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1.
Ann Surg ; 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149825

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between Textbook Outcome (TO)-a new composite quality measurement-and long-term survival in gastric cancer surgery. BACKGROUND: Single-quality indicators do not sufficiently reflect the complex and multifaceted nature of perioperative care in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. METHODS: All patients undergoing gastrectomy for nonmetastatic gastric adenocarcinoma registered in the Population Registry of Esophageal and Stomach Tumours of Ontario (PRESTO) between 2004 and 2015 were included. TO was defined according to negative margins; >15 lymph nodes sampled; no severe complications; no re-interventions; no unplanned ICU admission; length of stay ≤21 days; no 30-day readmission; and no 30-day mortality. Three-year survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A marginal multivariable Cox proportional-hazards model was used to estimate the association between achieving TO metrics and long-term survival. E-value methodology was used to assess for risk of residual confounding. RESULTS: Of the 1836 patients included in this study, 402 (22%) achieved all TO metrics. TO patients had a higher 3-year survival rate compared to non-TO patients (75% vs 55%, log-rank P < 0.001). After adjustments for covariates and clustering within hospitals, TO was associated with a 41% reduction in mortality (adjusted hazards ratio 0.59, 95% confidence interval 0.48, 0.72, P < 0.001). These results were robust to potential residual confounding. CONCLUSIONS: Achieving TO is strongly associated with improved long-term survival in gastric cancer patients and merits further focus in surgical quality improvement efforts.

2.
J Vasc Surg ; 71(3): 1046-1054.e1, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Owing to the lack of comparative evidence between the endovascular technologies for arteriovenous fistula (AVF) stenosis treatments, we sought to summarize the reported data comparing the effectiveness of different endovascular approaches for the treatment of AVF stenoses at the juxta-anastomotic site. METHODS: We performed a systematic review in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched from inception to June 12, 2018 for observational and randomized studies that had examined the effectiveness of AVF stenosis treatment using plain percutaneous balloon angioplasty (PTA), cutting balloon angioplasty, drug-eluting balloon (DEB) angioplasty, high-pressure balloon angioplasty, and stenting. Bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for observational studies and the Cochrane Collaboration tool for randomized studies. Article screening, full-text review, assessment of bias, and data collection were conducted in duplicate, with a third reviewer to reconcile any discrepancies. We conducted a qualitative synthesis of the available evidence and a quantitative meta-analysis for the primary assisted patency outcome. The meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager, version 5.3, using random effects models, with the I2 statistic used to assess heterogeneity. Statistical significance was set at P < .05. RESULTS: Our search yielded 3683 reports. Of these, three randomized trials and three observational studies were included. Three studies with 342 patients had described the effectiveness of high-pressure balloon angioplasty, conventional PTA, and stenting and had analyzed the data qualitatively. Three studies with 141 patients had investigated native AVF patency after DEB angioplasty and conventional PTA and were included in the meta-analysis. DEB angioplasty showed significantly greater primary assisted patency rates at 12 months after treatment compared with PTA (odds ratio, 3.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-10.14; I2 = 49%). No statistically significant differences were found in 6-month primary assisted patency among the treatment groups (odds ratio, 2.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-6.45; I2 = 50%). A total of 58 of 72 AVFs remained patent 6 months after DEB angioplasty compared with 45 of 69 at 6 months after PTA. At 12 months after treatment, 48 of 72 AVFs remained patent after DEB angioplasty compared with 23 of 69 AVFs after PTA. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest DEB angioplasty is a more effective treatment option for AVF stenosis at the juxta-anastomotic site compared with PTA. Although DEB angioplasty might provide longer term patency than other endovascular treatments, further high-quality data are needed to confirm this finding.

