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1.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 69, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep traits are associated with cardiometabolic disease risk, with evidence from Mendelian randomization (MR) suggesting that insomnia symptoms and shorter sleep duration increase coronary artery disease risk. We combined adjusted multivariable regression (AMV) and MR analyses of phenotypes of unfavourable sleep on 113 metabolomic traits to investigate possible biochemical mechanisms linking sleep to cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We used AMV (N = 17,368) combined with two-sample MR (N = 38,618) to examine effects of self-reported insomnia symptoms, total habitual sleep duration, and chronotype on 113 metabolomic traits. The AMV analyses were conducted on data from 10 cohorts of mostly Europeans, adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. For the MR analyses, we used summary results from published European-ancestry genome-wide association studies of self-reported sleep traits and of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) serum metabolites. We used the inverse-variance weighted (IVW) method and complemented this with sensitivity analyses to assess MR assumptions. RESULTS: We found consistent evidence from AMV and MR analyses for associations of usual vs. sometimes/rare/never insomnia symptoms with lower citrate (- 0.08 standard deviation (SD)[95% confidence interval (CI) - 0.12, - 0.03] in AMV and - 0.03SD [- 0.07, - 0.003] in MR), higher glycoprotein acetyls (0.08SD [95% CI 0.03, 0.12] in AMV and 0.06SD [0.03, 0.10) in MR]), lower total very large HDL particles (- 0.04SD [- 0.08, 0.00] in AMV and - 0.05SD [- 0.09, - 0.02] in MR), and lower phospholipids in very large HDL particles (- 0.04SD [- 0.08, 0.002] in AMV and - 0.05SD [- 0.08, - 0.02] in MR). Longer total sleep duration associated with higher creatinine concentrations using both methods (0.02SD per 1 h [0.01, 0.03] in AMV and 0.15SD [0.02, 0.29] in MR) and with isoleucine in MR analyses (0.22SD [0.08, 0.35]). No consistent evidence was observed for effects of chronotype on metabolomic measures. CONCLUSIONS: Whilst our results suggested that unfavourable sleep traits may not cause widespread metabolic disruption, some notable effects were observed. The evidence for possible effects of insomnia symptoms on glycoprotein acetyls and citrate and longer total sleep duration on creatinine and isoleucine might explain some of the effects, found in MR analyses of these sleep traits on coronary heart disease, which warrant further investigation.

2.
Clin Nutr ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Damage induced by lipid peroxidation has been associated with impaired glucose homeostasis. Vitamin E (α-tocopherol, α-TOH) competitively reacts with lipid peroxyl radicals to mitigate oxidative damage, and forms oxidized vitamin E metabolites. Accordingly, we aimed to investigate the associations between α-TOH metabolites (oxidized and enzymatic) in both circulation and urine and measures of glucose homeostasis in the general middle-aged population. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was embedded in the population-based Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) Study. α-TOH metabolites in blood (α-TOH and α-CEHC-SO3) and urine [sulfate (SO3) and glucuronide (GLU) of both α-TLHQ (oxidized) and α-CEHC (enzymatic)] were quantified by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). Measures of glucose homeostasis (HOMA-B, HOMA-IR, Insulinogenic index and Matsuda index) were obtained from fasting and postprandial blood samples. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to assess the associations of α-TOH metabolites and measures of glucose homeostasis. RESULTS: We included 498 participants (45% men) with mean (SD) age of 55.8 (6.1) years who did not use glucose-lowering medication. While blood α-TOH was not associated with measures of glucose homeostasis, urinary oxidized metabolites (α-TLHQ-SO3/GLU) were associated with HOMA-IR and Matsuda index. For example, a one-SD higher α-TLHQ-SO3 was associated with 0.92 (95% CI: 0.87, 0.97) fold lower HOMA-IR and 1.06 (1.01, 1.11) fold higher Matsuda index, respectively. Similar results were obtained for the urinary α-TLHQ to α-CEHC ratio as a measure of oxidized-over-enzymatic conversion of α-TOH. CONCLUSION: Higher urinary levels of oxidized α-TOH metabolites as well as higher oxidized-to-enzymatic α-TOH metabolite ratio, but not circulating α-TOH or enzymatic metabolites, were associated with lower insulin resistance. Rather than circulating α-TOH, estimates of the conversion of α-TOH might be informative in relation to health and disease.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347586

