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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the use of the enthesis ultrasound Madrid Sonographic Entesis Index (MASEI) from its publication. METHODS: A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register databases was performed. The search strategy was constructed to identify publications containing terms related to enthesis and ultrasound. The only applied filter was studies conducted in humans. One reviewer systematically screened the search. A second reviewer verified the selection. The data extraction was focused on study characteristics, including population and components of the OMERACT filter. RESULTS: Sixty-eight of the 1581 identified studies had used MASEI, including 41 (60%) abstracts and 27 (40%) articles. Of the 27 articles, MASEI was mainly used for spondyloarthritis and related diseases in 12 (44%) articles, followed by both psoriatic arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis in five (19%) articles; however, it was also used in diseases such as Behçet disease, FM, familiar Mediterranean fever, SS, crystal arthropathies and systemic sclerosis. The feasibility of MASEI was reported in three (11%) articles, and the reliability in 12 (44%) with good to excellent values. No article evaluated the responsiveness to treatment. The construct validity of MASEI was assessed using biomarkers in seven (26%) articles, clinical examination in 13 (48%) and imaging procedures (only X-rays) in two (7%). The discriminative validity was assessed in 16 (59%) articles, not only in SpAs. CONCLUSION: MASEI is a feasible, reliable and valid ultrasound score for the study of enthesis in spondyloarthritis, psoriatic arthritis and other diseases.

2.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(11): 1545-1549, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with spondyloarthritis with radiographic sacroiliitis are traditionally classified according to the modified New York (mNY) criteria as ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and more recently according to the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) criteria as radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (r-axSpA). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the agreement between the mNY criteria for AS and the ASAS criteria for r-axSpA and reasons for disagreement. METHODS: Patients with back pain ≥3 months diagnosed as axSpA with radiographic sacroiliitis (mNY radiographic criterion) were selected from eight cohorts (ASAS, Esperanza, GESPIC, OASIS, Reuma.pt, SCQM, SPACE, UCSF). Subsequently, we calculated the percentage of patients who fulfilled the ASAS r-axSpA criteria within the group of patients who fulfilled the mNY criteria and vice versa in six cohorts with complete information. RESULTS: Of the 3882 patients fulfilling the mNY criteria, 93% also fulfilled the ASAS r-axSpA criteria. Inversely, of the 3434 patients fulfilling the ASAS r-axSpA criteria, 96% also fulfilled the mNY criteria. The main cause for discrepancy between the two criteria sets was the reported age at onset of back pain. CONCLUSION: Almost all patients with axSpA with radiographic sacroiliitis fulfil both ASAS and mNY criteria, which supports the interchangeable use of the terms AS and r-axSpA.

5.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 58(10): 1802-1811, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop and test the reliability of a new semiquantitative scoring system for the assessment of cartilage changes by ultrasound in a web-based exercise as well as a patient exercise of patients with RA. METHODS: A taskforce of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Ultrasound Working Group performed a systematic literature review on the US assessment of cartilage in RA, followed by a Delphi survey on cartilage changes and a new semiquantitative US scoring system, and finally a web-based exercise as well as a patient exercise. For the web-based exercise, taskforce members scored a dataset of anonymized static images of MCP joints in RA patients and healthy controls, which also contained duplicate images. Subsequently, 12 taskforce members used the same US to score cartilage in MCP and proximal interphalangeal joints of six patients with RA in in a patient reliability exercise. Percentage agreement and prevalence of lesions were calculated, as intrareader reliability was assessed by weighted kappa and interreader reliability by Light's kappa. RESULTS: The three-grade semiquantitative scoring system demonstrated excellent intrareader reliability (kappa: 0.87 and 0.83) in the web-based exercise and the patient exercise, respectively. Interreader reliability was good in the web-based exercise (kappa: 0.64) and moderate (kappa: 0.48) in the patient exercise. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that ultrasound is a reliable tool for evaluating cartilage changes in the MCP joints of patients with RA and supports further development of a new reliable semiquantitative ultrasound scoring system for evaluating cartilage involvement in RA.