3.
J Vasc Surg ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085959

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Existing data regarding endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) are conflicting in their findings. The purpose of this paper was to determine the long-term outcomes of EVAR vs open surgical repair (OSR) for treatment of rAAA. METHODS: A population-based retrospective cohort study of all patients 40 years or more that underwent OSR or EVAR of rAAA in Ontario, Canada, from 2003 to 2016 was conducted. Administrative data from the province of Ontario was used as the data source. The propensity for repair approach was calculated using a logistic regression model including all covariates and used for inverse probability of treatment weighting. Cox proportional hazards regression was conducted using the weighted cohort to determine the survival and major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE)-free survival of EVAR relative to OSR for rAAA up to 10 years after repair. RESULTS: A total of 2692 rAAA (261 EVAR [10%] and 2431 OSR [90%]) repairs were recorded from April 1, 2003, to March 31, 2016. Mean follow-up for the entire cohort was 3.4 years (standard deviation [SD], 3.9 years), with a maximum follow-up of 14.0 years. OSR patients were followed for a mean of 3.5 years (SD, 4.0 years) and maximum of 14.0 years, and EVAR patients were followed for a mean of 2.7 years (SD, 2.7 years) and a maximum of 11.4 years. Median survival was 2.7 years overall, and 2.5 and 3.7 years for OSR and EVAR patients, respectively. There were no significant baseline differences between EVAR and OSR patients after inverse probability of treatment weighting. EVAR patients were at lower hazard for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-0.65; P < .01), and MACE (hazard ratio, 0.51, 95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.66; P < .01) within 30 days of repair. There were no statistically significant differences between EVAR and OSR in the hazard for all-cause mortality or MACE from 30 days to 5 years, and 5 to 10 years. Despite this, the upfront mortality and MACE benefits of EVAR persisted for more than 4.5 years after repair. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based cohort study using administrative data from Ontario, Canada, demonstrated lower hazards for all-cause mortality and MACE within 30 days of operation in favor of EVAR, but no differences in the mid- or longer-term results. More work is needed to understand and improve the long-term outcomes of ruptured endovascular aortic aneurysm repair and ruptured open surgical repair.

4.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-11, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036731

RESUMO

Background: Compared to other patient population groups, the field of amputation research in Canada lacks cohesion largely due to limited funding sources, lack of connection among research scientists, and loose ties among geographically dispersed healthcare centres, research institutes and advocacy groups. As a result, advances in clinical care are hampered and ultimately negatively influence outcomes of persons living with limb loss.Objective: To stimulate a national strategy on advancing amputation research in Canada, a consensus-workshop was organized with an expert panel of stakeholders to identify key research priorities and potential strategies to build researcher and funding capacity in the field.Methods: A modified Delphi approach was used to gain consensus on identifying and selecting an initial set of priorities for building research capacity in the field of amputation. This included an anonymous pre-meeting survey (N = 31 respondents) followed by an in-person consensus-workshop meeting that hosted 38 stakeholders (researchers, physiatrists, surgeons, prosthetists, occupational and physical therapists, community advocates, and people with limb loss).Results: The top three identified research priorities were: (1) developing a national dataset; (2) obtaining health economic data to illustrate the burden of amputation to the healthcare system and to patients; and (3) improving strategies related to outcome measurement in patients with limb loss (e.g. identifying, validating, and/or developing outcome measures). Strategies for moving these priorities into action were also developed.Conclusions: The consensus-workshop provided an initial roadmap for limb loss research in Canada, and the event served as an important catalyst for stakeholders to initiate collaborations for moving identified priorities into action. Given the increasing number of people undergoing an amputation, there needs to be a stronger Canadian collaborative approach to generate the necessary research to enhance evidence-based clinical care and policy decision-making.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONLimb loss is a growing concern across North America, with lower-extremity amputations occurring due to complications arising from diabetes being a major cause.To advance knowledge about limb loss and to improve clinical care for this population, stronger connections are needed across the continuum of care (acute, rehabilitation, community) and across sectors (clinical, advocacy, industry and research).There are new surgical techniques, technologies, and rehabilitation approaches being explored to improve the health, mobility and community participation of people with limb loss, but further research evidence is needed to demonstrate efficacy and to better integrate them into standard clinical care.

