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1.
Crit Care Med ; 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591021

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Delayed awakening after sedation interruption is frequent in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the association of standard electroencephalography with mortality and command following in this setting. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: In a single-center study, we retrospectively analyzed standard electroencephalography performed in consecutive mechanically ventilated patients remaining unresponsive (comatose/stuporous or unable to follow commands) after sedation interruption. Standard electroencephalography parameters (background activity, continuity, and reactivity) were reassessed by neurophysiologists, blinded to patients' outcome. Patients were categorized during follow-up into three groups based on their best examination as: 1) command following, 2) unresponsive, or 3) deceased. Cause-specific models were used to identify independent standard electroencephalography parameters associated with main outcomes, that is, mortality and command following. Follow-up was right-censored 30 days after standard electroencephalography. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Main standard electroencephalography parameters recorded in 121 unresponsive patients (median time between sedation interruption and standard electroencephalography: 2 d [interquartile range, 1-4 d]) consisted of a background frequency greater than 4 Hz in 71 (59%), a discontinuous background in 19 (16%), and a preserved reactivity in 98/120 (82%) patients. At 30 days, 66 patients (55%) were command following, nine (7%) were unresponsive, and 46 (38%) had died. In a multivariate analysis adjusted for nonneurologic organ failure, a reactive standard electroencephalography with a background frequency greater than 4 Hz was independently associated with a reduced risk of death (cause-specific hazard ratio, 0.38; CI 95%, 0.16-0.9). By contrast, none of the standard electroencephalography parameters were independently associated with command following. Sensitivity analyses conducted after exclusion of 29 patients with hypoxic brain injury revealed similar findings. CONCLUSIONS: In patients remaining unresponsive after sedation interruption, a pattern consisting of a reactive standard electroencephalography with a background frequency greater than 4 Hz was associated with decreased odds of death. None of the standard electroencephalography parameters were independently associated with command following.

3.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(2): 180-187, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506379

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The primary objective of this study was to investigate the risk of ICU bloodstream infection (BSI) in critically ill COVID-19 patients compared to non-COVID-19 patients. Subsequently, we performed secondary analyses in order to explain the observed results. METHODS: We conducted a matched case-cohort study, based on prospectively collected data from a large ICU cohort in France. Critically ill COVID-19 patients were matched with similar non-COVID-19 patients. ICU-BSI was defined by an infection onset occurring > 48 h after ICU admission. We estimated the effect of COVID-19 on the probability to develop an ICU-BSI using proportional subdistribution hazards models. RESULTS: We identified 321 COVID-19 patients and 1029 eligible controls in 6 ICUs. Finally, 235 COVID-19 patients were matched with 235 non-COVID-19 patients. We observed 43 ICU-BSIs, 35 (14.9%) in the COVID-19 group and 8 (3.4%) in the non-COVID-19 group (p ≤ 0.0001), respectively. ICU-BSIs of COVID-19 patients were more frequently of unknown source (47.4%). COVID-19 patients had an increased probability to develop ICU-BSI, especially after 7 days of ICU admission. Using proportional subdistribution hazards models, COVID-19 increased the daily risk to develop ICU-BSI (sHR 4.50, 95% CI 1.82-11.16, p = 0.0012). Among COVID-19 patients (n = 235), a significantly increased risk for ICU-BSI was detected in patients who received tocilizumab or anakinra (sHR 3.20, 95% CI 1.31-7.81, p = 0.011) but not corticosteroids. CONCLUSIONS: Using prospectively collected multicentric data, we showed that the ICU-BSI risk was higher for COVID-19 than non-COVID-19 critically ill patients after seven days of ICU stay. Clinicians should be particularly careful on late ICU-BSIs in COVID-19 patients. Tocilizumab or anakinra may increase the ICU-BSI risk.

4.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(10): e0239, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134937