6.
J Rheumatol ; 46(10): 1295-1298, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709962

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between enthesitis, synovitis, and peritenon extensor tendon inflammation (PTI) in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). METHODS: PsA patients with swelling of metacarpophalangeal joints were included. Greyscale and power Doppler (PD) were used for synovitis and PTI ultrasound identification. Madrid Sonographic Enthesis Index (MASEI) was used for enthesitis assessment. PD activity was evaluated using PD item of MASEI and PD Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) definition. RESULTS: Synovitis had no association with enthesitis. PTI was associated with PD MASEI and PD OMERACT. Only PD OMERACT showed a positive correlation with PTI. CONCLUSION: In PsA, PTI is associated to enthesitis, as opposed to synovitis.

7.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 49(1): 126-135, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655091

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tocilizumab (TCZ) has shown efficacy in clinical trials on giant cell arteritis (GCA). Real-world data are scarce. Our objective was to assess efficacy and safety of TCZ in unselected patients with GCA in clinical practice Methods: Observational, open-label multicenter study from 40 national referral centers of GCA patients treated with TCZ due to inefficacy or adverse events of previous therapy. Outcomes variables were improvement of clinical features, acute phase reactants, glucocorticoid-sparing effect, prolonged remission and relapses. A comparative study was performed: (a) TCZ route (SC vs. IV); (b) GCA duration (≤6 vs. >6 months); (c) serious infections (with or without); (d) ≤15 vs. >15 mg/day at TCZ onset. RESULTS: 134 patients; mean age, 73.0 ± 8.8 years. TCZ was started after a median [IQR] time from GCA diagnosis of 13.5 [5.0-33.5] months. Ninety-eight (73.1%) patients had received immunosuppressive agents. After 1 month of TCZ 93.9% experienced clinical improvement. Reduction of CRP from 1.7 [0.4-3.2] to 0.11 [0.05-0.5] mg/dL (p < 0.0001), ESR from 33 [14.5-61] to 6 [2-12] mm/1st hour (p < 0.0001) and decrease in patients with anemia from 16.4% to 3.8% (p < 0.0001) were observed. Regardless of administration route or disease duration, clinical improvement leading to remission at 6, 12, 18, 24 months was observed in 55.5%, 70.4%, 69.2% and 90% of patients. Most relevant adverse side-effect was serious infections (10.6/100 patients-year), associated with higher doses of prednisone during the first three months of therapy. CONCLUSION: In clinical practice, TCZ yields a rapid and maintained improvement of refractory GCA. Serious infections appear to be higher than in clinical trials.

8.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 21(1): 11, 2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine if dose reduction is non-inferior to full-dose TNFi to maintain low disease activity (LDA) in patients already in remission with TNFi, in axial spondyloarthritis. METHODS: Randomized, parallel, non-inferiority, open-label multicentre clinical trial. Patients were eligible if they had axial spondyloarthritis and had been in clinical remission for ≥ 6 months with any available TNFi (adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab, golimumab) at the dose recommended by product labelling. Patients were randomized by automated central allocation to continue the same TNFi dose schedule, or to reduce the dose by roughly half according to the protocol. The main outcome was the proportion of subjects with LDA after 1 year. Serious adverse reactions or infections were recorded. RESULTS: The trial stopped due to end of the funding period, after 126 patients were randomized; 113 patients (84.1% male, mean age (SD) 45.6 (13.0) years) were included in the main per-protocol subset. Non-inferiority was concluded for LDA at 1 year (47/55 (83.8%) patients in the full-dose and 48/58 (81.3%) patients in the reduced-dose arm, adjusted difference (95% CI) - 2.5% (- 16.6% to 11.7%)). Serious adverse reactions or infections were reported in 7/62 patients (11.3%) assigned to full dose and 2/61 patients (3.3%) assigned to reduced dose (p value = 0.164). CONCLUSION: In patients with ankylosing spondylitis in clinical remission for at least 6 months, dose reduction is non-inferior to full TNF inhibitor doses to maintain LDA after 1 year. Serious adverse events may be less frequent with reduced doses. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EU Clinical Trials Registry, EudraCT 2011-005871-18 and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01604629 .