5.
Gastric Cancer ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686260

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between gastric cancer surgery case-volume and Textbook Outcome, a new composite quality measurement. BACKGROUND: Textbook Outcome included (a) negative resection margin, (b) greater than 15 lymph nodes sampled, (c) no severe complication, (d) no re-intervention, (e) no unplanned ICU admission, (f) length of stay of 21 days or less, (g) no 30-day readmission and (h) no 30-day mortality following surgery. METHODS: All patients undergoing gastrectomy for non-metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma registered in the Population Registry of Esophageal and Stomach Tumours of Ontario between 2004 and 2015 were included. We used multivariable generalized estimating equation (GEE) logistic regression modelling to estimate the association between gastrectomy volume (surgeon and hospital annual volumes) and Textbook Outcome. Volumes were considered as continuous variables and quintiles. RESULTS: Textbook Outcome was achieved in 378 of 1660 patients (22.8%). The quality metrics least often achieved were inadequate lymph node sampling and presence of severe complications, which occurred in 46.1% and 31.7% of patients, respectively. Accounting for covariates and clustering, neither surgeon volume nor hospital volume were significantly associated with Textbook Outcome. However, hospital volume was associated with adequate lymphadenectomy and fewer unplanned ICU admissions. CONCLUSIONS: Higher case volume can impact certain measures of quality of care but may not address all care structures necessary for ideal Textbook recovery. Future quality improvement strategies should consider using case-mix adjusted Textbook Outcome rates as a surgical quality metric.

6.
Can J Surg ; 62(6): 412-417, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545573

RESUMO

Background: Patients who undergo vascular surgery are burdened by high early readmission rates. We examined the frequency and cause of early readmissions after elective and emergent admission to the vascular surgery service at our institution to identify modifiable targets for quality improvement. Methods: Over a 5-year period, all patients admitted and readmitted to the vascular surgery service were identified. Medical records were then individually reviewed to identify baseline characteristics from the index admission and the most responsible diagnosis for readmission within 28 days of discharge. Results: Of a total of 3324 patients, 421 (12.7%) were readmitted to our institution within 28 days of discharge. Forty-seven were found to have more than 1 readmission following their index admission. The readmission rate ranged from 11.8% to 14.1% over the 5-year study period, resulting in an average readmission rate of 12.7%. There were similar rates for men (12.9%) and women (12.3%). Of the readmitted cases, 236 (63.1%) were unplanned readmissions. The most common diagnoses for unplanned readmissions were worsening of peripheral arterial disease status including complications related to peripheral bypass graft (30.9%), surgical site infections (15.3%) and nonsurgical infections (14.8%). Conclusion: To reduce readmission rates effectively, institutions must identify highrisk patients. In our study cohort, the most frequent pathology resulting in readmission was peripheral arterial disease. The most frequent preventable reason for readmission was surgical site infection. Interventions focused on early assessment of clinical status and wounds in addition to avoidance of infectious complications could help reduce readmission rates. Preventive resources can be efficiently targeted by focusing on subgroups at risk for readmission.

7.
CMAJ ; 191(35): E955-E961, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evolving clinical burden of limb loss secondary to diabetes and peripheral artery disease remains poorly characterized. We sought to examine secular trends in the rate of lower-extremity amputations related to diabetes, peripheral artery disease or both. METHODS: We included all individuals aged 40 years and older who underwent lower-extremity amputations related to diabetes or peripheral artery disease in Ontario, Canada (2005-2016). We identified patients and amputations through deterministic linkage of administrative health databases. Quarterly rates (per 100 000 individuals aged ≥ 40 yr) of any (major or minor) amputation and of major amputations alone were calculated. We used time-series analyses with exponential smoothing models to characterize secular trends and forecast 2 years forward in time. RESULTS: A total of 20 062 patients underwent any lower-extremity amputation, of which 12 786 (63.7%) underwent a major (above ankle) amputation. Diabetes was present in 81.8%, peripheral artery disease in 93.8%, and both diabetes and peripheral artery disease in 75.6%. The rate of any amputation initially declined from 9.88 to 8.62 per 100 000 between Q2 of 2005 and Q4 of 2010, but increased again by Q1 of 2016 to 10.0 per 100 000 (p = 0.003). We observed a significant increase in the rate of any amputation among patients with diabetes, peripheral artery disease, and both diabetes and peripheral artery disease. Major amputations did not significantly change among patients with diabetes, peripheral artery disease or both. INTERPRETATION: Lower-extremity amputations related to diabetes, peripheral artery disease or both have increased over the last decade. These data support renewed efforts to prevent and decrease the burden of limb loss.

