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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e16977, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutrition is an important modifiable factor in combating overweight and obesity among adolescents. School has been indicated as an effective environment for influencing eating behavior; however, recent reviews assessing school-based interventions specifically for adolescents are scarce. Therefore, we propose the present systematic review with the aim to comprehensively review the quantitative and qualitative literature on the effects of school-based food and nutrition education interventions on adolescent health promotion through healthy eating habits. METHODS: We will search MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Scopus, ERIC, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Cochrane, LILACS, and ADOLEC. We will include randomized controlled trials (RCT), non-RCT, and controlled before-after studies. Risk of bias will be assessed using the EPOC Risk of Bias Tool for RCT, Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tool for non-RCT or controlled before-after, as well as the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) checklist for qualitative studies. We will analyze the overall strength of the evidence for each outcome using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) tool. Two independent researchers will conduct all evaluations and any disagreements will be consulted with a third reviewer. Data analysis and synthesis will be analyzed by the RevMan 5.3 software. We will conduct the study in accordance with the guideline of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analyses Protocols. RESULT: This review will evaluate the effects of school-based food and nutrition education interventions on adolescent health promotion through healthy eating habits. The primary outcome will be changes in adolescent food consumption. Secondary outcomes will be biological parameters (e.g., body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), body composition, etc); biochemical parameters (e.g., glycemia, triglycerides, total cholesterol, etc); qualitative evidences that support or explain the effect of school-based food and nutrition education interventions on adolescent food consumption. CONCLUSION: The findings of this systematic review will summarize the latest evidence of the effects of school-based food and nutrition education interventions on adolescent health promotion. The findings will be an available reference for school-based interventions and other further research. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019116520.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/organização & administração , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Projetos de Pesquisa
2.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 50: 615-621, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29716762

RESUMO

Changes in zinc metabolism caused by aging and the institutionalization process may contribute to zinc deficiency in elderly individuals. Hypozincemia results in changes in glycemic, lipid, and inflammatory profiles. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma zinc concentrations and their relationships with sociodemographic, dietary, inflammatory, and cardiometabolic biomarkers in institutionalized elderly individuals. A cross-sectional study was carried out including 255 elderly adults living in nursing homes. The associations between plasma zinc and dietary zinc intake, sociodemographic indicators, and glycemic, lipid, and inflammatory biomarkers were evaluated. Independent variables were analyzed according to quartiles of plasma zinc concentrations (Q1: <71.1 µg/dL; Q2: 71.1-83.3 µg/dL; Q3: <83.3-93.7 µg/dL; Q4: >93.7 µg/dL). The relationship between plasma zinc concentrations and predictor variables was also tested. In Q1, higher concentrations of the following variables were observed, compared with those in other quartiles: total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c; Q1 > Q2, Q3, Q4; all p <0.001); triglycerides (Q1 > Q3, Q4; all p < 0.001); interleukin (IL)-6 (Q1 > Q3, Q4; p = 0.024 and p = 0.010, respectively); tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (Q1 > Q3, p = 0.003). A significant reduction in plasma zinc concentrations was observed with increasing age-adjusted institutionalization time (Δ = - 0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.18 to -0.01). The concentrations of total cholesterol (Δ = - 0.19; 95% CI: -0.23 to -0.15), LDL-c (Δ = - 0.19; 95% CI: -0.23 to -0.15), triglycerides (Δ = - 0.11; 95% CI: -0.16 to -0.06), IL-6 (Δ = - 1.41; 95% CI: -2.64 to -0.18), and TNF-α (Δ = - 1.04; 95% CI: -1.71 to -0.36) were also significantly increased. In conclusion, decreased plasma zinc concentrations were associated with longer institutionalization time and worse lipid and inflammatory profiles in elderly institutionalized individuals.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Zinco/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Intervalos de Confiança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
3.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; 11(4): 301-17, 2004 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15512992

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of systemic and ocular toxoplasmosis among 1024 students in the city of Natal, Northeastern Brazil, and correlate it with demographic, socioeconomic and epidemiological risk factors. METHODS: The study population was randomly selected, asked to fill out a questionnaire, provide a blood sample for IgG and IgM (MEIA) serology and a hemogram, and undergo an eye examination. RESULTS: The seroprevalence for IgG was 46% (95% CI = 42.9-49.2%) and that for IgM was 1.4% (95% CI = 0.8-2.4%). The prevalence of ocular lesions was 1.15% (95% CI = 0.6-2.0%). In the univariate analyses, confirmed by multivariate analysis, the socioeconomic conditions were determinants in the prevalence of systemic and ocular toxoplasmosis (mother's schooling = literacy/OR = 2.9 and p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of systemic toxoplasmosis, although high, was lower than that found in studies performed in the South and Southeast of Brazil, and the incidence of ocular lesions was totally different, being lower by a factor varying from 5 to 17. Although important epidemiological variables, such as owning a cat, drinking unfiltered water or having had contact with lakes or rivers, were found to be correlated with toxoplasmosis in the preliminary analysis, they lost their influence when included in the logistic model. However, further studies must be undertaken to identify the reasons for these findings, including the determination of the strains of Toxoplasma gondii encountered in different regions of the country and the sources of the water utilized by these populations.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Toxoplasmose Ocular/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Ocular/imunologia
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