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of blood pressure, vessel wall stiffness [pulse wave velocity (PWV)] and subclinical atherosclerosis markers [carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), popliteal vessel wall thickness (pVWT)] as mediators of the association of obesity with OA. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from a subset of the population-based NEO study (n = 6334). We classified clinical hand and knee OA by the ACR criteria, and structural knee OA, effusion and bone marrow lesions on MRI (n = 1285). cIMT was assessed with ultrasonography. pVWT was estimated on knee MRI (n = 1285), and PWV by abdominal velocity-encoded MRIs (n = 2580), in subpopulations. Associations between BMI and OA were assessed with logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex and education. Blood pressure, cIMT, pVWT and PWV were added to the model to estimate mediation. RESULTS: The population consisted of 55% women, with a mean (s.d.) age of 56(6) years. Clinical hand OA was present in 8%, clinical knee OA in 10%, and structural knee OA in 12% of participants. BMI was positively associated with all OA outcomes. cIMT partially mediated the association of BMI with clinical hand OA [10.6 (6.2; 30.5)%], structural knee OA [3.1 (1.9; 7.3)%] and effusion [10.8 (6.0; 37.6)%]. Diastolic blood pressure [2.1 (1.6; 3.0)%] minimally mediated the association between BMI and clinical knee OA. PWV and pVWT did not mediate the association between BMI and OA. CONCLUSIONS: cIMT and diastolic blood pressure minimally mediated the association of BMI with OA. This suggests that such mediation is trivial in the middle-aged population.

4.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(12): 3004-3014, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115270

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Whether hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC) contributes to hypercoagulability beyond total body fat (TBF) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is unclear. We, therefore, aimed to investigate the association between HTGC and coagulation factors (F)I (fibrinogen), VIII, IX, and XI while adjusting for TBF and VAT. Approach and Results: In this cross-sectional analysis of the NEO study (Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity; n=6671), a random subset of participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess VAT and HTGC (n=2580). We excluded participants without complete imaging and coagulation assessment, and with history of liver disease, venous thrombosis, or on anticoagulation. Mean differences in coagulation factor levels across HTGC quartiles were estimated by linear regression adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, education, alcohol intake, physical activity, smoking, estrogen, and menopause, in addition to TBF and VAT. Among the 1946 participants included, median HTGC was 2.66% (interquartile range: 1.34%-6.27%). Coagulation factor levels increased dose-dependently across HTGC quartiles. Mean differences between the fourth and first quartiles were 14.7 mg/dL (95% CI, 2.1-27.2) for fibrinogen, 6.7 IU/dL (95% CI, 0.5-12.9) for FVIII, 26.1 IU/dL (95% CI, 22.4-29.8) for FIX, and 8.6 IU/dL (95% CI, 4.6-12.6) for FXI. With further adjustment for TBF and VAT, the dose-response association of HTGC with FIX persisted, whereas associations with other factors disappeared. CONCLUSIONS: HTGC was associated with various coagulation factors, of which FIX remained associated with HTGC after adjustment for TBF and VAT. HTGC might contribute to venous thrombosis risk beyond total body and visceral fat through FIX levels.