8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(7): e196578, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290986

RESUMO

Importance: Knowledge regarding the long-term outcomes of elective treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) using endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) is increasing. However, data with greater than 10 years' follow-up remain sparse and are lacking from population-based studies. Objective: To determine the long-term outcomes of EVAR compared with open surgical repair (OSR) for elective treatment of AAA. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective, population-based cohort study used linked administrative health data from Ontario, Canada, to identify all patients 40 years and older who underwent elective EVAR or OSR for AAA repair from April 1, 2003, to March 31, 2016, with follow-up terminating on March 31, 2017. A total of 17 683 patients were identified using validated procedure and billing codes and were propensity score matched. Analysis was conducted from June 26, 2018, to January 16, 2019. Exposures: Elective EVAR or OSR for AAA. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was overall survival. Secondary outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular event-free survival, defined as being free of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke; reintervention; and secondary rupture. Results: Among 17 683 patients who received elective AAA repairs (mean [SD] age, 72.6 [7.8] years; 14 286 [80.8%] men), 6100 (34.5%) underwent EVAR and 11 583 (65.5%) underwent OSR. From these patients, 4010 well-balanced propensity score-matched pairs of patients were defined, with a mean (SD) age of 73.0 (7.6) years and 6583 (82.1%) men. In the matched cohort, the mean (SD) follow-up was 4.4 (2.7) years, and maximum follow-up was 13.8 years. The overall median survival was 8.9 years. Compared with OSR, EVAR was associated with a higher survival rate up to 1 year after repair (91.0% [95% CI, 90.1%-91.9%] vs 94.0% [95% CI, 93.3%-94.7%]) and a higher major adverse cardiovascular event-free survival rate up to 4 years after repair (69.9% [95% CI, 68.3%-71.3%] vs 72.9% [95% CI, 71.4%-74.4%]). Cumulative incidence of reintervention was higher among patients who underwent EVAR compared with those who underwent OSR at the 7-year follow-up (45.9% [95% CI, 44.1%-47.8%] vs 42.2% [95% CI, 40.4%-44.0%]). Survival analyses demonstrated no statistically significant differences in long-term survival, reintervention, and secondary rupture for patients who underwent EVAR compared with those who underwent OSR. Kaplan-Meier analysis suggested superior long-term major adverse cardiovascular event-free survival among patients who underwent EVAR compared with those who underwent OSR (32.6% [95% CI, 26.9%-38.4%] vs 14.1% [95% CI, 4.0%-30.4%]; stratified log-rank P < .001) during a maximum follow-up of 13.8 years. Conclusions and Relevance: Endovascular aortic repair was not associated with a difference in long-term survival during more than 13 years' maximum follow-up. The reasons for these findings will require studies to consider specific graft makes and models, adherence to instructions for use, and types and reasons for reintervention.

