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1.
Eur Psychiatry ; 55: 52-60, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even if neurocognition is known to affect functional outcomes in schizophrenia, no previous study has explored the impact of cognition on functionality in delusional disorder (DD). We aimed to assess the effect of clinical characteristics, symptom dimensions and neuropsychological performance on psychosocial functioning and self-perceived functional impairment in DD. METHODS: Seventy-five patients with a SCID-I confirmed diagnosis of DD underwent neurocognitive testing using a neuropsychological battery examining verbal memory, attention, working memory and executive functions. We assessed psychotic symptoms with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and calculated factor scores for four clinical dimensions: Paranoid, Cognitive, Affective and Schizoid. We conducted hierarchical linear regression models to identify predictors of psychosocial functioning, as measured with the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, and self-perceived functional impairment, as measured with the Sheehan's Disability Inventory. RESULTS: In the final linear regression models, higher scores in the Paranoid (ß= 0.471, p < .001, r2 = 0.273) and Cognitive (ß = 0.325, p < .001, r2 = 0.180) symptomatic dimensions and lower scores in verbal memory (ß = -0.273, p < .05, r2 = 0.075) were significantly associated with poorer psychosocial functioning in patients with DD. Lower scores in verbal memory (ß= -0.337, p < .01, r2 = 0.158) and executive functions (ß= -0.323, p < .01, r2 = 0.094) were significantly associated with higher self-perceived disability. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired verbal memory and cognitive symptoms seem to affect functionality in DD, above and beyond the severity of the paranoid idea. This suggests a potential role for cognitive interventions in the management of DD.

2.
Can J Psychiatry ; 63(1): 12-19, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28595494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To contribute to a better differential clinical categorisation of delusional disorder (DD) versus schizophrenia (SZ) and to add and complete evidence from previous clinical studies of DD compared to schizophrenia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using a clinical sample of 275 patients (132 patients with DD) was studied. Patients were consecutively attending public clinics located in urban and rural areas in both Andalusia and Catalonia (Spain). All participants met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for either DD or SZ. Data were gathered on sociodemographics, illness duration, Barona-Index estimation of intelligence quotient (IQ), and global functioning, along with a thorough psychopathological assessment using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Comparisons between both groups were calculated using χ2, Student t, and multivariate analysis of covariance tests. RESULTS: Patients with DD were older (mean [SD], 50.3 [14.6] years vs. 36.6 [11.1] years; t = 8.597; P ≤ 0.0001), were more frequently married (45.4% vs. 10.8%; χ2 = 38.569; P ≤ 0.0001), and had a higher mean estimated premorbid IQ (111.4 vs. 105.4; t = 2.609; P ≤ 0.01). On the other hand, SZ patients were predominantly male (71.4% vs. 48.9%; χ2 = 14.433; P ≤ 0.0001) and had greater work-related disability than DD patients (20.5% vs. 50.3%; χ2 = 19.564; P ≤ 0.001). Overall, the DD group showed a less severe PANSS psychopathology than SZ group. Thus, total mean (SD) PANSS scores for schizophrenia and delusional disorder, respectively, were 76.2 (22.4) versus 54.1 (18.4) ( t = -8.762; P ≤ 0.0001). Moreover, patients with DD showed a better global functioning than those with SZ (62.7 [13.2] vs. 51.9 [16.9]; F = 44.114; P ≤ 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: DD is a milder and distinct disorder compared to SZ in terms of psychopathology and global functionality.