5.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087892

RESUMO

Dietary macronutrient composition may affect hepatic liver content and its associated diseases, but the results from human intervention trials have been equivocal or underpowered. We aimed to assess the effects of dietary macronutrient composition on liver fat content by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in adults. Four databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and COCHRANE Library) were systematically searched for trials with isocaloric diets evaluating the effect of dietary macronutrient composition (energy percentages of fat, carbohydrates, and protein, and their specific types) on liver fat content as assessed by magnetic resonance techniques, computed tomography or liver biopsy. Data on change in liver fat content were pooled by random or fixed-effects meta-analyses and expressed as standardized mean difference (SMD). We included 26 randomized controlled trials providing data for 32 comparisons on dietary macronutrient composition. Replacing dietary fat with carbohydrates did not result in changes in liver fat (12 comparisons, SMD 0.01 (95% CI -0.36; 0.37)). Unsaturated fat as compared with saturated fat reduced liver fat content (4 comparisons, SMD -0.80 (95% CI -1.09; -0.51)). Replacing carbohydrates with protein reduced liver fat content (5 comparisons, SMD -0.33 (95% CI -0.54; -0.12)). Our meta-analyses showed that replacing carbohydrates with total fat on liver fat content was not effective, while replacing carbohydrates with proteins and saturated fat with unsaturated fat was. More well-performed and well-described studies on the effect of types of carbohydrates and proteins on liver fat content are needed, especially studies comparing proteins with fats.

6.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(12): 2230-2241, 2020 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The separate cardiovascular effects of type 2 diabetes and adiposity remain to be examined. This study aimed to investigate the role of insulin resistance in the relations of visceral (VAT), abdominal subcutaneous (aSAT) adipose tissue and total body fat (TBF) to cardiovascular remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this cross-sectional analysis of the population-based Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study, 914 middle-aged individuals (46% men) were included. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Standardized linear regression coefficients (95%CI) were calculated, adjusted for potential confounding factors. All fat depots and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), separate from VAT and TBF, were associated with lower mitral early and late peak filling rate ratios (E/A): -0.04 (-0.09;0.01) per SD (54 cm2) VAT; -0.05 (-0.10;0.00) per SD (94 cm2) aSAT; -0.09 (-0.16;-0.02) per SD (8%) TBF; -0.11 (-0.17;-0.05) per 10-fold increase in HOMA-IR, whereas VAT and TBF were differently associated with left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume: -8.9 (-11.7;-6.1) mL per SD VAT; +5.4 (1.1;9.7) mL per SD TBF. After adding HOMA-IR to the model to evaluate the mediating role of insulin resistance, change in E/A was -0.02 (-0.07;0.04) per SD VAT; -0.03 (-0.08;0.02) per SD aSAT; -0.06 (-0.13;0.01) per SD TBF, and change in LV end-diastolic volume was -7.0 (-9.7;-4.3) mL per SD VAT. In women, adiposity but not HOMA-IR was related to higher aortic arch pulse wave velocity. CONCLUSION: Insulin resistance was associated with reduced diastolic function, separately from VAT and TBF, and partly mediated the associations between adiposity depots and lower diastolic function.

7.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 13(4): e002693, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increase in serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations in response to a meal is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to elucidate the genetics of the postprandial TG response through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). METHODS: Participants of the NEO (Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity) study (n=5630) consumed a liquid mixed meal after an overnight fast. GWAS of fasting and postprandial serum TG at 150 minutes were performed. To identify genetic variation of postprandial TG independent of fasting TG, we calculated the TG response at 150 minutes by the residuals of a nonlinear regression that predicted TG at 150 minutes as a function of fasting TG. Association analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and principal components in a linear regression model. Next, using the identified variants as determinants, we performed linear regression analyses on the residuals of the postprandial response of 149 nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolite measures. RESULTS: GWAS of fasting TG and postprandial serum TG at 150 minutes resulted in completely overlapping loci, replicating previous GWAS. From GWAS of the TG response, we identified rs7350789-A (allele frequency=0.36), mapping to hepatic lipase (LIPC), to be associated with a smaller increase in TG concentrations at 150 minutes (ß=-0.11; P-value=5.1×10-8). Rs7350789-A was associated with responses of 33 metabolite measures (P-value <1.34×10-3), mainly smaller increases of the TG-component in almost all HDL (high-density lipoprotein) subparticles (HDL-TG), a smaller decrease of HDL diameter and smaller increases of most components of VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) subparticles. CONCLUSIONS: GWAS of the TG response identified a variant near LIPC as a main contributor to postprandial TG metabolism independent of fasting TG concentrations, resulting in smaller increases of HDL-TG and VLDL subparticles.

