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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2547, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186422

RESUMO

Depolarization in ferroelectric materials has been studied since the 1970s, albeit quasi-statically. The dynamics are described by the empirical Merz law, which gives the polarization switching time as a function of electric field, normalized to the so-called activation field. The Merz law has been used for decades; its origin as domain-wall depinning has recently been corroborated by molecular dynamics simulations. Here we experimentally investigate domain-wall depinning by measuring the dynamics of depolarization. We find that the boundary between thermodynamically stable and depolarizing regimes can be described by a single constant, Pr/ε0εferroEc. Among different multidomain ferroelectric materials the values of coercive field, Ec, dielectric constant, εferro, and remanent polarization, Pr, vary by orders of magnitude; the value for Pr/ε0εferroEc however is comparable, about 15. Using this extracted universal value, we show that the depolarization field is similar to the activation field, which corresponds to the transition from creep to domain-wall flow.

2.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 5484, 2018 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29615779

RESUMO

Diatoms are photosynthetic microalgae, a group with a major environmental role on the planet due to the biogeochemical cycling of silica and global fixation of carbon. However, they can evolve into harmful blooms through a resourceful communication mechanism, not yet fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that a population of diatoms under darkness show quasi-periodic electrical oscillations, or intercellular waves. The origin is paracrine signaling, which is a feedback, or survival, mechanism that counteracts changes in the physicochemical environment. The intracellular messenger is related to Ca2+ ions since spatiotemporal changes in their concentration match the characteristics of the intercellular waves. Our conclusion is supported by using a Ca2+ channel inhibitor. The transport of Ca2+ ions through the membrane to the extracellular medium is blocked and the intercellular waves disappear. The translation of microalgae cooperative signaling paves the way for early detection and prevention of harmful blooms and an extensive range of stress-induced alterations in the aquatic ecosystem.


Assuntos
Escuridão , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Transporte Biológico , Cálcio/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/citologia , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Espaço Extracelular/metabolismo , Comunicação Parácrina
3.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 451, 2018 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29386502

RESUMO

It is still a great challenge to fabricate conjugated polymer monolayer field-effect transistors (PoM-FETs) due to intricate crystallization and film formation of conjugated polymers. Here we demonstrate PoM-FETs based on a single monolayer of a conjugated polymer. The resulting PoM-FETs are highly reproducible and exhibit charge carrier mobilities reaching 3 cm2 V-1 s-1. The high performance is attributed to the strong interactions of the polymer chains present already in solution leading to pronounced edge-on packing and well-defined microstructure in the monolayer. The high reproducibility enables the integration of discrete unipolar PoM-FETs into inverters and ring oscillators. Real logic functionality has been demonstrated by constructing a 15-bit code generator in which hundreds of self-assembled PoM-FETs are addressed simultaneously. Our results provide the state-of-the-art example of integrated circuits based on a conjugated polymer monolayer, opening prospective pathways for bottom-up organic electronics.

4.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15741, 2017 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604664

RESUMO

Non-volatile memories-providing the information storage functionality-are crucial circuit components. Solution-processed organic ferroelectric memory diodes are the non-volatile memory candidate for flexible electronics, as witnessed by the industrial demonstration of a 1 kbit reconfigurable memory fabricated on a plastic foil. Further progress, however, is limited owing to the lack of understanding of the device physics, which is required for the technological implementation of high-density arrays. Here we show that ferroelectric diodes operate as vertical field-effect transistors at the pinch-off. The tunnelling injection and charge accumulation are the fundamental mechanisms governing the device operation. Surprisingly, thermionic emission can be disregarded and the on-state current is not space charge limited. The proposed model explains and unifies a wide range of experiments, provides important design rules for the implementation of organic ferroelectric memory diodes and predicts an ultimate theoretical array density of up to 1012 bit cm-2.