3.
Schizophr Res ; 169(1-3): 248-254, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26585220

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Since the early description of paranoia, the nosology of delusional disorder has always been controversial. The old idea of unitary psychosis has now gained some renewed value from the dimensional continuum model of psychotic symptoms. AIMS: 1. To study the psychopathological dimensions of the psychosis spectrum; 2. to explore the association between psychotic dimensions and categorical diagnoses; 3. to compare the different psychotic disorders from a psychopathological and functional point of view. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is an observational study utilizing a sample of some 550 patients with a psychotic disorder. 373 participants had a diagnosis of schizophrenia, 137 had delusional disorder and 40 with a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder. The PANSS was used to elicit psychopathology and global functioning was ascertained using the GAF measure. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the PANSS items were performed to extract psychopathological dimensions. Associations between diagnostic categories and dimensions were subsequently studied using ANOVA tests. RESULTS: 5 dimensions - manic, negative symptoms, depression, positive symptoms and cognitive - emerged. The model explained 57.27% of the total variance. The dimensional model was useful to explained differences and similarities between all three psychosis spectrum categories. The potential clinical usefulness of this dimensional model within and between clinical psychosis spectrum categories is discussed.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia Paranoide/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicopatologia , Esquizofrenia Paranoide/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Psicothema ; 27(1): 74-81, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25633773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to adapt and obtain validity evidence of the Spanish Green Paranoid Thought Scales (S-GPTS). METHOD: 191 Spanish people responded to S-GPTS, Peters Delusions Inventory (PDI), and measures of psychopathology. RESULTS: Principal Component Analyses on the polychoric correlation matrix identified two factors accounting for 71.0% of the cumulative variance. Cronbach alphas for S-GPTS total and its subscales were above .90 in clinical and non-clinical group. The value of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was higher for the S-GPTS (.898), than for the PDI (.859). The best S-GPTS threshold to discriminate between cases and non-cases was 92 (sensitivity, 97.35%; specificity, 65%). S-GPTS scores positively correlated with PDI and measures of anxiety and depression. CONCLUSION: The S-GPTS has adequate psychometric properties to provide valid measures of delusional ideation in a Spanish population.


Assuntos
Transtornos Paranoides/psicologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Delusões/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Apoio Social , Espanha , Tradução , Adulto Jovem
5.
Psychiatry Res ; 210(3): 986-93, 2013 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23993136

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of premorbid Personality Disorder (PD) and its relationship with clinical correlates in patients with Delusional Disorder (DD). Eighty-six outpatients with DD whose diagnoses were confirmed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I (SCID-I) Disorders (psychosis module) were evaluated for premorbid PD utilizing the Standardized Assessment of Personality (SAP). Psychopathology was assessed using Module B of SCID-I and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS); psychosocial functioning was evaluated with the Global Assessment of Functioning scale. Premorbid intelligence was assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition, vocabulary subtest. A sociodemographic-clinical questionnaire was completed. Sixty-four percent of the patients had at least one premorbid PD, the most common being paranoid PD (38.4%), followed by schizoid PD (12.8%). The presence of at least one premorbid PD was significantly associated with higher scores for psychopathology, in particular, on the affective dimension of DD symptoms. However, the presence of premorbid PD was not associated with psychosocial functioning. Each of the premorbid PD was associated with different psychopathological profiles. Premorbid PD is a relevant phenomenon in DD, given its high prevalence and comorbidity, its influence on clinical correlates and its potential ability to predict specific sub-syndromes.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia Paranoide/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comorbidade , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
PLoS One ; 8(7): e67341, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23844005

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Delusional disorder has been traditionally considered a psychotic syndrome that does not evolve to cognitive deterioration. However, to date, very little empirical research has been done to explore cognitive executive components and memory processes in Delusional Disorder patients. This study will investigate whether patients with delusional disorder are intact in both executive function components (such as flexibility, impulsivity and updating components) and memory processes (such as immediate, short term and long term recall, learning and recognition). METHODS: A large sample of patients with delusional disorder (n = 86) and a group of healthy controls (n = 343) were compared with regard to their performance in a broad battery of neuropsychological tests including Trail Making Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Colour-Word Stroop Test, and Complutense Verbal Learning Test (TAVEC). RESULTS: When compared to controls, cases of delusional disorder showed a significantly poorer performance in most cognitive tests. Thus, we demonstrate deficits in flexibility, impulsivity and updating components of executive functions as well as in memory processes. These findings held significant after taking into account sex, age, educational level and premorbid IQ. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not support the traditional notion of patients with delusional disorder being cognitively intact.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Rememoração Mental , Esquizofrenia Paranoide/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Esquizofrenia Paranoide/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais , Aprendizagem Verbal
7.
Compr Psychiatry ; 54(3): 243-55, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23021895

