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1.
Pathology ; 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785821

RESUMO

Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) represent a heterogeneous group of uncommon malignancies derived from mature T cells and usually characterised by an aggressive clinical course. Their clinical presentation, localisation and pattern of dissemination are highly variable, but the majority of cases present as nodal diseases. The recently revised classification of lymphomas has incorporated many new molecular genetic data derived from gene expression profiling and next generation sequencing studies, which refine the definition and diagnostic criteria of several entities. Nevertheless, the distinction of PTCL from various reactive conditions, and the diagnosis of PTCL subtypes remains notably challenging. Here, an updated summary of the clinicopathological and molecular features of the most common nodal-based PTCLs (angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and other nodal lymphomas derived from follicular T helper cells, anaplastic large cell lymphomas and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified) is presented. Practical recommendations in the diagnostic approach to nodal T-cell lymphoproliferations are presented, including indications for the appropriate use and interpretation of ancillary studies. Finally, we discuss commonly encountered diagnostic problems, including pitfalls and mimics in the differential diagnosis with various reactive conditions, and the criteria that allow proper identification of distinct PTCL entities.

2.
Blood ; 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562134

RESUMO

Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a heterogeneous group of mature T-cell malignancies with approximately one-third of cases designated as PTCL-not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS). Using gene expression profiling (GEP), we have previously defined two major molecular subtypes of PTCL-NOS; PTCL-GATA3 and PTCL-TBX21 that have distinct biological differences in oncogenic pathways and prognosis. In the current study, we generated an immunohistochemistry (IHC) algorithm to identify the two subtypes in paraffin tissue using antibodies to key transcriptional factors (GATA3 and TBX21) and their target proteins (CCR4 and CXCR3). In a training cohort of 49 cases of PTCL-NOS with corresponding GEP data, the two subtypes identified by the IHC algorithm matched the GEP results with high sensitivity (85%) and showed a significant difference in overall survival (OS) (p=0.03). The IHC algorithm classification showed high inter-observer reproducibility among pathologists and was validated in a second PTCL-NOS cohort (n=124), where a significant difference in OS between the PTCL-GATA3 and PTCL-TBX21 subtypes was confirmed (p=0.003). In multivariate analysis, a high International Prognostic Index score (3-5) and the PTCL-GATA3 subtype identified by IHC were independent adverse predictors of OS (p= 0.0015). Additionally, the two IHC-defined subtypes were significantly associated with distinct morphological features (p<0.001), and there was a significant enrichment of an activated CD8+ cytotoxic phenotype in the PTCL-TBX21 subtype (p= 0.03). The IHC algorithm will aid in identifying the two subtypes in clinical practice, which will aid the future clinical management of patients and facilitate risk stratification in clinical trials.

3.
Haematologica ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488561

RESUMO

Peripheral T-cell lymphoma comprises a heterogeneous group of mature non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Their diagnosis is challenging, with up to 30% of cases remaining unclassifiable and referred to as "not otherwise specified". We developed a reverse transcriptase-multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification gene expression profiling assay to differentiate the main T-cell lymphoma entities and to study the heterogeneity of the "not specified" category. The test evaluates the expression of 20 genes, including 17 markers relevant to T-cell immunology and lymphoma biopathology, one EBV-related transcript, and variants of RHOA (G17V) and IDH2 (R172K/T). By unsupervised hierarchical clustering, our assay accurately identified 21/21 ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas, 16/16 extranodal NK/T-cell lymphomas, 6/6 hepatosplenic T-cell lymphomas, and 13/13 adult T-cell leukemia/lymphomas. ALK-negative anaplastic lymphomas (n=34) segregated into one cytotoxic cluster (n=10) and one non-cytotoxic cluster expressing Th2 markers (n=24) and enriched in DUSP22-rearranged cases. The 63 TFH-derived lymphomas divided in two subgroups according to a predominant TFH (n=50) or an enrichment in Th2 (n=13) signatures. We next developed a support vector machine predictor which attributed a molecular class to 27/77 not specified T-cell lymphomas: 17 TFH, 5 cytotoxic ALK-negative anaplastic, and 5 NK/T-cell lymphomas. Among the remaining cases, we identified two cell-of-origin subgroups corresponding to cytotoxic/Th1 (n=19) and Th2 (n=24) signatures. A reproducibility test on 40 cases yielded a 90% concordance between 3 independent laboratories. This study demonstrates the applicability of a simple gene expression assay for the classification of peripheral T-cell lymphomas. Its applicability to routinely-fixed samples makes it an attractive adjunct in diagnostic practice.