RESUMO

Objectives: We aimed to determine if elevations in serum neuron-specific enolase are associated with brain injury and outcomes in adults who require venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: Two ICUs of a university hospital, Paris, France. Patients: Consecutive adult patients treated with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory cardiogenic shock or in-hospital refractory cardiac arrest. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Serum sampled 1, 3, and 7 days after venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cannulation was stored at -80°C and neuron-specific enolase concentrations were measured in batches at the end of the study. The association between neuron-specific enolase concentrations and outcomes (28-d mortality and poor outcome, defined by a score of 4-6 on the modified Rankin scale at 90 d) were explored by multivariable logistic regression, with neuron-specific enolase concentrations dichotomized according to median values. One-hundred three patients were included, of whom 26 (25%) received preextracorporeal membrane oxygenation cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Median (interquartile range) day-1, day-3, and day-7 neuron-specific enolase serum concentrations were 37 µg/L (26-51 µg/L), 25 µg/L (19-37) µg/L, and 22 µg/L (17-31 µg/L). After adjustment for Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, preextracorporeal membrane oxygenation cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and Sepsis Organ Failure Assessment score at time of cannulation, a day-3 neuron-specific enolase greater than 25 µg/L remained independently associated with 28-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 4.98; 95% CI, 1.86-13.32) and poor outcome at 90 days (adjusted odds ratio, 4.63; 95% CI, 1.81-11.84). A day-3 neuron-specific enolase threshold greater than 80 µg/L had a 100% specificity for prediction of both mortality (95% CI, 92-100%) and poor functional outcome (95% CI, 89-100%). In a subset of patients who underwent brain CT, neuron-specific enolase concentrations were significantly higher in patients diagnosed with stroke, as compared with those without stroke. Conclusions: In adult patients under venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, day-3 serum neuron-specific enolase concentrations are independently associated with short-term mortality and poor functional outcomes. These findings deserve validation in a multicenter setting.

5.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 145, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The associated incidence, mortality and trends do not differ greatly between documented reports. The purpose of this study was to provide an in-depth description of patients with sepsis and septic shock hospitalized in France from 2010 to 2015 and to explore the temporal trends of their clinical characteristics, costs and outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of the French hospital administrative database in which organ failure therapies and severity scores are systematically registered. All patients admitted between 2010 and 2015 for sepsis and septic shock as defined by an ICD-10 code for infection, and for organ failure or the use of organ failure supplementation were included. Incidence, outcomes and trends were analyzed. Subgroup analyses based on several coding strategies and adjusted for severity scores were performed. RESULTS: A total of 737,147 patients with sepsis and 492,902 patients with septic shock were included. From 2010 to 2015, the incidence of sepsis and septic shock increased, respectively, from 206 to 243 and from 135 to 171 cases per 100,000 population. Case fatality remained at 34% for sepsis, but decreased from 46 to 44% for septic shock. Median hospital stay costs amounted to €11,400 (IQR: 5036; 24,364) for patients with sepsis and €16,439 (IQR: 7339; 29,360) for patients with septic shock. After adjustment for case-mix and illness severity, the risk of death was stable for sepsis (0.08% [- 0.04; 0.20] per year), but decreased for sepsis patients admitted to the intensive care unit and for cases of septic shock (- 0.33%[ - 0.40; - 0.27] per year). CONCLUSIONS: Sepsis is common, frequently fatal and expensive to treat. Its incidence has increased. Case fatality has decreased in most severely affected patients, owing partly to general improvements in care.

6.
Neurocrit Care ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033960

RESUMO

The original article was updated to change the incorrect institutional author to DINAMO study group in the author list, also modifications have been made to Table 1, the line "History of acute brain injury" changed from italic to regular font and the line "At ICU admission" was moved to another row below.