5.
Sci Adv ; 2(12): e1600516, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28028533

RESUMO

Glioma patients often suffer from epileptic seizures because of the tumor's impact on the brain physiology. Using the rat glioma cell line C6 as a model system, we performed long-term live recordings of the electrical activity of glioma populations in an ultrasensitive detection method. The transducer exploits large-area electrodes that maximize double-layer capacitance, thus increasing the sensitivity. This strategy allowed us to record glioma electrical activity. We show that although glioma cells are nonelectrogenic, they display a remarkable electrical burst activity in time. The low-frequency current noise after cell adhesion is dominated by the flow of Na+ ions through voltage-gated ion channels. However, after an incubation period of many hours, the current noise markedly increased. This electric bursting phenomenon was not associated with apoptosis because the cells were viable and proliferative during the period of increased electric activity. We detected a rapid cell culture medium acidification accompanying this event. By using specific inhibitors, we showed that the electrical bursting activity was prompted by extracellular pH changes, which enhanced Na+ ion flux through the psalmotoxin 1-sensitive acid-sensing ion channels. Our model of pH-triggered bursting was unambiguously supported by deliberate, external acidification of the cell culture medium. This unexpected, acidosis-driven electrical activity is likely to directly perturb, in vivo, the functionality of the healthy neuronal network in the vicinity of the tumor bulk and may contribute to seizures in glioma patients.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Glioma/fisiopatologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Neurônios/citologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Rede Nervosa , Ratos , Canais de Sódio/fisiologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 6: 34843, 2016 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27708378

RESUMO

Microelectrode arrays (MEA) record extracellular local field potentials of cells adhered to the electrodes. A disadvantage is the limited signal-to-noise ratio. The state-of-the-art background noise level is about 10 µVpp. Furthermore, in MEAs low frequency events are filtered out. Here, we quantitatively analyze Au electrode/electrolyte interfaces with impedance spectroscopy and noise measurements. The equivalent circuit is the charge transfer resistance in parallel with a constant phase element that describes the double layer capacitance, in series with a spreading resistance. This equivalent circuit leads to a Maxwell-Wagner relaxation frequency, the value of which is determined as a function of electrode area and molarity of an aqueous KCl electrolyte solution. The electrochemical voltage and current noise is measured as a function of electrode area and frequency and follow unambiguously from the measured impedance. By using large area electrodes the noise floor can be as low as 0.3 µVpp. The resulting high sensitivity is demonstrated by the extracellular detection of C6 glioma cell populations. Their minute electrical activity can be clearly detected at a frequency below about 10 Hz, which shows that the methodology can be used to monitor slow cooperative biological signals in cell populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Glioma/diagnóstico , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Adesão Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Capacitância Elétrica , Impedância Elétrica , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Glioma/patologia , Glioma/fisiopatologia , Ouro , Humanos , Microeletrodos , Ratos , Razão Sinal-Ruído
7.
J Chem Phys ; 144(21): 214302, 2016 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27276952

RESUMO

Scattering matrix theory is used to describe resonant optical properties of molecular monolayers. Three types of coupling are included: exciton-exciton, exciton-photon, and exciton-phonon coupling. We use the K-matrix formalism, developed originally to describe neutron scattering spectra in nuclear physics to compute the scattering of polaritons by phonons. This perturbation approach takes into account the three couplings and allows one to go beyond molecular exciton theory without the need of introducing additional boundary conditions for the polariton. We demonstrate that reflection, absorption, and extinction of light by 2D self-assembled monolayers of molecules containing quinque-thiophene chromophoric groups can be calculated. The extracted coherence length of the Frenkel exciton is discussed.