4.
Haematologica ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558678

RESUMO

Indolent T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are rare clonal T-cell diseases that more commonly occur in the intestines and have a protracted clinical course. Different immunophenotypic subsets have been described, but the molecular pathogenesis and cell of origin of these lymphocytic proliferations is poorly understood. Hence, we performed targeted next-generation sequencing and comprehensive immunophenotypic analysis of 10 indolent T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, which comprised CD4+ (n=4), CD8+ (n=4), CD4+/CD8+ (n=1) and CD4-/CD8- (n=1) cases. Genetic alterations, including recurrent mutations and novel rearrangements, were identified in 8/10 (80%) lymphoproliferative disorders. The CD4+, CD4+/CD8+, and CD4-/CD8- cases harbored frequent alterations of the JAK-STAT pathway genes (5/6, 82%); STAT3 mutations (n=3), SOCS1 deletion (n=1) and STAT3-JAK2 rearrangement (n=1), and 4/6 (67%) had concomitant mutations in epigenetic modifier genes (TET2, DNMT3A, KMT2D). Conversely, 2/4 (50%) of the CD8+ cases exhibited structural alterations involving the 3' untranslated region of the IL2 gene. Longitudinal genetic analysis revealed stable mutational profiles in 4/5 (80%) cases and acquisition of mutations in one case were a harbinger of disease transformation. The CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ lymphoproliferative disorders displayed heterogeneous Th1 (T-bet+), Th2 (GATA3+) or hybrid Th1/Th2 (T-bet+/GATA3+) profiles, while the majority of CD8+ disorders and the CD4-/CD8- disease showed a type-2 polarized (GATA3+) effector T-cell (Tc2) phenotype. Additionally, CD103 expression was noted in 2/4 CD8+ cases. Our findings provide insights into the pathogenetic bases of indolent T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and confirm the heterogeneous nature of these diseases. Detection of shared and distinct genetic alterations of the JAK-STAT pathway in certain immunophenotypic subsets warrants further mechanistic studies to determine whether therapeutic targeting of this signaling cascade is efficacious for a proportion of patients with these recalcitrant diseases.

5.
Virchows Arch ; 475(3): 313-323, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267199

RESUMO

Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease. The efficacy of tailored therapeutic strategies relies on the precise detection of diagnostic biomarkers by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Therefore, considering the increasing incidence of breast cancer cases, a concomitantly time-efficient and accurate diagnosis is clinically highly relevant. Microfluidics is a promising innovative technology in the field of tissue diagnostic, enabling for rapid, reliable, and automated immunostaining. We previously reported the microfluidic-based HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) detection in breast carcinomas to greatly correlate with the HER2 gene amplification level. Here, we aimed to develop a panel of microfluidic-based IHC protocols for prognostic and therapeutic markers routinely assessed for breast cancer diagnosis, namely HER2, estrogen/progesterone receptor (ER/PR), and Ki67 proliferation factor. The microfluidic IHC protocol for each marker was optimized to reach high staining quality comparable to the standard procedure, while concomitantly shortening the staining time to 16 min-excluding deparaffinization and antigen retrieval step-with a turnaround time reduction up to 7 folds. Comparison of the diagnostic score on 50 formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded breast tumor resections by microfluidic versus standard staining showed high concordance (overall agreement: HER2 94%, ER 95.9%, PR 93.6%, Ki67 93.7%) and strong correlation (ρ coefficient: ER 0.89, PR 0.88, Ki67 0.87; p < 0.0001) for all the analyzed markers. Importantly, HER2 genetic reflex test for all discordant cases confirmed the scores obtained by the microfluidic technique. Overall, the microfluidic-based IHC represents a clinically validated equivalent approach to the standard chromogenic staining for rapid, accurate, and automated breast cancer diagnosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Microfluídica/métodos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(7): e1007918, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329640