8.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(8): 1306-1314, 2020 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In the present study, we assessed the extent of mediation by low-grade systemic inflammation and adipokines in the association between abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this cross-sectional analysis of baseline measurements of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study, total body fat (TBF) was measured in all (n = 5772) participants who did not have missing data and neither used glucose-lowering medication, and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (aSAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were assessed by MRI in a random subgroup (n = 2448). C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin, and leptin were considered as potential mediators, and insulin resistance was assessed by Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Mediation by CRP, adiponectin, and leptin was studied by including the mediators to the fully adjusted linear regression model. Participants had a mean (SD) age of 56 (6) years, TBF of 36 (9) %, VAT of 119 (61) cm2 and aSAT of 300 (111) cm2. Per SD of TBF, VAT and aSAT, HOMA-IR was 64% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 59-70), 33% (95%CI: 28-42) and 20% (95%CI: 14-26) higher, respectively. The association between aSAT and HOMA-IR fully disappeared after adjustment for leptin; the association between VAT and HOMA-IR attenuated after adjustment for leptin (22%) and adiponectin (15%). No mediation was observed by CRP, and mediation estimates were similar in men and women. CONCLUSION: Where leptin fully explained the aSAT-HOMA-IR association, the VAT-HOMA-IR association was only partly explained by leptin and adiponectin similarly in men and women.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Leptina/sangue , Obesidade Abdominal/sangue , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Gordura Subcutânea/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Subcutânea/fisiopatologia
9.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(4): 1246-1256, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI)-associated loci are used to explore the effects of obesity using Mendelian randomization (MR), but the contribution of individual tissues to risks remains unknown. We aimed to identify tissue-grouped pathways of BMI-associated loci and relate these to cardiometabolic disease using MR analyses. METHODS: Using Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) data, we performed overrepresentation tests to identify tissue-grouped gene sets based on mRNA-expression profiles from 634 previously published BMI-associated loci. We conducted two-sample MR with inverse-variance-weighted methods, to examine associations between tissue-grouped BMI-associated genetic instruments and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and coronary artery disease (CAD), with use of summary-level data from published genome-wide association studies (T2DM: 74 124 cases, 824 006 controls; CAD: 60 801 cases, 123 504 controls). Additionally, we performed MR analyses on T2DM and CAD using randomly sampled sets of 100 or 200 BMI-associated genetic variants. RESULTS: We identified 17 partly overlapping tissue-grouped gene sets, of which 12 were brain areas, where BMI-associated genes were differentially expressed. In tissue-grouped MR analyses, all gene sets were similarly associated with increased risks of T2DM and CAD. MR analyses with randomly sampled genetic variants on T2DM and CAD resulted in a distribution of effect estimates similar to tissue-grouped gene sets. CONCLUSIONS: Overrepresentation tests revealed differential expression of BMI-associated genes in 17 different tissues. However, with our biology-based approach using tissue-grouped MR analyses, we did not identify different risks of T2DM or CAD for the BMI-associated gene sets, which was reflected by similar effect estimates obtained by randomly sampled gene sets.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0230815, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379818