8.
Nat Mater ; 15(1): 78-84, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26436342

RESUMO

Piezoelectricity describes interconversion between electrical charge and mechanical strain. As expected for lattice ions displaced in an electric field, the proportionality constant is positive for all piezoelectric materials. The exceptions are poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and its copolymers with trifluoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)), which exhibit a negative longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient. Reported explanations exclusively consider contraction with applied electric field of either the crystalline or the amorphous part of these semi-crystalline polymers. To distinguish between these conflicting interpretations, we have performed in situ dynamic X-ray diffraction measurements on P(VDF-TrFE) capacitors. We find that the piezoelectric effect is dominated by the change in lattice constant but, surprisingly, it cannot be accounted for by the polarization-biased electrostrictive contribution of the crystalline part alone. Our quantitative analysis shows that an additional contribution is operative, which we argue is due to an electromechanical coupling between the intermixed crystalline lamellae and amorphous regions. Our findings tie the counterintuitive negative piezoelectric response of PVDF and its copolymers to the dynamics of their composite microstructure.

9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(33): 21501-6, 2015 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26219635

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The operational characteristics of organic solar cells manufactured with large area processing methods suffers from the occurrence of short-circuits due to defects in the photoactive thin film stack. In this work we study the effect of a shunt resistance on an organic solar cell and demonstrate that device performance is not affected negatively as long as the shunt resistance is higher than approximately 1000 Ohm. By studying charge transport across PEDOT: PSS-lithium fluoride/aluminum (LiF/Al) shunting junctions we show that this prerequisite is already met by applying a sufficiently thick (>1.5 nm) LiF layer. We demonstrate that this remarkable shunt-resilience stems from the formation of a significant charge transport barrier at the PEDOT: PSS-LiF/Al interface. We validate our predictions by fabricating devices with deliberately severed photoactive layers and find an excellent agreement between the calculated and experimental current-voltage characteristics.

10.
Sci Rep ; 5: 12094, 2015 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26160465

RESUMO

The on/off current ratio in organic ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FeFETs) is largely determined by the position of the threshold voltage, the value of which can show large device-to-device variations. Here we show that by employing a dual-gate layout for the FeFET, we can gain full control over the on/off ratio. In the resulting dual-gate FeFET the ferroelectric gate provides the memory functionality and the second, non-ferroelectric, control gate is advantageously used to set the threshold voltage. The on/off ratio can thus be maximized at the readout bias. The operation is explained by the quantitative analysis of charge transport in a dual-gate FeFET.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 7(18): 9429-35, 2015 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25901791

RESUMO

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of graphene on top of metallic foils is a technologically viable method of graphene production. Fabrication of microelectronic devices with CVD grown graphene is commonly done by using photolithography and deposition of metal contacts on top of the transferred graphene layer. This processing is potentially invasive for graphene, yields large spread in device parameters, and can inhibit up-scaling. Here we demonstrate an alternative process technology in which both lithography and contact deposition on top of graphene are prevented. First a prepatterned substrate is fabricated that contains all the device layouts, electrodes and interconnects. Then CVD graphene is transferred on top. Processing parameters are adjusted to yield a graphene layer that adopts the topography of the prepatterned substrate. The metal-graphene contact shows low contact resistances below 1 kΩ µm for CVD graphene devices. The conformal transfer technique is scaled-up to 150 mm wafers with statistically similar devices and with a device yield close to unity.

12.
Sci Rep ; 4: 5075, 2014 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24861542

RESUMO

The polarization of the ferroelectric polymer P(VDF-TrFE) decreases upon prolonged cycling. Understanding of this fatigue behavior is of great technological importance for the implementation of P(VDF-TrFE) in random-access memories. However, the origin of fatigue is still ambiguous. Here we investigate fatigue in thin-film capacitors by systematically varying the frequency and amplitude of the driving waveform. We show that the fatigue is due to delamination of the top electrode. The origin is accumulation of gases, expelled from the capacitor, under the impermeable top electrode. The gases are formed by electron-induced phase decomposition of P(VDF-TrFE), similar as reported for inorganic ferroelectric materials. When the gas barrier is removed and the waveform is adapted, a fatigue-free ferroelectric capacitor based on P(VDF-TrFE) is realized. The capacitor can be cycled for more than 10(8) times, approaching the programming cycle endurance of its inorganic ferroelectric counterparts.

