AHF and CARRESS-HF clinical trials were analyzed to determine baseline determinants of diuretic response. Diuretic efficiency (DE) was defined as total 72-hour fluid output per total equivalent loop diuretic dose. Data from DOSE-AHF was then used to determine if these predictors of DE correlated with response to a high- versus low-dose diuretic strategy. At 72 hours, the high-DE group had median fluid output of 9071 ml (interquartile range: 7240-11775) with median furosemide dose of 320 mg (220-480) compared with 8030 ml (6300-9915) and 840 mg (600-1215) respectively for the low DE group. Cystatin C was independently associated with DE (odds ratio 0.36 per 1mg/L increase; 95% confidence interval: 0.24-0.56; P < 0.001). Independently from baseline characteristics, reduced fluid output, weight loss and DE were each associated with increased 60 day mortality. Among patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate below the median, those randomized to a high-dose strategy had improved symptoms compared with those randomized to a low-dose strategy. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated baseline cystatin C, as a biomarker of renal dysfunction, is associated with reduced diuretic response during heart failure hospitalization. Higher loop diuretic doses are required for therapeutic decongestion in patients with renal insufficiency. Poor response identifies a high-risk population.

14.
Hum Hered ; 83(6): 315-332, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dichotomization using the lower quartile as cutoff is commonly used for harmonizing heterogeneous physical activity (PA) measures across studies. However, this may create misclassification and hinder discovery of new loci. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the performance of selecting individuals from the extremes of the exposure (SIEE) as an alternative approach to reduce such misclassification. METHOD: For systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the Framingham Heart Study, we performed a genome-wide association study with gene-PA interaction analysis using three PA variables derived by SIEE and two other dichotomization approaches. We compared number of loci detected and overlap with loci found using a quantitative PA variable. In addition, we performed simulation studies to assess bias, false discovery rates (FDR), and power under synergistic/antagonistic genetic effects in exposure groups and in the presence/absence of measurement error. RESULTS: In the empirical analysis, SIEE's performance was neither the best nor the worst. In most simulation scenarios, SIEE was consistently outperformed in terms of FDR and power. Particularly, in a scenario characterized by antagonistic effects and measurement error, SIEE had the least bias and highest power. CONCLUSION: SIEE's promise appears limited to detecting loci with antagonistic effects. Further studies are needed to evaluate SIEE's full advantage.


Assuntos
Exercício , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Viés , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Análise de Dados , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Sístole/fisiologia
16.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 19(3): 23, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28283927

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Here, we discuss the interpretation and modeling of gene-environment interactions in hypertension-related phenotypes, with a focus on the necessary assumptions and possible challenges. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently, small cohort studies have discovered several novel genetic variants associated with hypertension-related phenotypes through modeling gene-environment interactions. Several consortia-based meta-analytic efforts have uncovered many novel genetic variants in hypertension without modeling interaction terms, giving promise to future meta-analytic efforts that incorporate gene-environment interactions. Heritability studies and genome-wide association studies have established that hypertension, a prevalent cardiovascular disease, has a genetic component that may be modulated by the environment (such as lifestyle factors). This review includes a discussion of known genetic associations for hypertension/blood pressure, including those resulting from the incorporation of gene-environmental interaction modeling.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Hipertensão/genética , Epistasia Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo
17.
Physiol Rep ; 5(3)2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28196853