9.
J Vasc Surg ; 70(3): 954-969.e30, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study synthesized the literature comparing the long-term (5-9 years) and very long-term (≥10 years) all-cause mortality, reintervention, and secondary rupture rates between endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) and open surgical repair (OSR) of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and CENTRAL databases were searched from inception to May 2018 for studies comparing EVAR to OSR with a minimum follow-up period of 5 years. Study selection, data abstraction, and quality assessment were conducted by two independent reviewers, with a third author resolving discrepancies. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane and Newcastle-Ottawa scales. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was quantified using the I2 statistic, and publication bias was assessed using funnel plots. RESULTS: Our search yielded 3431 unique articles. Three randomized controlled trials and 68 observational studies comparing 151,092 EVAR to 148,692 OSR patients were included. Inter-rater agreement was excellent at the screening (κ = 0.78) and full-text review (κ = 0.89) stages. Overall, the risk of bias was low to moderate. For long-term outcomes, 54 studies reported all-cause mortality (n = 203,246), 23 reported reintervention (n = 157,151), and 4 reported secondary rupture (n = 150,135). EVAR was associated with higher long-term all-cause mortality (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.06-1.33; P = .003, I2 = 91%), reintervention (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.67-2.69; P < .00001, I2 = 96%), and secondary rupture rates (OR, 4.84; 95% CI, 2.63-8.89; P < .00001, I2 = 92%). For very long-term outcomes, 15 studies reported all-cause mortality (n = 48,721), 9 reported reintervention (n = 7511), and 1 reported secondary rupture (n = 1116). There was no mortality difference between groups, but EVAR was associated with higher reintervention (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.71-3.57; P < .00001, I2 = 84%) and secondary rupture rates (OR, 8.10; 95% CI, 1.01-64.99; P = .05). Subanalysis of more recent studies, with last year of patient recruitment 2010 or after, demonstrated no long-term mortality differences between EVAR and OSR. CONCLUSIONS: EVAR is associated with higher long-term all-cause mortality, reintervention, and secondary rupture rates compared with OSR. In the very long-term, EVAR is also associated with higher reintervention and secondary rupture rates. Notably, EVAR mortality has improved over time. Vigilant long-term surveillance of EVAR patients is recommended.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese Vascular/mortalidade , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Retratamento , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
CMAJ Open ; 7(2): E379-E384, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent years have seen centralization of vascular surgery services in Ontario. We sought to examine the trends in overall and approach-specific elective and ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm repair by hospital type (teaching v. community). METHODS: We conducted a population-based time-series analysis of elective and ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs in Ontario, Canada, from 2003 to 2016. Quarterly cumulative incidences of repairs per 100 000 Ontarians aged 40 years and older were calculated. We fit exponential smoothing models to the data stratified by approach and hospital type to examine repair trends. RESULTS: We identified 19 219 elective and 2722 ruptured repairs between 2003 and 2016. The cumulative incidences of overall elective repair and elective open surgical repair decreased by 1.15% (p = 0.008) and 67% (p < 0.001), respectively, in teaching hospitals and by 23% (p < 0.001) and 60% (p < 0.001), respectively, in community hospitals. The cumulative incidence of elective endovascular repair increased 667% in teaching hospitals (p < 0.001). Elective endovascular repair began in community centres after 2010 and increased to 0.98/100 000 (p < 0.001), resulting in a rebound in overall elective repair in the community. Overall ruptured repairs and ruptured open repairs decreased by 84% (p < 0.001) and 88% (p = 0.002), respectively, at community hospitals. Ruptured endovascular repairs at community hospitals increased from no procedures before 2006 to 0.03/100 000 in 2016 (p = 0.005). INTERPRETATION: There has been substantial uptake of endovascular aortic repair in teaching and community hospitals in Ontario, and community hospital uptake of endovascular repair has begun decentralization of abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Increased experience and training in endovascular repair and reduced specialized care requirements will probably lead to continued decentralization.

11.
Surg Innov ; 26(5): 588-598, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074330

RESUMO

Background. Lithoplasty is a method of alleviating vessel stenosis by using localized high-speed pressure waves to disrupt calcium deposits. A systematic review of the literature was performed to summarize the early outcomes of lithoplasty in peripheral and coronary artery disease. Methods. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from database inception to July 2018 for original studies describing the use of lithoplasty. Study selection and data extraction were performed in duplicate, with a third author resolving discrepancies. Results. A total of 9 records were included from the 201 studies eligible for screening. In total, 211 patients with vascular calcification lesions underwent lithoplasty. The patients on average had an age of 73.2 years and had a maximum follow-up period of 5.5 months. Most lesions (72%, 152/212) were in peripheral artery beds, with the remainder occurring in coronary vessels. Lesioned vessels typically had severe calcium burden 62.6% (131/210), with an average initial stenosis of 76.6% (range, 68.1%-77.8%). After treatment, the average residual stenosis was 21.0% (range, 13.3%-26.2%), with a mean acute gain of vessel diameter of 2.5 mm. A limited number of type D dissections occurred, with a total of 2.4% (5/211) of patients requiring stent implantation. Conclusions. Recent studies suggest that lithoplasty is a promising intervention to decrease vessel stenosis in both peripheral artery disease and coronary artery disease, with minimal occurrence of major adverse events. Further research studies, with more rigorous study designs, are needed to determine the effectiveness of lithoplasty in vascular calcifications.