13.
Adv Mater ; 26(26): 4450-5, 2014 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24668844

RESUMO

A dual-gate organic field-effect transistor is investigated for electrically pumped lasing. The two gates can independently accumulate electrons and holes, yielding current densities exceeding the lasing threshold. Here, the aim is to force the electrons and holes to recombine by confining the charges in a single semiconducting film. It is found that independent hole and electron accumulation is mutually exclusive with vertical recombination and light emission.

14.
ACS Nano ; 8(4): 3498-505, 2014 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24649881

RESUMO

We demonstrate the design of a multifunctional organic layer by the rational combination of nanosized regions of two functional polymers. Instead of relying on a spontaneous and random phase separation process or on the tedious synthesis of block copolymers, the method involves the nanomolding of a first component, followed by the filling of the resulting open spaces by a second component. We apply this methodology to fabricate organic nonvolatile memory diodes of high density. These are built by first creating a regular array of ferroelectric nanodots by nanoimprint lithography, followed by the filling of the trenches separating the ferroelectric nanodots with a semiconducting polymer. The modulation of the current in the semiconductor by the polarization state of the ferroelectric material is demonstrated both at the scale of a single semiconductor channel and in a microscopic device measuring about 80,000 channels in parallel, for voltages below ca. 2 V. The fabrication process, which combines synergetically orthogonal functional properties with a fine control over their spatial distribution, is thus demonstrated to be efficient over large areas.

15.
Adv Mater ; 26(4): 512-31, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24458577

RESUMO

This article reviews the basic physical processes of charge transport and recombination in organic semiconductors. As a workhorse, LEDs based on a single layer of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) derivatives are used. The hole transport in these PPV derivatives is governed by trap-free space-charge-limited conduction, with the mobility depending on the electric field and charge-carrier density. These dependencies are generally described in the framework of hopping transport in a Gaussian density of states distribution. The electron transport on the other hand is orders of magnitude lower than the hole transport. The reason is that electron transport is hindered by the presence of a universal electron trap, located at 3.6 eV below vacuum with a typical density of ca. 3 × 10¹7 cm⁻³. The trapped electrons recombine with free holes via a non-radiative trap-assisted recombination process, which is a competing loss process with respect to the emissive bimolecular Langevin recombination. The trap-assisted recombination in disordered organic semiconductors is governed by the diffusion of the free carrier (hole) towards the trapped carrier (electron), similar to the Langevin recombination of free carriers where both carriers are mobile. As a result, with the charge-carrier mobilities and amount of trapping centers known from charge-transport measurements, the radiative recombination as well as loss processes in disordered organic semiconductors can be fully predicted. Evidently, future work should focus on the identification and removing of electron traps. This will not only eliminate the non-radiative trap-assisted recombination, but, in addition, will shift the recombination zone towards the center of the device, leading to an efficiency improvement of more than a factor of two in single-layer polymer LEDs.

16.
Nanoscale ; 5(20): 9882-7, 2013 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23979355

RESUMO

We investigate the nature of charge transport in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) using self-assembled layers of DNA in large-area molecular junctions. A protocol was developed that yields dense monolayers where the DNA molecules are not standing upright, but are lying flat on the substrate. As a result the charge transport is measured not along the DNA molecules but in the transverse direction, across their diameter. The electrical transport data are consistent with the derived morphology. We demonstrate that the charge transport mechanism through DNA is identical to non-resonant tunneling through alkanethiols with identical length, classifying DNA as a dielectric.

17.
Nat Commun ; 4: 1710, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23591877

RESUMO

The transition rate for a single hop of a charge carrier in a semiconducting polymer is assumed to be thermally activated. As the temperature approaches absolute zero, the predicted conductivity becomes infinitesimal in contrast to the measured finite conductivity. Here we present a uniform description of charge transport in semiconducting polymers, including the existence of absolute-zero ground-state oscillations that allow nuclear tunnelling through classical barriers. The resulting expression for the macroscopic current shows a power-law dependence on both temperature and voltage. To suppress the omnipresent disorder, the predictions are experimentally verified in semiconducting polymers at high carrier density using chemically doped in-plane diodes and ferroelectric field-effect transistors. The renormalized current-voltage characteristics of various polymers and devices at all temperatures collapse on a single universal curve, thereby demonstrating the relevance of nuclear tunnelling for organic electronic devices.

