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1.
Vaccine ; 37(18): 2482-2493, 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ZOE-50 (NCT01165177) and ZOE-70 (NCT01165229) phase 3 clinical trials showed that the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) was ≥90% efficacious in preventing herpes zoster in adults. Here we present a comprehensive overview of the safety data from these studies. METHODS: Adults aged ≥50 (ZOE-50) and ≥70 (ZOE-70) years were randomly vaccinated with RZV or placebo. Safety analyses were performed on the pooled total vaccinated cohort, consisting of participants receiving at least one dose of RZV or placebo. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AEs) were collected for 7 and 30 days after each vaccination, respectively. Serious AEs (SAEs) were collected from the first vaccination until 12 months post-last dose. Fatal AEs, vaccination-related SAEs, and potential immune-mediated diseases (pIMDs) were collected during the entire study period. RESULTS: Safety was evaluated in 14,645 RZV and 14,660 placebo recipients. More RZV than placebo recipients reported unsolicited AEs (50.5% versus 32.0%); the difference was driven by transient injection site and solicited systemic reactions that were generally seen in the first week post-vaccination. The occurrence of overall SAEs (RZV: 10.1%; Placebo: 10.4%), fatal AEs (RZV: 4.3%; Placebo: 4.6%), and pIMDs (RZV: 1.2%; Placebo: 1.4%) was balanced between groups. The occurrence of possible exacerbations of pIMDs was rare and similar between groups. Overall, except for the expected local and systemic symptoms, the safety results were comparable between the RZV and Placebo groups irrespective of participant age, gender, or race. CONCLUSIONS: No safety concerns arose, supporting the favorable benefit-risk profile of RZV.

2.
Diabetologia ; 2018 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992370

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This multicentre randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial assessed the efficacy and safety of a methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MetAP2) inhibitor, beloranib, in individuals with obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) and type 2 diabetes (HbA1c 53-97 mmol/mol [7-11%] and fasting glucose <15.6 mmol/l). METHODS: Participants were randomised (via a centralised interactive web response system) to placebo, 1.2 or 1.8 mg beloranib s.c. twice weekly for 26 weeks. Participants, investigators and the sponsor were blinded to group assignment. The primary endpoint was the change in weight from baseline to week 26. The trial was terminated early when beloranib development was stopped because of an imbalance of venous thromboembolism events in beloranib-treated individuals vs placebo that became evident during late-stage development of the drug. RESULTS: In total, 153 participants were randomised, 51 to placebo, 52 to 1.2 mg beloranib and 50 to 1.8 mg beloranib. In participants who completed week 26, the least squares mean ± SE weight change (baseline 111 kg) was -3.1 ± 1.2% with placebo (n = 22) vs -13.5 ± 1.1% and -12.7 ± 1.3% with 1.2 and 1.8 mg beloranib, respectively (n = 25; n = 19; p < 0.0001). The change in HbA1c (baseline 67 mmol/mol [8.3%]) was -6.6 ± 2.2 mmol/mol (-0.6 ± 0.2%) with placebo vs -21.9 ± 2.2 mmol/mol (-2.0 ± 0.2%) or -21.9 ± 3.3 mmol/mol (-2.0 ± 0.3%) with 1.2 or 1.8 mg beloranib (p < 0.0001), respectively. The most common beloranib adverse events were sleep related. One beloranib-treated participant experienced a non-fatal pulmonary embolism. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: MetAP2 inhibitors represent a novel mechanism for producing meaningful weight loss and improvement in HbA1c. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02324491 FUNDING: The study was funded by Zafgen, Inc.