9.
Rheumatol Int ; 39(4): 707-713, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30539275

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the outcome measures in rheumatology (OMERACT) definitions for ultrasound (US) elementary lesions in gout through an image reading exercise. Images from patients with gout (static images and videos) were collected. As an initial step, we carried out a image reading exercise within the experts of the Pan-American League of Associations for Rheumatology (PANLAR) US Study Group (n = 16). The following step consisted in a web-based exercise with the participation of larger number of sonographers (n = 63) from different centers. Images were rated evaluating the presence/absence of any US elementary lesion. Inter- and intra-reader reliabilities were analyzed using kappa coefficients. Participants were stratified according to their level of experience. In the first exercise, inter-reader kappa values were 0.45 for aggregates, 0.57 for tophus, 0.69 for erosions, and 0.90 for double contour (DC). Intra-reader kappa values were 0.86, 0.76, 0.80, and 0.90, respectively. The web-based exercise showed inter-reader kappa values for aggregates, tophus, erosions, and DC of 0.42, 0.49, 0.69, and 0.79, respectively. The intra-reader kappa values were 0.62, 0.69, 0.77, and 0.85, respectively. Reliability was not influenced by the sonographer's level of experience. The reliability of the new OMERACT US definitions for elementary lesions in gout ranged from moderate to excellent, depending on the type of lesion.

11.
Reumatol Clin ; 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30193774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a consensus to standardize the use of Spanish terms, abbreviations and acronyms in the field of spondyloarthritis (SpA). METHODS: An international task force comprising all native Spanish-speaking Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) members, the executive committee of Grupo para el estudio de la Espondiloartritis de la Sociedad Española de Reumatología (GRESSER), two methodologists, two linguists from the Real Academia Nacional de Medicina de España (RANM) and two patients from the Spanish Coordinator of Spondylitis Associations (CEADE) was established. A literature review was performed to identify the conflicting terms/abbreviations/acronyms in SpA. This review examined written sources in Spanish including manuscripts, ICF and ICD, guidelines, recommendations and consensuses. This was followed by a nominal group meeting and a three-round Delphi. The recommendations from the RANM based on the Panhispanic dictionary were followed throughout the process. RESULTS: Consensus was reached for 46 terms, abbreviations or acronyms related to the field of SpA. A Spanish translation was accepted for 6 terms and 6 abbreviations to name or classify the disease, and for 6 terms and 4 abbreviations related to SpA. It was agreed not to translate 15 acronyms into Spanish. However, when mentioning them, it was recommended to follow this structure: type of acronym in Spanish and acronym and expanded form in English. With regard to 7 terms or abbreviations attached to acronyms, it was agreed to translate only the expanded form and a translation was also selected for each of them. CONCLUSIONS: Through this standardization, it is expected to establish a common use of the Spanish nomenclature for SpA. The implementation of this consensus across the community will be of substantial benefit, avoiding misunderstandings and time-consuming processes.