18.
Nat Mater ; 12(5): 433-8, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23503012

RESUMO

Ferroelectric poly(vinylidene-fluoride) (PVDF) has, in the past, been proposed as an ideal candidate for data storage applications as it exhibits a bistable, remanent, polarization that can repeatedly be switched by an electric field. However, fabrication of smooth ferroelectric PVDF thin films, as required for microelectronic applications, is a long-standing problem. At present, the copolymer of PVDF with trifluoroethylene P(VDF-TrFE) is used, but the stack integrity and the limited thermal stability of its remanent polarization hamper large-scale integration. Here we show that smooth neat PVDF films can be made at elevated substrate temperature. On applying a short electrical pulse the ferroelectric polar δ-phase is formed, an overlooked polymorph of PVDF proposed 30 years ago, but never experimentally verified. The remanent polarization and coercive field are comparable to those of the copolymer. The enhanced thermal stability of the polarization is directly related to the high Curie temperature, whereas the ferroelectric properties are related to the molecular packing as derived from the refined crystal structure. The replacement of P(VDF-TrFE) by the commodity polymer PVDF may boost large-scale industrial applications.

19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 15(11): 3897-905, 2013 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23400105

RESUMO

Electronic transducers of neuronal cellular activity are important devices in neuroscience and neurology. Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) offer tailored surface chemistry, mechanical flexibility, and high sensitivity to electrostatic potential changes at device interfaces. These properties make them attractive for interfacing electronics with neural cells and performing extracellular recordings and stimulation of neuronal network activity. In this work we operate pentacene ultra-thin film (9 nm thick) transistors with a liquid gate both as transducers and electrical stimulators of neuronal network activity. These devices are highly sensitive to small potential changes in cell medium and exhibit sufficient stability under standard cell culture conditions for nine days. We show that murine neural stem cells can be adhered on top of functional devices without the need for an additional layer of cell-adhesive molecules, and then differentiated into neuronal networks. OFET response is monitored during the different phases of the neuronal differentiation process up to nine days. Only when stem cells are differentiated into neurons, it is possible to measure electrical signals in the OFET current following the stimulation. Due to the large sensing area of our device, which accommodates from hundreds to thousands of interconnected neurons, the OFET electrical signals arise from the collective electrophysiological response of the neuronal population. The maximum extracellular potential change in the cleft region adjacent to the transistor surface amounts to 350 µV. This demonstrates that pentacene ultra-thin film OFETs enable good cellular adhesion and efficient coupling of the ionic currents at the biological-organic semiconductor interface with the OFET current.


Assuntos
Neurônios/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Transistores Eletrônicos , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Eletrodos , Camundongos , Neurônios/citologia , Células-Tronco/citologia
20.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 15(12): 4392-404, 2013 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23416894

RESUMO

We report a combined Non-Equilibrium Green's Function - Density Functional Theory study of molecular junctions made of photochromic diarylethenes between gold electrodes. The impact of derivatization of the molecule on the transmission spectrum is assessed by introducing: (i) substituents on the diarylethene core; and (ii) linker substituents between the gold surface and the diarylethene. We illustrate that substituents on the core shift considerably the HOMO/LUMO level energies in gas phase but do not change the I-V characteristics of the molecular junctions; this behaviour has been rationalized by establishing links between the transmission spectrum and interfacial electronic reorganization upon chemisorption. In contrast, the different linker substituents under study modulate the conductivity of the junction by changing the degree of orbital hybridization with the metallic electrodes and the degree of orbital polarization.

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