3.
Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs ; 15(6): 409-16, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26088568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood pressure targets in individuals treated for hypertension in primary care remain difficult to attain. AIMS: To assess the role of practice nurses in facilitating intensive and structured management to achieve ideal BP levels. METHODS: We analysed outcome data from the Valsartan Intensified Primary carE Reduction of Blood Pressure Study. Patients were randomly allocated (2:1) to the study intervention or usual care. Within both groups, a practice nurse mediated the management of blood pressure for 439 patients with endpoint blood pressure data (n=1492). Patient management was categorised as: standard usual care (n=348, 23.3%); practice nurse-mediated usual care (n=156, 10.5%); standard intervention (n=705, 47.3%) and practice nurse-mediated intervention (n=283, 19.0%). Blood pressure goal attainment at 26-week follow-up was then compared. RESULTS: Mean age was 59.3±12.0 years and 62% were men. Baseline blood pressure was similar in practice nurse-mediated (usual care or intervention) and standard care management patients (150 ± 16/88 ± 11 vs. 150 ± 17/89 ± 11 mmHg, respectively). Practice nurse-mediated patients had a stricter blood pressure goal of ⩽125/75 mmHg (33.7% vs. 27.3%, p=0.026). Practice nurse-mediated intervention patients achieved the greatest blood pressure falls and the highest level of blood pressure goal attainment (39.2%) compared with standard intervention (35.0%), practice nurse-mediated usual care (32.1%) and standard usual care (25.3%; p<0.001). Practice nurse-mediated intervention patients were almost two-fold more likely to achieve their blood pressure goal compared with standard usual care patients (adjusted odds ratio 1.92, 95% confidence interval 1.32 to 2.78; p=0.001). CONCLUSION: There is greater potential to achieve blood pressure targets in primary care with practice nurse-mediated hypertension management.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/enfermagem , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Cuidados de Enfermagem/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Vaccine ; 33(21): 2485-92, 2015 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25843270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (IIV4) containing two influenza A strains and one strain from each B lineage (Yamagata and Victoria) may offer broader protection against seasonal influenza than inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (IIV3), containing a single B strain. This study examined the safety, immunogenicity, and lot consistency of an IIV4 candidate. METHODS: This phase III, randomized, controlled, multicenter trial in children/adolescents (9 through 17 years) and adults (18 through 60 years) was conducted in Australia and in the Philippines in 2012. The study was double-blind for IIV4 lots and open-label for IIV4 vs IIV3. Children/adolescents were randomized 2:2:2:1 and adults 10:10:10:1 to receive one of three lots of IIV4 or licensed IIV3. Safety data were collected for up to 6 months post-vaccination. Hemagglutination inhibition and seroneutralization antibody titers were assessed pre-vaccination and 21 days post-vaccination. RESULTS: 1648 adults and 329 children/adolescents received IIV4, and 56 adults and 55 children/adolescents received IIV3. Solicited reactions, unsolicited adverse events, and serious adverse events were similar for IIV3 and IIV4 recipients in both age groups. Injection-site pain, headache, malaise, and myalgia were the most frequently reported solicited reactions, most of which were mild and resolved within 3 days. No vaccine-related serious adverse events or deaths were reported. Post-vaccination antibody responses, seroconversion rates, and seroprotection rates for the 3 strains common to both vaccines were comparable for IIV3 and IIV4 in both age groups. Antibody responses to IIV4 were equivalent among vaccine lots and comparable between age groups for each of the 4 strains. IIV4 met all European Medicines Agency immunogenicity criteria for adults for all 4 strains. CONCLUSIONS: In both age groups, IIV4 was well tolerated and caused no safety concerns, induced robust antibody responses to all 4 influenza strains, and met all EMA immunogenicity criteria for adults. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NUMBER: NCT01481454.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Austrália , Criança , Método Duplo-Cego , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Neutralização , Filipinas , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/efeitos adversos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Hypertens ; 32(6): 1342-50, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24759125

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine protocol adherence to structured intensive management in the Valsartan Intensified Primary carE Reduction of Blood Pressure (VIPER-BP) study involving 119 primary care clinics and 1562 randomized participants. METHODS: Prospective criteria for assessing adherence to treatment prescription, uptitration, and visit attendance at 6, 10, 14, and 18 weeks postrandomization were applied to 1038 intervention participants. Protocol adherence scores of 1-5 (least to most adherent) were compared to blood pressure (BP) control during 26 weeks of follow-up. RESULTS: Mean age was 59.3 ±â€Š12.0 years, 963 (62%) were men, and 1045 (67%) had longstanding hypertension. Clinic attendance dropped from 91 (week 6) to 83% (week 26) and pharmacological instructions were followed for 93% (baseline) to 61% at week 14 (uptitration failures commonly representing protocol deviations). Overall, 26-week BP levels and BP target attainment ranged from 132 ±â€Š14/79 ±â€Š9 and 51% to 141 ±â€Š15/83 ±â€Š11  mmHg and 19% in those participants subject to the highest (n = 270, 26%) versus least (n = 148, 14%) per protocol adherence, respectively; adjusted relative risk (RR) 1.22 per unit protocol adherence score, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.31; for achieving BP target (P < 0.001). Participants with a per protocol score of 4 or 5 (512/1038, 49.3%) were 1.54-fold (95% CI 1.31-1.81; P < 0.001) more likely to achieve their individual BP target compared with usual care. Clinics equipped with a practice nurse significantly influenced protocol adherence (adjusted RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.06-1.37; P = 0.004) and individual BP control (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.04-1.41; P = 0.015). CONCLUSION: There is considerable potential for structured care management to improve BP control in primary care, especially when optimally applied.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Cooperação do Paciente , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Tetrazóis/uso terapêutico , Valina/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Valina/uso terapêutico , Valsartana
6.
BMJ ; 345: e7156, 2012 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23169801