12.
J Rheumatol ; 45(9): 1289-1295, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29961687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the reliability of Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT) consensus-based ultrasound definitions for normal and vasculitic temporal and axillary arteries in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) and in controls. METHODS: A preliminary 1-day meeting and a full 3-day meeting fulfilling OMERACT Ultrasound Group guidelines were held. Temporal and axillary arteries were examined at 2 timepoints by 12 sonographers on 4 patients with GCA and 2 controls. The aim was to test inter- and intrareader reliability for normal findings, halo sign, and compression sign. In both meetings, patients had established GCA. Pathology was more recent in the full meeting, which was preceded by 6 h of training. Scanning time was 15-20 min instead of 10-13 min. RESULTS: In the preliminary exercise, interreader reliabilities were fair to moderate for the overall diagnosis of GCA (Light κ 0.29-0.51), and poor to fair for identifying vasculitis in the respective anatomical segments (Light κ 0.02-0.46). Intrareader reliabilities were moderate (Cohen κ 0.32-0.64). In the main exercise, interreader reliability was good to excellent (Light κ 0.76-0.86) for the overall diagnosis of GCA, and moderate to good (Light κ 0.46-0.71) for identifying vasculitis in the respective anatomical segments. Intrareader reliability was excellent for diagnosis of GCA (Cohen κ 0.91) and good (Cohen κ 0.71-0.80) for the anatomical segments. CONCLUSION: OMERACT-derived definitions of halo and compression signs of temporal and axillary arteries are reliable in recent-onset GCA if experienced sonographers (> 300 examinations) have 15-20 min for a standardized examination with prior training and apply > 15 MHz probes.

13.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 36(5): 896-899, 2018 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29998840

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate by ultrasound (US) the frequency and reliability of peritenon extensor tendon inflammation (PTI) and intra articular synovitis (IAS) in metacarpophalangeal joints (MCPj) of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients. METHODS: 27 PsA patients with clinical involvement of MCPj were consecutively included. Presence of PTI and IAS were evaluated by grey-scale (GS) and power Doppler (PD). Longitudinal and transverse 3-5 second videos of US examinations were recorded for reliability assessments by five readers. Consensus on positive US results was achieved when at least three readers agreed. RESULTS: Clinical swelling was present in 60 joints whereas US detected IAS and/or PTI in 75 MCPj. GS PTI in at least one MCPj was found in 19 patients and 41 joints, concurring with clinical swelling in 30/41. GS IAS in at least one MCPj was found in 23 patients and 63 joints, concurring with clinical swelling in 37/63. The inter-reader reliability was good for PD PTI and moderate for GS PTI. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identifies that both IAS and PTI cause MCPj swelling, where PTI is almost as frequent as IAS as a cause of swelling. The reliability of PTI is at least as good as for IAS.

14.
RMD Open ; 4(1): e000598, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29862043

RESUMO

Objectives: To define the elementary ultrasound (US) lesions in giant cell arteritis (GCA) and to evaluate the reliability of the assessment of US lesions according to these definitions in a web-based reliability exercise. Methods: Potential definitions of normal and abnormal US findings of temporal and extracranial large arteries were retrieved by a systematic literature review. As a subsequent step, a structured Delphi exercise was conducted involving an expert panel of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) US Large Vessel Vasculitis Group to agree definitions of normal US appearance and key elementary US lesions of vasculitis of temporal and extracranial large arteries. The reliability of these definitions on normal and abnormal blood vessels was tested on 150 still images and videos in a web-based reliability exercise. Results: Twenty-four experts participated in both Delphi rounds. From originally 25 statements, nine definitions were obtained for normal appearance, vasculitis and arteriosclerosis of cranial and extracranial vessels. The 'halo' and 'compression' signs were the key US lesions in GCA. The reliability of the definitions for normal temporal and axillary arteries, the 'halo' sign and the 'compression' sign was excellent with inter-rater agreements of 91-99% and mean kappa values of 0.83-0.98 for both inter-rater and intra-rater reliabilities of all 25 experts. Conclusions: The 'halo' and the 'compression' signs are regarded as the most important US abnormalities for GCA. The inter-rater and intra-rater agreement of the new OMERACT definitions for US lesions in GCA was excellent.