Assuntos
Estenose Coronária/terapia , Litotripsia/métodos , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/terapia , Calcificação Vascular/terapia , Humanos
12.
J Vasc Surg ; 70(5): 1675-1681.e6, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126762

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to characterize the growing body of literature regarding nonoperative management of blunt thoracic aortic injury (BTAI). METHODS: A systematic search of MedLine, Embase, and Cochrane Central was completed to identify original articles reporting injury characteristics and outcomes in patients with BTAI managed nonoperatively during their index hospitalization. Article title and abstract screening, full-text review, and data abstraction were performed in duplicate, with discrepancies resolved by a third reviewer. The quality of each study was evaluated using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Levels of Evidence. RESULTS: Of 2162 identified studies, 74 were included and reported on 8606 patients with BTAI who were managed nonoperatively between 1970 and 2016. Only one study was prospective. The median nonoperative sample size per study was 11 patients. The characterization of aortic injury grade differed across studies. Follow-up varied widely from 1 day to 118 months. Injury healing or improvement on follow-up imaging occurred in 34% (226 of 673 patients; reported in 37 studies), most often in the context of grade I intimal injury. Injury progression or requirement for a thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair for injury progression was 7.6% (66 of 873 patients; reported in 46 studies). A total of 37 studies reported aortic-related death, with an overall rate of 4.5% (37 of 827 patients) and a rate of 1% in grade I and II injuries (1 of 153 patients) and 18% in grade III and IV (9 of 50 patients). CONCLUSIONS: An increasing number of reports support nonoperative management of grade I intimal injury, consistent with Society for Vascular Surgery guidelines. However, a retrospective interpretation of the determinants of management, heterogeneous injury characterization, and variable follow-up remain major limitations to the informed use of nonoperative management across all BTAI grades.

13.
BMJ Qual Saf ; 28(11): 901-907, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Events occurring outside the hospital setting are underevaluated in surgical quality improvement initiatives and research. OBJECTIVE: To quantify regional variation in home care nursing following vascular surgery and explore its impact on emergency department (ED) visits and hospital readmission. METHODS: Patients who underwent elective vascular surgery and were discharged directly home were identified from population-based administrative databases for the province of Ontario, Canada, 2006-2015. The index surgeries included carotid endarterectomy, open and endovascular aortic aneurysm repair and bypass for lower extremity peripheral arterial disease. Home care nursing within 30 days of discharge was captured and compared across regions. Using multilevel logistic regression, we characterised the association between home care nursing and the risk of an ED visit or hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge. RESULTS: The cohort included 23 617 patients, of whom 9002 (38%) received home care nursing within 30 days of discharge home. Receipt of nursing care after discharge home varied widely across Ontario's 14 administrative health regions (range 16%-84%), even after accounting for differences in patient case mix. A lower likelihood of an ED visit or hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge was observed among patients who received home care nursing following three of four index surgeries: carotid endarterectomy OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.91; endovascular aortic aneurysm repair OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.99; open aortic aneurysm repair OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.23; bypass for lower extremity peripheral arterial disease OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.92. CONCLUSION: Home care nursing may contribute to reducing ED visits and hospital readmission and is variably prescribed after vascular surgery.