RESUMO

T-follicular helper (Tfh) cells, co-expressing PD-1 and TIGIT, serve as a major cell reservoir for HIV-1 and are responsible for active and persistent HIV-1 transcription after prolonged antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, the precise mechanisms regulating HIV-1 transcription in lymph nodes (LNs) remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of immune checkpoint (IC)/IC-Ligand (IC-L) interactions on HIV-1 transcription in LN-microenvironment. We show that PD-L1 (PD-1-ligand) and CD155 (TIGIT-ligand) are predominantly co-expressed on LN migratory (CD1chighCCR7+CD127+) dendritic cells (DCs), that locate predominantly in extra-follicular areas in ART treated individuals. We demonstrate that TCR-mediated HIV production is suppressed in vitro in the presence of recombinant PD-L1 or CD155 and, more importantly, when LN migratory DCs are co-cultured with PD-1+/Tfh cells. These results indicate that LN migratory DCs expressing IC-Ls may more efficiently restrict HIV-1 transcription in the extra-follicular areas and explain the persistence of HIV transcription in PD-1+/Tfh cells after prolonged ART within germinal centers.

7.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 46(9): 1859-1868, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214790

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 blockade can restore tumour-specific T-cell immunity and is an emerging therapy in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We investigated the correlation between 18F-FDG PET/CT-based markers and tumour tissue expression of PD-L1, necrosis and clinical outcome in patients receiving checkpoint inhibitor treatment. METHODS: PD-Li expression in biopsy or resection specimens from 49 patients with confirmed NSCLC was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), mean SUV (SUVmean), metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were obtained from 18F-FDG PET/CT images. The ratio of metabolic to morphological lesion volumes (MMVR) and its association with PD-L1 expression in each lesion were calculated. The associations between histologically reported necrosis and 18F-FDG PET imaging patterns and radiological outcome (evaluated by iRECIST) following anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy were also analysed. In 14 patients, the association between necrosis and MMVR and tumour immune contexture were analysed by multiple immunofluorescent (IF) staining for CD8, PD-1, granzyme B (GrzB) and NFATC2. RESULTS: In total, 25 adenocarcinomas and 24 squamous cell carcinomas were analysed. All tumours showed metabolic 18F-FDG PET uptake. MMVR was correlated inversely with PD-L1 expression in tumour cells. Furthermore, PD-L1 expression and low MMVR were significantly correlated with clinical benefit. Necrosis was correlated negatively with MMVR. Multiplex IF staining showed a greater frequency of activated CD8+ cells in necrotic tumours than in nonnecrotic tumours in both stromal and epithelial tumour compartments. CONCLUSION: This study introduces MMVR as a new imaging biomarker and its ability to noninvasively capture increased PD-L1 tumour expression and predict clinical benefit from checkpoint blockade in NSCLC should be further evaluated.