15.
Rheumatol Int ; 38(7): 1277-1284, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29786781

RESUMO

To develop and evaluate a web application based on multimedia animations, combined with a training program, to improve the prescription of exercises in spondyloarthritis (SpA). After a review of exercises included in the main clinical trials and recommendations of international societies, a multidisciplinary team-rehabilitators, rheumatologists, physiotherapists, computer scientists and graphic designers-developed a web application for the prescription of exercises (EJES-3D). Once completed, this was presented to 12 pairs of rehabilitators-rheumatologists from the same hospital in a workshop. Knowledge about exercise was tested in rheumatologists before and 6 months after the workshop, when they also evaluated the application. The EJES-3D application includes 38 multimedia videos and allows prescribing predesigned programs or customizing them. A patient can consult the prescribed exercises at any time from a device with internet connection (mobile, tablet, or computer). The vast majority of the evaluators (89%) were satisfied or very satisfied and considered that their expectations regarding the usefulness of the web application had been met. They highlighted the ability to tailor exercises adapted to the different stages of the disease and the quality and variety of the videos. They also indicated some limitations of the application and operational problems. The EJES-3D tool was positively evaluated by experts in SpA, potentially the most demanding group of users with the most critical capacity. This allows a preliminary validation of the contents, usefulness, and ease of use. Analyzing and correcting the errors and limitations detected is allowing us to improve the EJES-3D tool.

16.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2018 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29745878

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study whether disease status at treatment initiation has changed after the issue of the ASAS classification criteria. METHODS: REGISPONSERBIO registers patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) on biological treatment since 2013. It includes patients starting biological treatment (incident) or already on biological therapies (prevalent). Patients in both groups were compared in terms of: age at disease onset and at treatment start, disease duration, gender, HLA-B27, body mass index (BMI), BASDAI, BASFI, C-reactive protein, ESR, metrological data, ASQoL, WAPAI, extra-articular manifestations, comorbidities, radiological study, type of biological treatment and concomitant treatments. RESULTS: 256 patients were included, of whom 174 (65%) were already on biologic therapy. Compared to incident patients, prevalent patients started treatment with longer disease duration (15 vs. 8.6 years; p<0.001), a higher proportion of them were men (83% vs. 67%; p=0.01), a smaller proportion of them showed non-radiographic axial spondylarthritis (nr-axSpA)(17% vs. 32%; p<0.01), and a higher proportion had HLAB27 (85% vs. 73%; p=0.02). There were no statistically significant differences in terms of disease activity, degree of disability, quality of life, or prevalence of extra-articular manifestations. CONCLUSIONS: Data suggest that, after the issue of the new classification criteria for SpA, biological therapy is being administered earlier than previously in SpA patients and in a higher proportion of patients with nr-axSpA. However, this change in prescribing profile, apparently, has not caused an over-treatment, as patients do not seem to have a lower disease burden than prior to the issue of the criteria.

17.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 36(5): 879-883, 2018 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29745883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Dactylitis is a typical feature of psoriatic arthritis. However, dactylitis was included as a spondyloarthritis (SpA) feature for both (axial and peripheral) of the ASAS classification criteria, but data about its prevalence are scarce, especially in patients with a recent onset of the disease. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and characteristics associated with dactylitis in patients with early SpA. METHODS: A baseline dataset from the ESPeranza cohort was used. This programme included patients who were suspected of having SpA (age <45 years, symptoms duration of 3-24 months and with inflammatory back pain, or asymmetrical arthritis, or spinal/joint pain plus ≥1 of the SpA features). For this study, 609 patients who were diagnosed with SpA by their physician were included. Descriptive, univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to investigate the association between the presence of dactylitis and the characteristics associated with SpA. RESULTS: Fifty-eight (9.5%) patients currently or previously had dactylitis. In the multivariable analysis, dactylitis was independently associated with peripheral arthritis (OR= 4.83; p<0.001), enthesitis (OR= 2.49; p=0.01), psoriasis (OR= 3.62; p<0.01) and the physician's visual analogue scale (OR= 0.82; p=0.01). However, 67% of the patients who had dactylitis did not have peripheral arthritis or psoriasis and 15% had predominantly axial disease. CONCLUSIONS: Dactylitis is a frequent manifestation in patients with SpA, even during the early stages of the disease. Its presence is mainly associated with peripheral manifestations and psoriasis. Nevertheless, dactylitis is not exclusive of patients with PsA or peripheral manifestations.