14.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 58: 166-173.e4, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vascular surgeons have a central role in managing peripheral artery disease (PAD). This study assessed their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding pharmacologic risk reduction in PAD and results were compared to a similar 2004 survey conducted by our group. METHODS: An online questionnaire was administered to 161 active members of the Canadian Society for Vascular Surgery. RESULTS: Forty-eight participants (30%) completed the survey. Recommended targets for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose were known by 52%, 38%, and 50% of vascular surgeons, respectively. Almost all participants recognized antiplatelet dosages and statin indications, but less than half could identify indications (29%) and precautions (44%) for angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor therapy. A majority (58%) routinely evaluate risk factors in <50% of their patients. Most vascular surgeons regularly provide risk reduction counseling, but less than 10% initiate or modify antihypertensive or ACE inhibitor therapy. Compared to 2004, knowledge of targets and indications/precautions for common cardiovascular medications and frequency of risk factor assessment have not changed. Rates of counseling for diabetes control and statin prescription have improved, but remain suboptimal. Regarding newer medications with cardiovascular benefit, less than 10% would prescribe proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors if they were available. The majority of vascular surgeons rate their PAD risk reduction knowledge as average and support an up-to-date Canadian PAD guideline. Most participants believe that risk reduction therapy is best provided by family physicians and internists, but also acknowledge that vascular surgeons should be well-versed in assessing and managing risk factors in PAD. CONCLUSIONS: Significant knowledge and action gaps exist among Canadian vascular surgeons with regards to pharmacologic cardiovascular risk reduction in PAD. Although there is recognition that vascular surgeons are central to the medical management of patients with PAD, few routinely evaluate risk factors and prescribe medications. There is little evidence of sufficient improvement since 2004. New educational and clinical strategies are needed to improve PAD risk reduction pharmacotherapy among Canadian vascular surgeons.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Canadá , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Hipolipemiantes/efeitos adversos , Doença Arterial Periférica/sangue , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/fisiopatologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica , Lacunas da Prática Profissional , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Sociedades Médicas
16.
Ann Surg ; 270(2): 378-383, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29672398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early readmission to hospital after surgery is an omnipresent quality metric across surgical fields. We sought to understand the relative importance of hospital readmission among all health services received after hospital discharge. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize 30-day postdischarge cost and risk of an emergency department (ED) visit, readmission, or death after hospitalization for elective major vascular surgery. METHODS: This is a population-based retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent elective major vascular surgery - carotid endarterectomy, EVAR, open AAA repair, bypass for lower extremity peripheral arterial disease - in Ontario, Canada, between 2004 and 2015. The outcomes of interest included quality metrics - ED visit, readmission, death - and cost to the Ministry of Health, within 30 days of discharge. Costs after discharge included those attributable to hospital readmission, ED visits, rehab, physician billing, outpatient nursing and allied health care, medications, interventions, and tests. Multivariable regression models characterized the association of pre-discharge characteristics with the above-mentioned postdischarge quality metrics and cost. RESULTS: A total of 30,752 patients were identified. Within 30 days of discharge, 2588 (8.4%) patients were readmitted to hospital and 13 patients died (0.04%). Another 4145 (13.5%) patients visited an ED without requiring admission. Across all patients, over half of 30-day postdischarge costs were attributable to outpatient care. Patients at an increased risk of an ED visit, readmission, or death within 30 days of discharge differed from those patients with relatively higher 30-day costs. CONCLUSION: Events occurring outside the hospital setting should be integral to the evaluation of quality of care and cost after hospitalization for major vascular surgery.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/normas , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Alta do Paciente/economia , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/normas , Idoso , Custos e Análise de Custo , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/economia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Fatores de Tempo , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/economia
17.
Clin Invest Med ; 41(3): E148-E155, 2018 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30315751

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the positive predictive values (PPV) of Ontario administrative data codes for the identification of open (OSR) and endovascular (EVAR) repairs of elective (eAAA) and ruptured (rAAA) abdominal aortic aneurysms. METHODS: We randomly identified 319 eAAA and rAAA repairs at two Toronto hospitals between April 2003 and March 2015, using administrative health data in Ontario, Canada. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes I71.3 and I71.4, were used to identify rAAA and eAAA patients, respectively. A blinded retrospective chart review was conducted and served as the gold standard comparator. Re-abstracted records were compared to Canadian Classification of Health Interventions (CCI) and Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP) codes in the Canadian Institute for Health Information Discharge Abstract Database (CIHI-DAD) and OHIP databases. We calculated the PPV and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of individual and combined procedure and billing codes for elective and ruptured OSR and EVAR (eOSR, eEVAR, rOSR, and rEVAR). RESULTS: Permutation of codes allowed identification of eOSR with 95% PPV (95% CI 88, 98), eEVAR with 96% PPV (95% CI 90, 99), rOSR with 87% PPV (95% CI 79, 93) and rEVAR with 91% PPV (95% CI 59, 100). CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic, procedure and billing code combinations allow identification of eOSR, eEVAR, rOSR and rEVAR patients in Ontario administrative data with a high degree of certainty.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ontário
18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(19): e008657, 2018 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371297