9.
Eur J Haematol ; 103(1): 35-42, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985955

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is frequently associated with autoimmune cytopenia (AIC). Whether such patients have a particular phenotype and require particular management is unclear. METHOD: Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma patients from the multicentric database of the Lymphoma Study Association presenting with AIC during disease course were included and matched to AITL patients without AIC (1/5 ratio). RESULTS: At diagnosis, AIC patients (n = 28) had more spleen and bone marrow involvement (54% vs 19% and 71% vs 34%, P < 0.001), Epstein-Barr virus replication (89% vs 39%, P < 0.001), gamma globulin titers (median 23 vs 15 g/L, P = 0.002), and proliferating B cells and plasmablasts in biopsies, as compared to control patients (n = 136). The 28 AIC patients had 41 episodes of AIC, diagnosed concomitantly with AITL in 23 (82%) cases. After a median follow-up of 24 months (range 3-155), 10 patients relapsed, all associated with AITL relapse. CONCLUSION: Our results provide new insight into AIC associated with AITL by highlighting the significant interplay between AITL and B-cell activation leading to subsequent autoimmunity.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Linfadenopatia Imunoblástica/diagnóstico , Linfadenopatia Imunoblástica/terapia , Linfoma de Células T/diagnóstico , Linfoma de Células T/terapia , Pancitopenia/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Biópsia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Linfadenopatia Imunoblástica/etiologia , Linfadenopatia Imunoblástica/mortalidade , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Linfoma de Células T/etiologia , Linfoma de Células T/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Pancitopenia/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Avaliação de Sintomas , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Blood ; 133(15): 1664-1676, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782609

RESUMO

Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a group of complex clinicopathological entities, often associated with an aggressive clinical course. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) and PTCL-not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) are the 2 most frequent categories, accounting for >50% of PTCLs. Gene expression profiling (GEP) defined molecular signatures for AITL and delineated biological and prognostic subgroups within PTCL-NOS (PTCL-GATA3 and PTCL-TBX21). Genomic copy number (CN) analysis and targeted sequencing of these molecular subgroups revealed unique CN abnormalities (CNAs) and oncogenic pathways, indicating distinct oncogenic evolution. PTCL-GATA3 exhibited greater genomic complexity that was characterized by frequent loss or mutation of tumor suppressor genes targeting the CDKN2A /B-TP53 axis and PTEN-PI3K pathways. Co-occurring gains/amplifications of STAT3 and MYC occurred in PTCL-GATA3. Several CNAs, in particular loss of CDKN2A, exhibited prognostic significance in PTCL-NOS as a single entity and in the PTCL-GATA3 subgroup. The PTCL-TBX21 subgroup had fewer CNAs, primarily targeting cytotoxic effector genes, and was enriched in mutations of genes regulating DNA methylation. CNAs affecting metabolic processes regulating RNA/protein degradation and T-cell receptor signaling were common in both subgroups. AITL showed lower genomic complexity compared with other PTCL entities, with frequent co-occurring gains of chromosome 5 (chr5) and chr21 that were significantly associated with IDH2 R172 mutation. CN losses were enriched in genes regulating PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling in cases without IDH2 mutation. Overall, we demonstrated that novel GEP-defined PTCL subgroups likely evolve by distinct genetic pathways and provided biological rationale for therapies that may be investigated in future clinical trials.

12.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(3): 467-478, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tumor-expressed CD73 ectonucleotidase generates immune tolerance and promotes invasiveness via adenosine production from degradation of AMP. While anti-CD73 blockade treatment is a promising tool in cancer immunotherapy, a characterization of CD73 expression in human hepatobiliopancreatic system is lacking. PATIENTS AND METHODS: CD73 expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry in a variety of non-neoplastic and neoplastic conditions of the liver, pancreas, and biliary tract. RESULTS: CD73 was expressed in normal hepatobiliopancreatic tissues with subcellular-specific patterns of staining: canalicular in hepatocytes, and apical in cholangiocytes and pancreatic ducts. CD73 was present in all hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), in all pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and in the majority of intra and extrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinomas, whereas it was detected only in a subset of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms and almost absent in acinar cell carcinoma. In addition to the canonical pattern of staining, an aberrant membranous and/or cytoplasmic expression was observed in invasive lesions, especially in HCC and PDAC. These two entities were also characterized by a higher extent and intensity of staining as compared to other hepatobiliopancreatic neoplasms. In PDAC, aberrant CD73 expression was inversely correlated with differentiation (p < 0.01) and was helpful to identify isolated discohesive tumor cells. In addition, increased CD73 expression was associated with reduced overall survival (HR 1.013) and loss of E-Cadherin. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent CD73 expression supports the rationale for testing anti-CD73 therapies in patients with hepatobiliopancreatic malignancies. Specific patterns of expression could also be of help in the routine diagnostic workup.