18.
J Rheumatol ; 45(1): 6-13, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29142032

RESUMO

As in other inflammatory rheumatic diseases, the objective of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) treatment is the achievement of a defined target. Recent recommendations propose aiming for remission or low disease activity; however, a consensual definition of remission is lacking. A state of minimal disease activity (MDA) has been established and is defined by low activity assessed by tender/swollen joint counts, tender entheseal points, Psoriasis Area and Severity Index or body surface area, patient pain and global activity visual analog scale, and functional evaluation by Health Assessment Questionnaire. Since its development, MDA has been used increasingly in studies and clinical trials. In this article, the potential use of MDA as a treatment target in PsA is reviewed. The frequencies of MDA achievement with biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs are summarized based on data from registries, observational studies, and clinical trials. Predictors and the prognostic effect of attaining MDA are also evaluated.

19.
Rheumatol Ther ; 5(1): 243-253, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29204859

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The objective of the study was to evaluate changes regarding main European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations on diagnosis and treatment of gout compared to a previous assessment. METHODS: The GEMA-2 (Gout Evaluation and MAnagement) is a transversal assessment of practice for gout by rheumatologists. Main outcome variables were improvement of the previous GEMA assessment regarding the rate of crystal-proven diagnosis and that reaching therapeutic serum urate target below 6 mg/dl at last visit. Other management variables (prophylaxis, treatment of flares, lifestyle change advice) were also evaluated along with general characteristics. The sample was powered to include at least 483 patients for up to 50% change. RESULTS: Data on management of 506 patients were retrieved from 38 out of 41 rheumatology units that participated in the previous GEMA audit. Crystal-proved diagnosis rate increased from 26% to 32% (31% improvement) and was higher in gout-dedicated practices; ultrasonography contributed to diagnosis in less than 1% of cases. Therapeutic serum urate at last visit improved from 41% to 64% of all patients (66% of patients on urate-lowering medications), in any case over 50% improvement from the previous assessment. The use of any urate-lowering medication available was not prescribed as per label dosing in patients who failed to achieve target serum urate. Clinical inertia to increase doses of either allopurinol or febuxostat was still present in clinical practice. CONCLUSION: Over 50% improvement in targeting therapeutic serum urate has been observed, but clinical inertia is still present. Diagnosis is still mostly clinically based, ultrasonography not being commonly contributive. FUNDING: Menarini España.

20.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 57(2): 318-321, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29112741

RESUMO

Objectives: To explore whether the increase in the intima-media thickness (IMT) in arteriosclerotic disease correlates with the increase in the IMT in temporal arteries (TAs) and if that could mimic the US GCA halo sign. Methods: Consecutive patients ⩾50 years old with high vascular risk and without signs or symptoms of GCA were included. The carotid US IMT measurements were obtained using a standardized software radiofrequency-tracking technology. Colour Doppler US and grey-scale measurements of the IMT in the branches of both TAs were performed by a second sonographer using a 22 MHz probe. Results: Forty patients were studied (28 men) with a mean age of 70.6 years. The carotid IMT exhibited significant correlation with the TA IMT. A carotid IMT >0.9 mm was associated with a temporal IMT >0.3 mm. Only one patient had an IMT >0.34 mm in two branches. Conclusions: Atherosclerotic disease with a carotid IMT >0.9 mm increases the TA IMT and might mimic the halo sign. As atherosclerosis is common in this age group, we propose a cut-off of TA IMT >0.34 mm in at least two branches to minimize false positives in a GCA diagnosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Arterite de Células Gigantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores , Idoso , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Artérias Temporais/diagnóstico por imagem
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