RESUMO

Smoking is a potentially causal behavioral risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but not all smokers develop T2D. It is unknown whether genetic factors partially explain this variation. We performed genome-environment-wide interaction studies to identify loci exhibiting potential interaction with baseline smoking status (ever vs. never) on incident T2D and fasting glucose (FG). Analyses were performed in participants of European (EA) and African ancestry (AA) separately. Discovery analyses were conducted using genotype data from the 50,000-single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ITMAT-Broad-CARe (IBC) array in 5 cohorts from from the Candidate Gene Association Resource Consortium (n = 23,189). Replication was performed in up to 16 studies from the Cohorts for Heart Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium (n = 74,584). In meta-analysis of discovery and replication estimates, 5 SNPs met at least one criterion for potential interaction with smoking on incident T2D at p<1x10-7 (adjusted for multiple hypothesis-testing with the IBC array). Two SNPs had significant joint effects in the overall model and significant main effects only in one smoking stratum: rs140637 (FBN1) in AA individuals had a significant main effect only among smokers, and rs1444261 (closest gene C2orf63) in EA individuals had a significant main effect only among nonsmokers. Three additional SNPs were identified as having potential interaction by exhibiting a significant main effects only in smokers: rs1801232 (CUBN) in AA individuals, rs12243326 (TCF7L2) in EA individuals, and rs4132670 (TCF7L2) in EA individuals. No SNP met significance for potential interaction with smoking on baseline FG. The identification of these loci provides evidence for genetic interactions with smoking exposure that may explain some of the heterogeneity in the association between smoking and T2D.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Fumar Cigarros/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Jejum/sangue , Genótipo , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idoso , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
11.
Cytokine ; 131: 155104, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325367

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The role of adiposity in the relationship between vitamin D and inflammation is unknown. Our aim was therefore to assess the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin and adiponectin and the role of adiposity in this relationship. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of The Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity Study (NEO), a population-based cohort study in men and women aged 45 to 65 years. Main outcome measures were CRP, leptin and adiponectin. In the linear regression analyses we adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, creatinine, education, alcohol use, smoking status, physical activity, number of chronic diseases, season, total body fat and waist circumference. RESULTS: Of the 6287 participants, 21% were vitamin D deficient (serum 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L). Mean (SD) age and BMI were 56 (6) years and 26.3 (4.4) kg/m2, respectively. Although after adjustment for most examined potential confounders, each 10 nmol/L increase in serum 25(OH)D was associated with 2.3% (95%CI: -4.0 to -0.5) lower CRP, 3.5% (-4.7 to -2.2) lower leptin, and 0.13 ng/mL (0.04-0.21) higher adiponectin, most of these associations seemed to largely stem from an additional potential confounder - adiposity - as they either disappeared (leptin and CRP) or were largely diminished (adiponectin) upon further adjustment for adiposity indices (total body fat and waist circumference). CONCLUSION: We found that measures of adiposity largely explained the negative association of serum 25(OH)D with the pro-inflammatory CRP and leptin, and the positive association with the anti-inflammatory adiponectin. These results suggest that future studies should take the effect of adiposity into account.

12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1891, 2020 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312974