7.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 610, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on SARS-CoV-2 load in lower respiratory tract (LRT) are scarce. Our objectives were to describe the viral shedding and the viral load in LRT and to determine their association with mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We conducted a binational study merging prospectively collected data from two COVID-19 reference centers in France and Switzerland. First, we described the viral shedding duration (i.e., time to negativity) in LRT samples. Second, we analyzed viral load in LRT samples. Third, we assessed the association between viral presence in LRT and mortality using mixed-effect logistic models for clustered data adjusting for the time between symptoms' onset and date of sampling. RESULTS: From March to May 2020, 267 LRT samples were performed in 90 patients from both centers. The median time to negativity was 29 (IQR 23; 34) days. Prolonged viral shedding was not associated with age, gender, cardiac comorbidities, diabetes, immunosuppression, corticosteroids use, or antiviral therapy. The LRT viral load tended to be higher in non-survivors. This difference was statistically significant after adjusting for the time interval between onset of symptoms and date of sampling (OR 3.78, 95% CI 1.13-12.64, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The viral shedding in LRT lasted almost 30 days in median in critically ill patients, and the viral load in the LRT was associated with the 6-week mortality.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , /virologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Suíça/epidemiologia , Carga Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
8.
Neurocrit Care ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Tools for prognostication of neurologic outcome of adult patients under venoarterial ECMO (VA-ECMO) have not been thoroughly investigated. We aimed to determine whether early standard electroencephalography (stdEEG) can be used for prognostication in adults under VA-ECMO. METHODS: Prospective single-center observational study conducted in two intensive care units of a university hospital, Paris, France. Early stdEEG was performed on consecutive adult patients treated with VA-ECMO for refractory cardiogenic shock or refractory cardiac arrest. The association between stdEEG findings and unfavorable outcome was investigated. The primary endpoint was 28-day mortality. The secondary endpoint was severe disability or death at 90 days, defined by a score of 4-6 on the modified Rankin scale. RESULTS: A total of 122 patients were included, of whom 35 (29%) received cardiopulmonary resuscitation before VA-ECMO cannulation. Main stdEEG findings included low background frequency ≤ 4 Hz (n = 27, 22%) and background abnormalities, i.e., a discontinuous (n = 20, 17%) and/or an unreactive background (n = 12, 10%). Background abnormalities displayed better performances for prediction of unfavorable outcomes, as compared to clinical parameters at time of recording. An unreactive stdEEG background in combination with a background frequency ≤ 4 Hz had a false positive rate of 0% for prediction of unfavorable outcome at 28 days and 90 days, with sensitivities of 8% and 6%, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, a lower background frequency was independently associated with unfavorable outcome at 28 days (adjusted odds ratio per 1-Hz increment, 95% CI 0.71, 0.52-0.97), whereas no such independent association was observed at 90 days. CONCLUSION: Standard EEG abnormalities recorded at time of VA-ECMO initiation are predictive of unfavorable outcomes. However, the low sensitivity of these parameters highlights the need for a multimodal evaluation for improving management of care and prognostication.

9.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(8): 1082-1092, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829467