RESUMO

AIMS: Since Kraepelin, the controversy has persisted surrounding the nature of delusional disorder (DD) as a separate nosological entity or its clinical subtypes. Nevertheless, there has been no systematic study of its psychopathological structure based on patient interviews. Our goal was to empirically explore syndromic subentities in DD. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 86 outpatients with DSM-IV-confirmed DD using SCID-I. Psychopathological factors were identified by factor analysis of PANSS scores. The association between these factors and clinical variables (as per standardized instruments) was analyzed using uni- and multivariate techniques. RESULTS: PANSS symptoms were consistent with four factors (Paranoid, Cognitive, Schizoid, and Affective dimensions), accounting for 59.4% of the total variance. The Paranoid Dimension was associated with premorbid paranoid personality disorder, more adverse childhood experiences, chronic course, legal problems, worse global functioning, and poorer treatment adherence and response. The Cognitive Dimension was associated with poorer cognitive functioning, premorbid substance abuse, comorbid somatic diseases, mainly non-prominent visual hallucinations, fewer comorbid depressive disorders, and poorer global functioning. The Schizoid Dimension was associated with being single, a family history of schizophrenia, premorbid personality disorders (largely schizoid and schizotypal), non-prominent auditory hallucinations, and dysthymia. Finally, the Affective Dimension was associated with a family history of depression, premorbid obsessive personality, somatic delusions, absence of reference delusions, tactile and olfactory hallucinations, depressive and anxiety disorders, risk of suicide, and higher perceived stress. CONCLUSION: The identification and clinical validation of four separate psychopathological dimensions in DD provide evidence toward a more accurate conceptualization of DD and its types.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia Paranoide/diagnóstico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Esquizofrenia Paranoide/psicologia
8.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 22(11): 787-99, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22030230

RESUMO

Much literature has been written in the field of child psychiatry regarding the placebo as a tool to test drug efficacy in clinical trials, but quite little regarding the placebo effect itself or its clinical use in child psychiatry. In this article, we aim to critically review the literature regarding the placebo effect in children and adolescents with mental disorders, focusing especially on factors influencing the placebo effect and how they may influence the interpretation of clinical trials. The placebo effect seems to be more marked in children than adults, and particularly in children and adolescents with depression, although it is pervasive across ages and is present in non-psychiatric conditions as well. The use of a placebo in clinical trials as a comparator with drugs that have moderate efficacy at most makes it difficult to obtain positive results, and much effort is needed to design very high quality clinical trials that may overcome the limitations of using a placebo. In addition, the placebo effect across ages and clinical conditions must be tested directly (compared with no treatment whenever possible), in order to characterise which placebos work for what and to determine their use in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos Controlados como Assunto/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente/métodos , Psicologia da Criança/métodos , Psicofarmacologia/métodos , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neurogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeito Placebo , Placebos/efeitos adversos , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Psicotrópicos/efeitos adversos , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico
9.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry ; 45(5): 416-25, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21417554

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence, as well as the clinical, cognitive, and functional correlates of psychiatric comorbidity in patients with delusional disorder (DD). METHODS: Eighty-six outpatients with DSM-IV DD were evaluated for psychiatric comorbidity on Axis I disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview (MINI). The following instruments were administered: the Standardized Assessment of Personality (SAP), the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), a neuropsychological battery (consisting of measures for attention, verbal and working memory, and executive functions), the Sheehan Disability Inventory (SDI), and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale. A socio-demographic and clinical questionnaire was also completed. RESULTS: Forty-six percent of the subjects had at least one additional lifetime psychiatric diagnosis, the most common being depressive disorders (N = 16, 32.6%), followed by anxiety disorders (N = 8, 14%). DD with comorbid Axis I disorders (N = 40, 46.5%) was associated with a specific syndromic constellation (more common cluster C personality psychopathology, somatic delusions, olfactory and gustatory hallucinations, and suicide risk), and greater severity of the psychopathology, particularly as regards emotional dysregulation (total and general PANSS scales, MADRS, and perceived stress SDI scoring). In contrast, DD without psychiatric comorbidity - "pure" DD - (N = 46, 53.5%) was associated with worse overall neurocognitive performance, mainly in working memory. There were no differences in functionality between the two groups (as per the GAF and SDI total, work, social and family life disability scores). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal one type of DD with associated psychiatric comorbidity with greater emotion-related psychopathology and another "pure" DD, without psychiatric comorbidity, related to worse global cognitive functioning. Treatment for DD should address both types of processes.