RESUMO

Hepatic steatosis is associated with poor cardiometabolic health, with de novo lipogenesis (DNL) contributing to hepatic steatosis and subsequent insulin resistance. Hepatic saturated fatty acids (SFA) may be a marker of DNL and are suggested to be most detrimental in contributing to insulin resistance. Here, we show in a cross-sectional study design (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03211299) that we are able to distinguish the fractions of hepatic SFA, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in healthy and metabolically compromised volunteers using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). DNL is positively associated with SFA fraction and is elevated in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver and type 2 diabetes. Intriguingly, SFA fraction shows a strong, negative correlation with hepatic insulin sensitivity. Our results show that the hepatic lipid composition, as determined by our 1H-MRS methodology, is a measure of DNL and suggest that specifically the SFA fraction may hamper hepatic insulin sensitivity.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Lipogênese/fisiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
14.
Pediatrics ; 145(3)2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32102929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The effects of endocrinological treatment on cardiovascular risk profile in transgender adolescents are unknown. In this retrospective cohort study, we aim to investigate these effects and assess obesity and dyslipidemia prevalence in transgender adolescents at 22 years compared with peers. METHODS: Changes in BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), glucose, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and lipid values during treatment, along with the prevalence of obesity and dyslipidemia at 22 years, were recorded in 71 transwomen and 121 transmen who started gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists in their adolescence (15 years), with a subsequent addition of sex hormones (17 years). RESULTS: In transwomen, changes in BMI (+3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6 to 4.4), SBP (-2 mm Hg; 95% CI -7 to 3), DBP (+10 mm Hg; 95% CI 7 to 14), glucose (0.0 mmol/L; 95% CI -0.2 to 0.2), HOMA-IR (+0.6; 95% CI -0.6 to 1.9), and lipid values were similar or more favorable compared with peers. The same was true for transmen regarding changes in BMI (+2.3; 95% CI 1.7 to 2.9), SBP (+7 mm Hg; 95% CI 3 to 10), DBP (+7 mm Hg; 95% CI 5 to 10), glucose (+0.1 mmol/L; 95% CI -0.1 to 0.3), HOMA-IR (-0.2; 95% CI -0.8 to 0.3), and lipid values. At age 22, obesity prevalence was 9.9% in transwomen, 6.6% in transmen, 2.2% in ciswomen, and 3.0% in cismen. CONCLUSIONS: Generally, endocrinological treatment in transgender adolescents is safe regarding cardiovascular risk. Because obesity is more prevalent in transgender adolescents compared with peers, body weight management should be important during the medical trajectory.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/efeitos adversos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/agonistas , Transexualidade/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dislipidemias/complicações , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Transexualidade/complicações , Adulto Jovem
15.
Diabetol Metab Syndr ; 12: 2, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31921359

RESUMO

Background: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varies among populations with different ethnicities. Asian populations develop metabolic complications at lower amounts of adiposity than western populations. The role of abdominal obesity in the metabolic differences between the two populations is poorly understood. Objectives: Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the relative contribution of its components in the Indonesian and the Dutch population, as well as to examine the associations of overall and abdominal obesity with metabolic syndrome. Methods: In this cross-sectional study of middle-aged adults in the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity Study (n = 6602) and the Indonesian National Health Surveillance (n = 10,575), metabolic syndrome was defined by the unified IDF and AHA/NHLBI criteria. We performed logistic and linear regressions to examine associations of BMI and waist circumference with the metabolic syndrome, mutually adjusted for waist circumference and BMI. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 28% and 46% in Indonesian men and women, and 36% and 24% in Dutch men and women. The most prominent components were hypertension (61%) and hyperglycemia (51%) in the Indonesian, and hypertension (62%) and abdominal obesity (40%) in the Dutch population. Per SD in BMI and waist circumference, odds ratios (ORs, 95% CI) of metabolic syndrome were 1.5 (1.3-1.8) and 2.3 (1.9-2.7) in Indonesian men and 1.7 (1.2-2.5) and 2.9 (2.1-4.1) in Dutch men. The ORs of metabolic syndrome were 1.4 (1.2-1.6) and 2.3 (2.0-2.7) in Indonesian women and 1.0 (0.8-1.3) and 4.2 (3.2-5.4) in Dutch women. Conclusion: More Indonesian women than men have metabolic syndrome, whereas the opposite is true for the Dutch population. In both the Indonesian and the Dutch populations, hypertension is the primary contributor to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. In both populations, abdominal adiposity was more strongly associated with metabolic syndrome than overall adiposity.