Assuntos
5'-Nucleotidase/análise , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/química , Sistema Biliar/química , Neoplasias Hepáticas/química , Fígado/química , Pâncreas/química , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/química , 5'-Nucleotidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/mortalidade , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/química , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/química , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/mortalidade , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Colangiocarcinoma/química , Colangiocarcinoma/mortalidade , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/análise , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Prognóstico
13.
Lab Invest ; 99(5): 722-732, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659272

RESUMO

Immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization are the two standard methods for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) assessment. However, they have severe limitations to assess quantitatively intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) when multiple subclones of tumor cells co-exist. We develop here a high-content, quantitative analysis of breast cancer tissues based on microfluidic experimentation and image processing, to characterize both HER2 protein overexpression and HER2 gene amplification at the cellular level. The technique consists of performing sequential steps on the same tissue slide: an immunofluorescence (IF) assay using a microfluidic protocol, an elution step for removing the IF staining agents, a standard FISH staining protocol, followed by automated quantitative cell-by-cell image processing. Moreover, ITH is accurately detected in both cluster and mosaic form using an analysis of spatial association and a mathematical model that allows discriminating true heterogeneity from artifacts due to the use of thin tissue sections. This study paves the way to evaluate ITH with high accuracy and content while requiring standard staining methods.

14.
Blood ; 133(9): 940-951, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30538135

RESUMO

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is characterized by the t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation resulting in overexpression of cyclin D1. However, a small subset of cyclin D1- MCL has been recognized, and approximately one-half of them harbor CCND2 translocations while the primary event in cyclin D1-/D2- MCL remains elusive. To identify other potential mechanisms driving MCL pathogenesis, we investigated 56 cyclin D1-/SOX11+ MCL by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), whole-genome/exome sequencing, and gene-expression and copy-number arrays. FISH with break-apart probes identified CCND2 rearrangements in 39 cases (70%) but not CCND3 rearrangements. We analyzed 3 of these negative cases by whole-genome/exome sequencing and identified IGK (n = 2) and IGL (n = 1) enhancer hijackings near CCND3 that were associated with cyclin D3 overexpression. By specific FISH probes, including the IGK enhancer region, we detected 10 additional cryptic IGK juxtapositions to CCND3 (6 cases) and CCND2 (4 cases) in MCL that overexpressed, respectively, these cyclins. A minor subset of 4 cyclin D1- MCL cases lacked cyclin D rearrangements and showed upregulation of CCNE1 and CCNE2. These cases had blastoid morphology, high genomic complexity, and CDKN2A and RB1 deletions. Both genomic and gene-expression profiles of cyclin D1- MCL cases were indistinguishable from cyclin D1+ MCL. In conclusion, virtually all cyclin D1- MCLs carry CCND2/CCND3 rearrangements with immunoglobulin genes, including a novel IGK/L enhancer hijacking mechanism. A subset of cyclin D1-/D2-/D3- MCL with aggressive features has cyclin E dysregulation. Specific FISH probes may allow the molecular identification and diagnosis of cyclin D1- MCL.


Assuntos
Ciclina D2/genética , Ciclina D3/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Rearranjo Gênico , Cadeias Leves de Imunoglobulina/genética , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/genética , Idoso , Ciclina D1/genética , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Transcrição SOXC/genética , Translocação Genética
16.
Pediatr Dev Pathol ; : 1093526618812528, 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451574