RESUMO

We report a longitudinal analysis of the immune response associated with a fatal case of COVID-19 in Europe. This patient exhibited a rapid evolution towards multiorgan failure. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in multiple nasopharyngeal, blood, and pleural samples, despite antiviral and immunomodulator treatment. Clinical evolution in the blood was marked by an increase (2-3-fold) in differentiated effector T cells expressing exhaustion (PD-1) and senescence (CD57) markers, an expansion of antibody-secreting cells, a 15-fold increase in γδ T cell and proliferating NK-cell populations, and the total disappearance of monocytes, suggesting lung trafficking. In the serum, waves of a pro-inflammatory cytokine storm, Th1 and Th2 activation, and markers of T cell exhaustion, apoptosis, cell cytotoxicity, and endothelial activation were observed until the fatal outcome. This case underscores the need for well-designed studies to investigate complementary approaches to control viral replication, the source of the hyperinflammatory status, and immunomodulation to target the pathophysiological response. The investigation was conducted as part of an overall French clinical cohort assessing patients with COVID-19 and registered in clinicaltrials.gov under the following number: NCT04262921.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , /imunologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/sangue , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/terapia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Evolução Fatal , França , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/sangue , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/terapia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , /terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia
10.
J Clin Virol ; 129: 104520, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of efficient, reliable and sensitive PCR assays is a cornerstone in the race to contain the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In this work we performed an independent evaluation of the RealStar® SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR Kit Researh Use Only (Altona) for SARS-CoV-2 detection. METHODS: A comparative limit of detection (LoD) assessment was performed between RealStar® SARS-CoV-2 and the currently WHO recommended RT-PCR (WHO-PCR) workflow using a quantified clinical sample. Assessment of the RealStar® SARS-CoV-2 assay was also performed using 83 primary clinical samples in comparison with the WHO-PCR. RESULTS: The RealStar® SARS-CoV-2 demonstrated a slightly higher sensitivity than the WHO recommended assay with a limit of detection at 625 copies/mL instead of 1250 copies/mL for the WHO-PCR in our conditions. The overall percent agreement between RealStar® SARS-CoV-2 and WHO-PCR on 83 clinical samples was 97.6 % (81/83) with a sensitivity at 97.8 % (45/46) and specificity at 97.3 % (36/37). No cross reaction was encountered for the other human coronaviruses (HKU1, OC43, NL63, 229E). CONCLUSIONS: In this comparison of the RealStar® SARS-CoV-2 assay with the reference WHO assay, we observed a slightly better sensitivity of the RealStar® assay. It provides a robust option for all molecular biology laboratories, with a strong real-life LoD and is compatible with various real-time PCR platforms.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Pandemias , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 75(9): 2657-2660, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combination lopinavir/ritonavir is recommended to treat HIV-infected patients at the dose regimen of 400/100 mg q12h, oral route. The usual lopinavir trough plasma concentrations are 3000-8000 ng/mL. A trend towards a 28 day mortality reduction was observed in COVID-19-infected patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir. OBJECTIVES: To assess the plasma concentrations of lopinavir and ritonavir in patients with severe COVID-19 infection and receiving lopinavir/ritonavir. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 infection included in the French COVID-19 cohort and treated with lopinavir/ritonavir were included. Lopinavir/ritonavir combination was administered using the usual adult HIV dose regimen (400/100 mg q12h, oral solution through a nasogastric tube). A half-dose reduction to 400/100 mg q24h was proposed if lopinavir Ctrough was >8000 ng/mL, the upper limit considered as toxic and reported in HIV-infected patients. Lopinavir and ritonavir pharmacokinetic parameters were determined after an intensive pharmacokinetic analysis. Biological markers of inflammation and liver/kidney function were monitored. RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of lopinavir and ritonavir were first assessed in eight patients treated with lopinavir/ritonavir. Median (IQR) lopinavir Ctrough reached 27 908 ng/mL (15 928-32 627). After the dose reduction to 400/100 mg q24h, lopinavir/ritonavir pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed in nine patients. Lopinavir Ctrough decreased to 22 974 ng/mL (21 394-32 735). CONCLUSIONS: In mechanically ventilated patients with severe COVID-19 infections, the oral administration of lopinavir/ritonavir elicited plasma exposure of lopinavir more than 6-fold the upper usual expected range. However, it remains difficult to safely recommend its dose reduction without compromising the benefit of the antiviral strategy, and careful pharmacokinetic and toxicity monitoring are needed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Lopinavir/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Respiração Artificial/tendências , Ritonavir/sangue , Administração Oral , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/sangue , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Lopinavir/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Soluções Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Soluções Farmacêuticas/farmacocinética , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Ritonavir/administração & dosagem
13.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 231, 2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) occurs during the course of autoimmune disease and may be life threatening. The objective was to assess characteristics and prognosis factors of DAH who required intensive care unit (ICU) admission in patients with autoimmune diseases. METHODS: French multicenter retrospective study including patients presenting DAH related to autoimmune diseases requiring ICU admission from 2000 to 2016. RESULTS: One hundred four patients (54% of men) with median age of 56 [32-68] years were included with 79 (76%) systemic vasculitis and 25 (24%) connective tissue disorders. All patients received steroids, and 72 (69%), 12 (11.5%), and 57 (55%) patients had cyclophosphamide, rituximab, and plasma exchanges, respectively. During ICU stay, 52 (50%), 36 (35%), and 55 (53%) patients required mechanical ventilation, vasopressor use, and renal replacement therapy, respectively. Factors associated with mechanical ventilation weaning were age (HR [95%CI] 0.97 [0.96-0.99] per 10 years, p < 0.0001), vasculitis-related DAH (0.52 [0.27-0.98], p = 0.04), and time from dyspnea onset to ICU admission (0.99 [0.99-1] per day, p = 0.03). ICU mortality was 15%. Factors associated with alive status at ICU discharge were chronic cardiac failure (HR [95%CI] 0.37 [0.15-0.94], p = 0.04), antiphospholipid syndrome-related DAH (3.17 [1.89-5.32], p < 0.0001), SAPS II (0.98 [0.97-0.99], p = 0.007), and oxygen flow at ICU admission (0.95 [0.91-0.99] per liter/min, p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: DAH in autoimmune diseases is a life-threatening complication which requires mechanical ventilation in half of the cases admitted to ICU.