16.
J Rheumatol ; 47(9): 1409-1415, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787601

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of hand osteoarthritis (OA) and concurrent hand and knee OA with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in the general population, and in patients consulting a rheumatology outpatient clinic. METHODS: In the population-based Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study, participants were recruited from the greater area of Leiden, the Netherlands. In the Hand OSTeoArthritis in Secondary care (HOSTAS) study, patients with a rheumatologist's diagnosis of hand OA were recruited from a Leiden-based hospital. In both cohorts, hand and knee OA were defined by the American College of Rheumatology clinical criteria. In NEO, self-reported hospital-based specialist consultation for OA was recorded. Physical and mental HRQOL was assessed with normalized Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 scores. Associations were analyzed using linear regression, adjusted for age, sex, education, ethnicity, and body mass index. RESULTS: Hand OA alone and concurrent hand and knee OA was present in 8% and 4% of 6334 NEO participants, and in 57% and 32% of 538 HOSTAS patients. In NEO, hand OA alone, and concurrent hand and knee OA, were associated with lower physical component summary (PCS) scores [mean difference -2.4 (95% CI -3.6, -1.3) and -7.7 (95% CI -9.3, -6.2), respectively] compared with no OA. Consulting a specialist was associated with worse PCS scores. In the HOSTAS cohort, mean PCS scores were lower than norm values (-3.5 and -7.9 for hand OA and combined OA, respectively). Mental HRQOL was not clinically relevantly associated in either cohort. CONCLUSION: Hand OA was associated with reduced physical, but not mental, HRQOL in the general population and hospital patients. Physical HRQOL was further reduced in hospital care, and with concurrent knee OA.

17.
J Ren Nutr ; 30(4): 286-295, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668939

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the separate contributions of liver fat and visceral fat on microalbuminuria and impaired renal function, and second, to examine whether non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is causally related to microalbuminuria and/or impaired renal function. METHODS: Associations between visceral adipose tissue (VAT), hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC), and risk of microalbuminuria and renal function were studied cross-sectionally in the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study. Mendelian randomization using GWAS meta-analysis data was performed to estimate the causal effect of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (PNPLA3, LYPLAL1, NCAN, GCKR) on eGFR (Nmax 118,460), microalbuminuria (Nmax 54,116), and impaired renal function (Nmax 118,147). RESULTS: In total, 2,023 participants (mean age 55.5 ± 6.0 years, 53% women) were included of which 29% had fatty liver and 2.0% chronic kidney disease stage ≥3. In joint models, VAT was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of microalbuminuria which was mainly driven by the association in women (total population: per standard deviation [SD] = 55.4 cm2, odds ratio [OR] 2.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-3.47; women: OR 2.83, 95% CI 1.44, 5.56), but HTGC was not (total population: per SD = 7.9%, OR 1.20, 95% CI 0.85, 1.70). No associations were found for VAT and HTGC with eGFR (VAT: per SD = 55.4 cm2, OR 1.25, 95% CI 0.83, 1.87; HTGC: per SD = 7.9%, OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.42, 0.99). No causal effect of NAFLD on microalbuminuria or impaired renal function was found. CONCLUSIONS: In observational analyses, visceral fat was associated with microalbuminuria in women. Liver fat was not associated with microalbuminuria or renal function, which was supported by Mendelian randomization. Visceral fat might be more important than liver fat in the etiology of microalbuminuria.

18.
Biol Psychiatry ; 87(5): 409-418, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression has been associated with metabolic alterations, which adversely impact cardiometabolic health. Here, a comprehensive set of metabolic markers, predominantly lipids, was compared between depressed and nondepressed persons. METHODS: Nine Dutch cohorts were included, comprising 10,145 control subjects and 5283 persons with depression, established with diagnostic interviews or questionnaires. A proton nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics platform provided 230 metabolite measures: 51 lipids, fatty acids, and low-molecular-weight metabolites; 98 lipid composition and particle concentration measures of lipoprotein subclasses; and 81 lipid and fatty acids ratios. For each metabolite measure, logistic regression analyses adjusted for gender, age, smoking, fasting status, and lipid-modifying medication were performed within cohort, followed by random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Of the 51 lipids, fatty acids, and low-molecular-weight metabolites, 21 were significantly related to depression (false discovery rate q < .05). Higher levels of apolipoprotein B, very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, diglycerides, total and monounsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid chain length, glycoprotein acetyls, tyrosine, and isoleucine and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, acetate, and apolipoprotein A1 were associated with increased odds of depression. Analyses of lipid composition indicators confirmed a shift toward less high-density lipoprotein and more very-low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride particles in depression. Associations appeared generally consistent across gender, age, and body mass index strata and across cohorts with depressive diagnoses versus symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This large-scale meta-analysis indicates a clear distinctive profile of circulating lipid metabolites associated with depression, potentially opening new prevention or treatment avenues for depression and its associated cardiometabolic comorbidity.