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Reference ranges in fetal postmortem anthropometric data derive from heterogeneous studies and rely on data obtained after intrauterine fetal death and abortion, which may introduce bias in the reported fetal growth parameters. We report anthropometric findings in fetuses with the least variation due to cause of death or developmental anomalies. METHODS: We analyzed fetuses after the termination of pregnancy for psychosocial reasons. The external measurements, X-ray dimensions, and body and organ weights were recorded as well as the placenta weight. A thorough and standardized postmortem analysis allowed the design of 2 different groups. Group 1 was composed of fetuses (1) born to mothers with no relevant obstetrical history, (2) no X-ray anomaly, (3) no abnormal autopsy findings, and (4) unremarkable placenta histology. An anomaly in any of these 4 entities moved the fetuses to Group 2. For reference ranges and graph construction, a well-designed statistical methodology was applied. RESULTS: A total of 335 fetuses were analyzed during an 11-year period. Group 1 comprised 232 fetuses aged 12 to 20 gestational weeks, whereas 103 fetuses were considered in Group 2. Comparison between the 2 groups showed almost no differences. Only the Group 1 results were submitted to statistical analysis, and reference ranges and graphs were constructed. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, we provide in this study the first anthropometric references established from almost normal fetuses, albeit for a limited fetal timeframe.

17.
Blood ; 132(21): 2280-2285, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30282799

RESUMO

The WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissue notes instances of Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia (BL) with IG-MYC rearrangement displaying a B-cell precursor immunophenotype (termed herein "preBLL"). To characterize the molecular pathogenesis of preBLL, we investigated 13 preBLL cases (including 1 cell line), of which 12 were analyzable using genome, exome, and targeted sequencing, imbalance mapping, and DNA methylation profiling. In 5 patients with reads across the IG-MYC breakpoint junctions, we found evidence that the translocation derived from an aberrant VDJ recombination, as is typical for IG translocations arising in B-cell precursors. Genomic changes like biallelic IGH translocations or VDJ rearrangements combined with translocation into the VDJ region on the second allele, potentially preventing expression of a productive immunoglobulin, were detected in 6 of 13 cases. We did not detect mutations in genes frequently altered in BL, but instead found activating NRAS and/or KRAS mutations in 7 of 12 preBLLs. Gains on 1q, recurrent in BL and preB lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (pB-ALL/LBL), were detected in 7 of 12 preBLLs. DNA methylation profiling showed preBLL to cluster with precursor B cells and pB-ALL/LBL, but apart from BL. We conclude that preBLL genetically and epigenetically resembles pB-ALL/LBL rather than BL. Therefore, we propose that preBLL be considered as a pB-ALL/LBL with recurrent genetic abnormalities.

18.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 2018 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211726

RESUMO

Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) is a mature large B-cell lymphoma of putative thymic B-cell origin involving the mediastinum with younger age distribution and better prognosis than diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), not otherwise specified. Recently, based on gene expression profile analysis and morphologic findings, cases of PMBL without mediastinal involvement have been reported. In this study, we analyzed 3 cases of nodal DLBCL with morphologic features of PMBL presenting in submandibular or supraclavicular lymph nodes, in middle-aged to elderly patients, 2 of them without clinical or radiologic evidence of mediastinal involvement. The 3 patients presented with stage I/II disease and had excellent response to R-CHOP/R-EPOCH therapy. The 3 cases showed MAL expression and were positive for CD23 and/or CD30. All 3 cases expressed cyclin D1 with copy number gains of CCND1 gene but without rearrangement. There was no rearrangement of CIITA or PDL1/PDL2. Reverse transcriptase-multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, a mRNA-based gene expression profile analysis revealed high probability of PMBL (87.6%, 98.7%, and 99%) in these 3 cases. Targeted next-generation sequencing analysis showed SOCS1 mutations in the 3 cases, and TNFAIP3 and XPO1 mutations in one, further supporting the diagnosis of PMBL. In conclusion, we report 3 cases of nodal PMBL, 2 of them without mediastinal mass, and expression of cyclin D1 due to copy number gains of CCND1 gene, a diagnostic pitfall with mantle cell lymphoma and DLBCL, not otherwise specified.

19.
Int J Surg Pathol ; : 1066896918796949, 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176748
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