RESUMO

Barth syndrome (BTHS) is an X-linked condition characterized by altered cardiolipin metabolism and cardioskeletal myopathy. We sought to compare cardiac and skeletal muscle bioenergetics in children, adolescents, and young adults with BTHS and unaffected controls and examine their relationships with cardiac function and exercise capacity. Children/adolescents and young adults with BTHS (n = 20) and children/adolescent and young adult control participants (n = 23, total n = 43) underwent 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) of the lower extremity (calf) and heart for estimation of skeletal muscle and cardiac bioenergetics. Peak exercise testing (VO2peak) and resting echocardiography were also performed on all participants. Cardiac PCr/ATP ratio was significantly lower in children/adolescents (BTHS: 1.5 ± 0.2 vs. CONTROL: 2.0 ± 0.3, P < 0.01) and adults (BTHS: 1.9 ± 0.2 vs. CONTROL: 2.3 ± 0.2, P < 0.01) with BTHS compared to Control groups. Adults (BTHS: 76.4 ± 31.6 vs. CONTROL: 35.0 ± 7.4 sec, P < 0.01) and children/adolescents (BTHS: 71.5 ± 21.3 vs. CONTROL: 31.4 ± 7.4 sec, P < 0.01) with BTHS had significantly longer calf PCr recovery (τPCr) postexercise compared to controls. Maximal calf ATP production through oxidative phosphorylation (Qmax-lin) was significantly lower in children/adolescents (BTHS: 0.5 ± 0.1 vs. CONTROL: 1.1 ± 0.3 mmol/L per sec, P < 0.01) and adults (BTHS: 0.5 ± 0.2 vs. CONTROL: 1.0 ± 0.2 mmol/L sec, P < 0.01) with BTHS compared to controls. Blunted cardiac and skeletal muscle bioenergetics were associated with lower VO2peak but not resting cardiac function. Cardiac and skeletal muscle bioenergetics are impaired and appear to contribute to exercise intolerance in BTHS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Barth/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Metabolismo Energético , Exercício , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Card Fail ; 22(11): 875-883, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27133201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Readmission or death after heart failure (HF) hospitalization is a consequential and closely scrutinized outcome, but risk factors may vary by population. We characterized the risk factors for post-discharge readmission/death in subjects treated for acute heart failure (AHF). METHODS AND RESULTS: A post hoc analysis was performed on data from 744 subjects enrolled in 3 AHF trials conducted within the Heart Failure Network (HFN): Diuretic Optimization Strategies Evaluation in Acute Heart Failure (DOSE-AHF), Cardiorenal Rescue Study in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (CARRESS-HF), and Renal Optimization Strategies Evaluation in Acute Heart Failure (ROSE-AHF). All-cause readmission/death occurred in 26% and 38% of subjects within 30 and 60 days of discharge, respectively. Non-HF cardiovascular causes of readmission were more common in the ≤30-day timeframe than in the 31-60-day timeframe (23% vs 10%, P = .016). In a Cox proportional hazards model adjusting a priori for left ventricular ejection fraction <50% and trial, the risk factors for all-cause readmission/death included: elevated baseline blood urea nitrogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) non-use, lower baseline sodium, non-white race, elevated baseline bicarbonate, lower systolic blood pressure at discharge or day 7, depression, increased length of stay, and male sex. CONCLUSIONS: In an AHF population with prominent congestion and prevalent renal dysfunction, early readmissions were more likely to be due to non-HF cardiovascular causes compared with later readmissions. The association between use of ACEI/ARB and lower all-cause readmission/death in Cox proportional hazards model suggests a role for these drugs to improve post-discharge outcomes in AHF.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
19.
Cell Metab ; 23(4): 591-601, 2016 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26916363

RESUMO

Although 5%-10% weight loss is routinely recommended for people with obesity, the precise effects of 5% and further weight loss on metabolic health are unclear. We conducted a randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effects of 5.1% ± 0.9% (n = 19), 10.8% ± 1.3% (n = 9), and 16.4% ± 2.1% (n = 9) weight loss and weight maintenance (n = 14) on metabolic outcomes. 5% weight loss improved adipose tissue, liver and muscle insulin sensitivity, and ß cell function, without a concomitant change in systemic or subcutaneous adipose tissue markers of inflammation. Additional weight loss further improved ß cell function and insulin sensitivity in muscle and caused stepwise changes in adipose tissue mass, intrahepatic triglyceride content, and adipose tissue expression of genes involved in cholesterol flux, lipid synthesis, extracellular matrix remodeling, and oxidative stress. These results demonstrate that moderate 5% weight loss improves metabolic function in multiple organs simultaneously, and progressive weight loss causes dose-dependent alterations in key adipose tissue biological pathways.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiopatologia , Resistência à Insulina , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Perda de Peso , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculos/metabolismo , Músculos/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/metabolismo
20.
Genet Epidemiol ; 40(1): 73-80, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26625943

RESUMO

Blood pressure (BP) has been shown to be substantially heritable, yet identified genetic variants explain only a small fraction of the heritability. Gene-smoking interactions have detected novel BP loci in cross-sectional family data. Longitudinal family data are available and have additional promise to identify BP loci. However, this type of data presents unique analysis challenges. Although several methods for analyzing longitudinal family data are available, which method is the most appropriate and under what conditions has not been fully studied. Using data from three clinic visits from the Framingham Heart Study, we performed association analysis accounting for gene-smoking interactions in BP at 31,203 markers on chromosome 22. We evaluated three different modeling frameworks: generalized estimating equations (GEE), hierarchical linear modeling, and pedigree-based mixed modeling. The three models performed somewhat comparably, with multiple overlaps in the most strongly associated loci from each model. Loci with the greatest significance were more strongly supported in the longitudinal analyses than in any of the component single-visit analyses. The pedigree-based mixed model was more conservative, with less inflation in the variant main effect and greater deflation in the gene-smoking interactions. The GEE, but not the other two models, resulted in substantial inflation in the tail of the distribution when variants with minor allele frequency <1% were included in the analysis. The choice of analysis method should depend on the model and the structure and complexity of the familial and longitudinal data.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Genéticos , Linhagem
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