RESUMO

Background There are no recognized pharmacological treatments for abdominal aortic aneurysms ( AAA ), although statins are suggested to be beneficial. We sought to summarize the literature regarding the effects of statins on human AAA growth, rupture, and 30-day mortality. Methods and Results We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and observational studies using the Cochrane CENTRAL database, MEDLINE , and EMBASE up to June 15, 2018. Review, abstraction, and quality assessment were conducted by 2 independent reviewers, and a third author resolved discrepancies. Pooled mean differences and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random effects models. Heterogeneity was quantified using the I2 statistic, and publication bias was assessed using funnel plots. Our search yielded 911 articles. One case-control and 21 cohort studies involving 80 428 patients were included. The risk of bias was low to moderate. Statin use was associated with a mean AAA growth rate reduction of 0.82 mm/y (95% confidence interval 0.33, 1.32, P=0.001, I2=86%). Statins were also associated with a lower rupture risk (odds ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.51, 0.78, P<0.0001, I2=27%), and preoperative statin use was associated with a lower 30-day mortality following elective AAA repair (odds ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.36, 0.83, P=0.005, I2=57%). Conclusions Statin therapy may be associated with reduction in AAA progression, rupture, and lower rates of perioperative mortality following elective AAA repair. These data argue for widespread statin use in AAA patients. Clinical Trial Registration URL : www.crd.york.ac.uk . Unique identifier: CRD 42017056480.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Roto/prevenção & controle , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/métodos , Aneurisma Roto/mortalidade , Aneurisma Roto/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Progressão da Doença , Saúde Global , Humanos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
19.
Can J Surg ; 61(4): 257-263, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30067184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rates of hospital readmission following surgery can serve as a marker for quality of care. The aim of this study was to establish the rates and causes of readmission and emergency department visits after vascular surgery and to understand how these patients are managed. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study including all inpatients who underwent major vascular surgery between September 2015 and June 2016 at a tertiary vascular care centre in Toronto. Patients were followed at 30 days after discharge via telephone interview. RESULTS: We enrolled 133 patients (94 men [70.7%] and 39 women [29.3%] with a mean age of 65.3 years). The most common index admission diagnosis was peripheral artery disease (67 patients [50.4%]). At 30 days, 19 patients (14.8%) had been readmitted or had visited the emergency department, most commonly after lower extremity revascularization (19.4%). Ten patients were readmitted a mean of 16.8 days following discharge; surgical site infection was the most common cause for readmission (3 patients). The most common treatment was antimicrobial therapy (4 patients). The mean hospital length of stay was 14.4 days. Nine patients presented to the emergency department a mean of 10.6 days after discharge; 6 reported a wound issue, and most (6 of 9) were managed with oral antibiotic treatment. CONCLUSION: Early readmission/emergency department visits after lower extremity revascularization surgery in patients with peripheral artery disease are common and are often due to surgical site infection or wound-related issues. Follow-up within 7-10 days and a specialized wound care team may help reduce the occurrence of these events.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Readmissão do Paciente , Doença Arterial Periférica/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Canadá , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Can J Surg ; 61(4): 12417, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29806807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rates of hospital readmission following surgery can serve as a marker for quality of care. The aim of this study was to establish the rates and causes of readmission and emergency department visits after vascular surgery and to understand how these patients are managed. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study including all inpatients who underwent major vascular surgery between September 2015 and June 2016 at a tertiary vascular care centre in Toronto. Patients were followed at 30 days after discharge via telephone interview. RESULTS: We enrolled 133 patients (94 men [70.7%] and 39 women [29.3%] with a mean age of 65.3 years). The most common index admission diagnosis was peripheral artery disease (67 patients [50.4%]). At 30 days, 19 patients (14.8%) had been readmitted or had visited the emergency department, most commonly after lower extremity revascularization (19.4%). Ten patients were readmitted a mean of 16.8 days following discharge; surgical site infection was the most common cause for readmission (3 patients). The most common treatment was antimicrobial therapy (4 patients). The mean hospital length of stay was 14.4 days. Nine patients presented to the emergency department a mean of 10.6 days after discharge; 6 reported a wound issue, and most (6 of 9) were managed with oral antibiotic treatment. CONCLUSION: Early readmission/emergency department visits after lower extremity revascularization surgery in patients with peripheral artery disease are common and are often due to surgical site infection or wound-related issues. Follow-up within 7-10 days and a specialized wound care team may help reduce the occurrence of these events.

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