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Res Vet Sci ; 136: 200-208, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684794


Tetracyclines are antibiotics widely used in human and veterinary medicine. Effects on the immune system and inflammatory response, including effects on blood leukocytes proliferation and function and in cytokines synthesis, have been described. Chemically modified tetracyclines (CMT) have lost their antimicrobial activity, but maintain these other properties. This study analyzes the effect of chemically modified tetracycline-8 (CMT-8) on the evolution of complete blood count, blood chemistry, the mRNA expression of selected cytokines and peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations distribution in healthy dogs. CMT-8 at a dose of 10 mg/kg once daily was administered per os to six healthy dogs. A control group of five healthy dogs, living in the same conditions than dogs treated with CMT-8, received placebo with an identical therapeutic regimen. When given at the doses used in this study, no side effects of CMT-8 were detected, suggesting a good tolerance and a limited toxicity of the drug. Dogs treated with CMT-8 showed a gradual increase in mean corpuscular hemoglobin. The administration of CMT-8 in healthy dogs did not affect blood mRNA expression of IFN-γ, TNFα, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 p40 and IL-13. However, the lymphocytes expressing class II MHC on their surface decreased during the first two weeks of CMT-8 treatment and subsequently increased for the next three months. Considering the absence of antimicrobial properties of the drug, the effects of CMT-8 detected in this study seem to be unrelated to the classical antimicrobial activity attributed to tetracyclines.

J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128251


The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of doxycycline in dogs and assess the efficacy of an oral drug dosage regimen of 10 mg/kg daily for 28 days through Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) target analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation, using previously published data for the zoonotic pathogen Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. After a multiple-dosage regimen, the accumulation index was 1.88 ± 0.82. The Cmaxss and Cminss values were 5.18 ± 1.81 µg/ml and 1.91 ± 1.35 µg/ml, respectively. There were statistically significant differences for Cmax, Cmin at 24 hr, MRTt, AUCt and AUC∞ between days 1 and 28. The Cminss value was over the MIC of the principal pathogens, and Cmaxss was higher than the resistance values (>2 µg/ml). For AUC/MIC indices of 12, 25 and 40, the cumulative fraction responses (CFR) were 94.01%, 69.55% and 60.86%, respectively; for an MIC value of 2 µg/ml, the corresponding probability of target attainment (PTA) was 99.94%, 84.78% and 45.16%, respectively. Doxycycline was used against numerous localized infections in different organs and tissues. For the strains with MIC < 1 µg/mL, PTA was close to 100%, even for the most demanding ones, specifically 94.98% for an index of 40% and 99.9% for an index of 25.

J Zoo Wildl Med ; 45(1): 78-85, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24712165


Enrofloxacin is widely used in veterinary medicine and is an important alternative to treating bacterial infections, which play an important role as causes of disease and death in captive snakes. Its extralabel use in nontraditional species has been related to its excellent pharmacokinetic and antimicrobial characteristics. This can be demonstrated by its activity against gram-negative organisms implicated in serious infectious diseases of reptile species with a rapid and concentration-dependent bactericidal effect and a large volume of distribution. Pharmacokinetic parameters for enrofloxacin were investigated in seven urutu pit vipers (Bothrops alternatus), following intramuscular injections of 10 mg/kg. The plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin and its metabolite, ciprofloxacin, were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Blood samples were collected from the ventral coccygeal veins at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96, 108, and 168 hr. The kinetic behavior was characterized by a relatively slow absorption (time of maximal plasma concentration = 4.50 +/- 3.45 hr) with peak plasma concentration of 4.81 +/- 1.12 microg/ml. The long half-life during the terminal elimination phase (t1/2 lambda = 27.91 +/- 7.55 hr) of enrofloxacin after intramuscular administration, calculated in the present study, could suggest that the antibiotic is eliminated relatively slowly and/or the presence of a slow absorption in urutu pit vipers. Ciprofloxacin reached a peak plasma concentration of 0.35 microg/ml at 13.45 hr, and the fraction of enrofloxacin metabolized to ciprofloxacin was 13.06%. If enrofloxacin's minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90) values of 0.5 microg/ml were used, the ratios AUC(e+c): MIC90 (276 +/- 67 hr) and Cmax(e+c): MIC90 (10 +/- 2) reach the proposed threshold values (125 hr and 10, respectively) for optimized efficacy and minimized resistance development when treating infections caused by Pseudomonas. The administration of 10 mg/kg of enrofloxacin by the i.m. route should be considered to be a judicious choice in urutu pit vipers against infections caused by microorganisms with MIC values < or = 0.5 microg/ml. For less susceptible bacteria, a dose increase and/or an interval reduction should be evaluated.

Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Bothrops , Ciprofloxacino/farmacocinética , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacocinética , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/sangue , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Área Sob a Curva , Ciprofloxacino/administração & dosagem , Ciprofloxacino/sangue , Ciprofloxacino/metabolismo , Enrofloxacina , Fluoroquinolonas/administração & dosagem , Fluoroquinolonas/sangue , Fluoroquinolonas/metabolismo , Meia-Vida
Vet J ; 175(1): 136-8, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17303451


The pharmacokinetic behaviour of enrofloxacin in greater rheas was investigated after intramuscular (IM) administration of 15 mg/kg. Plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin and its active metabolite, ciprofloxacin, were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Enrofloxacin peak plasma concentration (C(max)=3.30+/-0.90 microg/mL) was reached at 24.17+/-9.17 min. The terminal half-life (t(1/2lambda)) and area under the curve (AUC) were 2.85+/-0.54 h and 4.18+/-0.69 microg h/mL, respectively. The AUC and C(max) for ciprofloxacin were 0.25+/-0.06 microg/mL and 0.66+/-0.16 microg h/mL, respectively. Taking into account the values obtained for the efficacy indices, an IM dose of 15 mg/kg of enrofloxacin would appear to be adequate for treating infections caused by highly susceptible bacteria (MIC(90)<0.03 microg/mL) in greater rheas.

Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacocinética , Reiformes/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/sangue , Área Sob a Curva , Enrofloxacina , Fluoroquinolonas/administração & dosagem , Fluoroquinolonas/sangue , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária
Vet J ; 170(3): 364-8, 2005 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16266851


The pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin was investigated after intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration, both at a dose rate of 5 mg/kg BW, in six clinically healthy domestic ostriches. Plasma concentrations of marbofloxacin was determined by a HPLC/UV method. The high volume of distribution (3.22+/-0.98 L/kg) suggests good tissue penetration. Marbofloxacin presented a high clearance value (2.19+/-0.27 L/kgh), explaining the low AUC values (2.32+/-0.30 microgh/mL and 2.25+/-0.70 microgh/mL, after IV and IM administration, respectively) and a short half life and mean residence time (t(1/2 beta)=1.47+/-0.31 h and 1.96+/-0.35 h; MRT=1.46+/-0.02 h and 2.11+/-0.30 h, IV and IM, respectively). The absorption of marbofloxacin after IM administration was rapid and complete (C(max)=1.13+/-0.29 microg/mL; T(max)=0.36+/-0.071 h; MAT=0.66+/-0.22 h and F (%)=95.03+/-16.89).

Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacocinética , Quinolonas/farmacocinética , Struthioniformes/metabolismo , Absorção , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/veterinária , Estudos Cross-Over , Meia-Vida , Injeções Intramusculares/veterinária , Injeções Intravenosas/veterinária , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Struthioniformes/sangue