19.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 44(2): 297-306, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear to what extent adherence to dietary guidelines may specifically affect visceral fat and liver fat. We aimed to study the association between the Dutch Healthy Diet Index (DHD-index) and total body fat, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC) in middle-aged men and women. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, VAT was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 2580 participants, and HTGC by proton-MR spectroscopy in 2083 participants. Habitual dietary intake and physical activity were estimated by questionnaire. Adherence to the current Dutch dietary guidelines was estimated by the 2015 DHD-index score based on the thirteen components (vegetables, fruit, wholegrain products, legumes, nuts, dairy, fish, tea, liquid fats, red meat, processed meat, sweetened beverages, and alcohol). The DHD-index ranges between 0 and 130 with a higher score indicating a healthier diet. We used linear regression to examine associations of the DHD-index with VAT and HTGC, adjusted for age, smoking, education, ethnicity, basal metabolic rate, energy restricted diet, menopausal state, physical activity, total energy intake, and total body fat. We additionally excluded the components one by one to examine individual contributions to the associations. RESULTS: Included participants (43% men) had a mean (SD) age of 56 (6) years and DHD-index score of 71 (15). A 10-point higher DHD-index score was associated with 2.3 cm2 less visceral fat (95% CI; -3.5; -1.0 cm2) and less liver fat (0.94 times, 95% CI; 0.90; 0.98). Of all components, exclusion of dairy attenuated the associations with TBF and VAT. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to the dietary guidelines as estimated by the DHD-index was associated with less total body fat, and with less visceral and liver fat after adjustment for total body fat. These findings might contribute to better understanding of the mechanisms underlying associations between dietary habits and cardiometabolic diseases.

20.
Metabolomics ; 15(10): 139, 2019 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587110

RESUMO

INTODUCTION: Excess visceral and liver fat are known risk factors for cardiometabolic disorders. Metabolomics might allow for easier quantification of these ectopic fat depots, instead of using invasive and costly tools such as MRI or approximations such as waist circumference. OBJECTIVE: We explored the potential use of plasma metabolites as biomarkers of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC). METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a subset of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study. Plasma metabolite profiles were determined using the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p150 kit in 176 individuals with normal fasting plasma glucose. VAT was assessed with magnetic resonance imaging and HTGC with proton-MR spectroscopy. We used linear regression to investigate the associations of 190 metabolite variables with VAT and HTGC. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, sex, total body fat, currently used approximations of visceral and liver fat, and multiple testing, three metabolite ratios were associated with VAT. The strongest association was the lysophosphatidylcholines to total phosphatidylcholines (PCs) ratio [- 14.1 (95% CI - 21.7; - 6.6) cm2 VAT per SD of metabolite concentration]. Four individual metabolites were associated with HTGC, especially the diacyl PCs of which C32:1 was the strongest at a 1.31 (95% CI 1.14; 1.51) fold increased HTGC per SD of metabolite concentration. CONCLUSION: Metabolomics may be a useful tool to identify biomarkers of visceral fat and liver fat content that have added diagnostic value over current approximations. Replication studies are required to validate the diagnostic value of these metabolites.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Tecido Adiposo/química , Idoso , Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/química , Fígado/química , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Plasma/química , Triglicerídeos/análise
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