14.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 53, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most prognostic studies in acute stroke patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation are outdated and have limitations such as single-center retrospective designs. We aimed to study the association of ICU admission factors, including the reason for intubation, with 1-year survival of acute stroke patients requiring mechanical ventilation. METHODS: We conducted a secondary data use analysis of a prospective multicenter database (14 ICUs) between 1997 and 2016 on consecutive ICU stroke patients requiring mechanical ventilation at admission. We excluded patients with stroke of traumatic origin, subdural hematoma or cerebral venous thrombosis. The primary outcome was survival 1 year after ICU admission. Factors associated with the primary outcome were identified using a multivariable Cox model stratified on inclusion center. RESULTS: We identified 419 patients (age 68 [58-76] years, males 60%) with a Glasgow coma score (GCS) of 4 [3-8] at admission. Stroke subtypes were acute ischemic stroke (AIS, 46%), intracranial hemorrhage (ICH, 42%) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, 12%). At 1 year, 96 (23%) patients were alive. Factors independently associated with decreased 1-year survival were ICH and SAH stroke subtypes, a lower GCS score at admission, a higher non-neurological SOFA score. Conversely, patients receiving acute-phase therapy had improved 1-year survival. Intubation for acute respiratory failure or coma was associated with comparable survival hazard ratios, whereas intubation for seizure was not associated with a worse prognosis than for elective procedure. Survival did not improve over the study period, but patients included in the most recent period had more comorbidities and presented higher severity scores at admission. CONCLUSIONS: In acute stroke patients requiring mechanical ventilation, the reason for intubation and the opportunity to receive acute-phase stroke therapy were independently associated with 1-year survival. These variables could assist in the decision process regarding the initiation of mechanical ventilation in acute stroke patients.

15.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(6): 1232-1242, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313993

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In ICU patients with carriage of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-E) and suspected Gram-negative bacilli ventilator-associated pneumonia (GNB-VAP), the quantification of the rectal and throat ESBL-E carriage might predict the ESBL-E involvement in GNB-VAP. Our aim was to evaluate whether a semi-quantitative assessment of rectal/throat ESBL-E carriage can predict ESBL-E-associated VAP in medical ICU patients. METHODS: From May 2014 to May 2017, all ESBL-E carriers had a semi-quantitative assessment of ESBL-E density in swabs cultures. For those who developed GNB-VAP (diagnosed using bronchoalveolar lavage or plugged telescopic catheter with significant quantitative culture), the last positive swab collected at least 48 h before GNB-VAP onset was selected. Clinical data were extracted from a prospectively collected database. RESULTS: Among 365 ESBL-E carriers, 82 developed 107 episodes of GNB-VAP (ESBL-E VAP, n = 50; and non-ESBL-E GNB-VAP, n = 57) after 13 days of mechanical ventilation in median. Antimicrobials use before VAP onset was similar between groups. The last swabs were collected 5 days in median before VAP onset. ESBL-E. coli carriers developed ESBL-E VAP less frequently (n = 13, 34%) than others (n = 32, 67.3%, p < .01). Throat swab positivity (39 (78%) vs. 12 (23%), p < .01) was more frequent for ESBL-E VAP. ESBL-E VAP was associated with significantly higher ESBL-E density in rectal swabs. In multivariate models, non-E. coli ESBL-E carriage and rectal ESBL-E carriage density, or throat carriage, remained associated with ESBL-E VAP. CONCLUSION: In carriers of ESBL-E other than E. coli, ESBL-E throat carriage or a high-density ESBL-E rectal carriage are risk factors of ESBL-E VAP in case of GNB-VAP.

16.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 44, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe acute kidney injury (AKI) natural history and to identify predictors of major adverse kidney events (MAKE) within 1 year in patients supported by veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO). DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Medical French intensive care unit between January 2014 and December 2016. PATIENTS: Consecutive patients implanted with VA-ECMO ≥ 16 years, VA-ECMO for at least ≥ 48 h, and without end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). INTERVENTION: None. MEASUREMENTS: Multivariate logistic regression of factors associated with MAKE at 1 year defined as one of the following criteria within day 360: death and receipt of renal replacement therapy (RRT) or persistent renal dysfunction, i.e., CKD ≥ stage 3 corresponding to an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and MAKE at day 30 and day 90 defined as one of the following criteria within day 30 or day 90: death, receipt of renal replacement therapy and serum creatinine ≥ threefold increase. MAIN RESULTS: 158 consecutive patients were included (male sex: 75.9%; median and interquartile range: age: 59 [47-66], Simplified Acute Physiology Score II: 55 [39-66], Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment Score: 9 [7-12], time on VA-ECMO: 7.5 [4-12] days). Among them 145 (91.8%) developed an AKI during the intensive care unit (ICU) stay and 85 (53.8%) needed renal replacement therapy (RRT). 59.9% (91/152), 60.5% (89/147) and 85.1% (120/141) evaluable patients had a MAKE-30, MAKE-90 and MAKE-360, respectively. Factors significantly associated with MAKE-360 were eGFR at baseline (odds ratio (OR) 0.98, confidence interval 95% (CI) [0.97;1.00], p 0.02), Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome (KDIGO) stage at cannulation (p = 0.03), e.g., stage 3 vs. reference stage 0 OR 10.20 [1.77-58.87], and number of red blood cell (RBC) packs received while under ECMO (OR 1.14, CI 95% [1.01;1.28], p = 0.03). At 1 year among the 51 survivors, almost half of the alive patients (n = 20/51) had a decline of estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) > 30% mL/min/1.73 m2. Their median eGFR decline was - 26.3% [- 46.6;- 10.7]. CONCLUSION: Patients undergoing VA-ECMO had a high risk of AKI during the ICU stay. Factors associated with MAKE 360 were mainly eGFR at baseline, KDIGO stage at cannulation and, number of RBC packs received while under ECMO. Among survivors at 1 year, almost half of the alive patients (n = 20/51) had a decline eGFR > 30%.