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of intensive structured care to optimise blood pressure control based on individual absolute risk targets in primary care. DESIGN: Pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial. SETTING: General practices throughout Australia, except Northern Territory, 2009-11. PARTICIPANTS: Of 2185 patients from 119 general practices who were eligible for drug treatment for hypertension according to national guidelines 416 (19.0%) achieved their individual blood pressure target during a 28 day run-in period of monotherapy. After exclusions, 1562 participants not at target blood pressure (systolic 150 (SD 17) mm Hg, diastolic 88 (SD 11) mm Hg) were randomised (1:2 ratio) to usual care (n=524) or the intervention (n=1038). INTERVENTION: Computer assisted clinical profiling and risk target setting (all participants) with intensified follow-up and stepwise drug titration (initial angiotensin receptor blocker monotherapy or two forms of combination therapy using angiotensin receptor blockers) for those randomised to the intervention. The control group received usual care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was individual blood pressure target achieved at 26 weeks. Secondary outcomes were change in mean sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, absolute risk for cardiovascular disease within five years based on the Framingham risk score, and proportion and rate of adverse events. RESULTS: On an intention to treat basis, there was an 8.8% absolute difference in individual blood pressure target achieved at 26 weeks in favour of the intervention group compared with usual care group (358/988 (36.2%) v 138/504 (27.4%)): adjusted relative risk 1.28 (95% confidence interval 1.10 to 1.49, P=0.0013). There was also a 9.5% absolute difference in favour of the intervention group for achieving the classic blood pressure target of ≤ 140/90 mm Hg (627/988 (63.5%) v 272/504 (54.0%)): adjusted relative risk 1.18 (1.07 to 1.29, P<0.001). The intervention group achieved a mean adjusted reduction in systolic blood pressure of 13.2 mm Hg (95% confidence interval -12.3 to -14.2 mm Hg) and diastolic blood pressure of 7.7 mm Hg (-7.1 to -8.3 mm Hg) v 10.1 mm Hg (-8.8 to 11.3 mm Hg) and 5.5 mm Hg (-4.7 to -6.2 mm Hg) in the usual care group (P<0.001). Among 1141 participants in whom five year absolute cardiovascular risk scores were calculated from baseline to the 26 week follow-up, the reduction in risk scores was greater in the intervention group than usual care group (14.7% (SD 9.3%) to 10.9% (SD 8.0%); difference -3.7% (SD 4.5%) and 15.0% (SD 10.1%) to 12.4% (SD 9.4%); -2.6% (SD 4.5%): adjusted mean difference -1.13% (95% confidence interval -0.69% to -1.63%; P<0.001). Owing to adverse events 82 (7.9%) participants in the intervention group and 10 (1.9%) in the usual care group had their drug treatment modified. CONCLUSIONS: In a primary care setting intensive structured care resulted in higher levels of blood pressure control, with clinically lower blood pressure and absolute risk of future cardiovascular events overall and with more people achieving their target blood pressure. An important gap in treatment remains though and applying intensive management and achieving currently advocated risk based blood pressure targets is challenging.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Med J Aust ; 177(7): 356-60, 2002 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12358577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the natural history, treatment and cost of Ross River virus-induced epidemic polyarthritis (RRV disease). DESIGN: Questionnaire-based longitudinal prospective study. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Patients in the greater Brisbane area, Queensland, diagnosed with RRV disease by their general practitioners based on clinical symptoms and paired serological tests between November 1997 and April 1999. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Scores on two validated quality-of-life questionnaires (Clinical Health Assessment Questionnaire and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36) were obtained soon after diagnosis and one, two, three, six and 12 months thereafter. Scores were compared between patients diagnosed with RRV disease alone and those with RRV disease plus other conditions. RESULTS: 67 patients were enrolled. Most patients with RRV disease alone had severe acute symptoms, but followed a consistent path to recovery within three to six months. Other conditions, often chronic rheumatic diseases or depression, were identified in half the cohort; their quality-of-life scores suggested stable chronic illness between six and 12 months after diagnosis. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were taken by 58% of patients (average use, 7.6 weeks; range, 2-22 weeks). Time off work averaged 1.9 days, and direct cost to the community was estimated as 1018 Australian dollars per patient. CONCLUSIONS: Symptom duration and frequency of long-term symptoms may have been overestimated by previous studies of RRV disease. Disease persisting six to 12 months after RRV diagnosis was largely attributable to other conditions, highlighting the need to seek other diagnoses in RRV patients with persistent symptoms.


Assuntos
Infecções por Alphavirus , Artrite Infecciosa/virologia , Vírus do Rio Ross , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Alphavirus/economia , Artrite Infecciosa/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
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