18.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 21, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In France, the incidence of severe imported malaria cases increased since early 2000. Artesunate was available (temporarily use authorization) since mid-2011 in France and commonly used for severe malaria since early 2013. Thus, the study objectives were to describe the patients with severe imported malaria admitted in intensive care unit (ICU) and assess the changes in clinical presentation and outcomes before and after this date. METHODS: Retrospective observational single-center study in the infectious diseases ICU of a referral university hospital, conducted on patients admitted for severe imported malaria from 2004 to 2017. Demographic variables, severity scores, WHO's severity criteria on admission, treatment, and ICU and hospital lengths of stay were collected. Patients' characteristics and outcomes were compared between both periods. A poor outcome was defined as the composite endpoint of death, or requirement for vasopressors, invasive mechanical ventilation and/or renal replacement therapy. RESULTS: 189 patients were included, 98 in 2004-2012 and 91 in 2013-2017, most often from West and Central African countries (96%). The number of WHO criteria for severe malaria was comparable in both groups, but SAPS II, SOFA and ICU length of stay were significantly higher in 2004-2012, while patients of African origin living in France were less frequent (p < 0.01). The outcome was poor for 41/98 cases in 2004-2012 and 12/91 cases in 2013-2017 (p < 0.01). The risk factors of poor outcome on the multivariate logistic regression were a neurological failure (adjusted odds ratio (adjOR = 3.23; 95% CI (1.03-10.08), p = 0.004), cardio-circulatory failure (adjOR = 9.92; 95% CI (2.34-42), p = <0.01) and creatinine blood levels > 265 µmol/L (adjOR = 10.76; 95% CI (3.17-36.53), p < 0.01). In the multivariate analysis, IV artesunate was not associated with a better outcome. Patients of African origin did not seem to have a better outcome than Caucasian patients or those from other origins (adjOR = 0.59; 95% CI (0.21-1.65), p = 0.31). CONCLUSION: Patients with imported malaria admitted in ICU in 2013-2017 were less severely ill than those in 2004-2012. These trends could be partially explained by the increasing proportion of African patients visiting friends or relatives or living in endemic areas.

20.
J Infect ; 80(3): 279-285, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (SM) is increasingly identified in intensive care unit (ICU). This study aim to identify risk factors for SM ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and whether it affects ICU mortality METHODS: Two nested matched case-control studies were performed based in OUTCOMEREA database. The first episodes of SM-VAP patients were matched with two different control groups: VAP due to other micro-organisms (VAP-other) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa VAP (Pyo-VAP). Matching criteria were the hospital, the SAPS II, and the previous duration of mechanical ventilation (MV). RESULTS: Of the 102 SM-VAP patients (6.2% of all VAP patients), 92 were matched with 375 controls for the SM-VAP/other-VAP matching and 84 with 237 controls for the SM-VAP/Pyo-VAP matching. SM-VAP risk factors were an exposition to ureido/carboxypenicillin or carbapenem during the week before VAP, and respiratory and coagulation components of SOFA score upper to 2 before VAP. SM-VAP received early adequate therapy in 70 cases (68.6%). Risk factors for Day-30 were age (OR = 1.03; p < 0.01) and Chronic heart failure (OR = 3.15; p < 0.01). Adequate treatment, either monotherapy or combination of antimicrobials, did not modify mortality. There was no difference in 30-day mortality, but 60-day mortality was higher in patients with SM-VAP compared to Other-VAP (P = 0.056). CONCLUSIONS: In a large series, independent risk factors for the SM-VAP were ureido/carboxypenicillin or carbapenem exposure the week before VAP, and respiratory and coagulation components of the SOFA score > 2 before VAP. Mortality risk factors of SM-VAP were age and chronic heart failure. Adequate treatment did not improve SM-VAP prognosis.

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