Assuntos
Cognição , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia Paranoide/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia Paranoide/psicologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Determinação da Personalidade , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
10.
Psychiatry Res ; 177(1-2): 235-9, 2010 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20334930

RESUMO

Our objective was to study gender differences in delusional disorder (DD), by comparing potential risk factors, clinical correlates, illness course characteristics, and functionality. The sample was composed of 86 outpatients with DD (according to the SCID-I for DSM-IV criteria). The following assessment instruments were used service use and demographic questionnaires, Standardized Assessment of Personality (SAP), the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview (MINI), Sheehan Disability Inventory (SDI), and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale. The female-to-male ratio was 1.6:1. Men were more likely to be single, while women were more likely to be widows. Men had a greater frequency of schizoid and schizotypal premorbid personality disorders and of premorbid substance abuse. There were no differences for other risk factors (immigration, deafness, late onset, other personality disorders, and family history). Men were younger at onset and more frequently had acute onset of the disorder. Men had more severe symptoms (higher score on the global or separate PANSS scales). There were no gender differences for the remaining symptomatological variables (types of DD, presence and severity of depression, presence of hallucinations, severity of global cognitive functioning and presence of axis I comorbidity). Global and partial (work, family, and social) functioning was significantly poorer among men. Course type and consumption of resources appeared to be similar. We conclude that men with DD had significantly more severe symptoms and worse functionality. They also had a higher frequency of schizoid and schizotypal premorbid personality disorders and premorbid substance abuse.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia Paranoide/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia Paranoide/etiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Inventário de Personalidade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estatística como Assunto
11.
Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment ; 2(2): 72-82, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23034241

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aim to describe psychosocial and clinical correlates of delusional disorder (DD) and its types. This approach is important because most knowledge on DD does not come from empirical data collected using a validated systematic research method. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 86 patients fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for DD as established using the SCID-I. Variables were evaluated using a systematic methodology and standardized instruments, and included possible psychosocial risk factors (low socioeconomic status or social isolation, immigration, sensory deficits, older age at onset), family history of psychiatric disorders and premorbid personality (SAP), psychotic psychopathology (PANSS), depressive syndrome (MADRS), global cognitive functioning (MMSE), axis I comorbidity (MINI) and other clinical aspects such as global functionality (GAF), and disability (SDI). A sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire was also completed. RESULTS: The mean age at onset was 39.6 years and 61.6% of the cases were female. The most frequent DD types were persecutory (59.3%) and jealous (22.1%). Nearly 21% had a family history of schizophrenia and 17.4% had DD (significantly higher among those with the jealous subtype). Sixty-four percent had a premorbid personality disorder (38.4% paranoid, 12.8% schizoid). The grandiose type was significantly associated with higher scores on the PANSS positive subscale and the mixed type with lower scores on the PANSS negative subscale. Depression affected 45.3% of subjects (mainly mild depression) and 45.3% had hallucinations (20.9% tactile, 16.3% olfactory), which were more common among somatic cases. The mean MMSE was 27.6±2.5 suggesting a preserved cognitive function. Mean GAF was 63.9±11.3 indicating a moderate degree of disability, which was significantly worse amongst grandiose cases. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides unique empirical and reliable evidence on the real psychosocial, clinical, and psychopathological correlates of DD and its types.

12.
Eur Psychiatry ; 23(2): 125-33, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18082379

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A few empirically based studies' data on delusional disorder (DD) exist. We aim to describe sociodemographic and clinical correlates of DD and to identify clinical profiles associated to DD and its subtypes. METHODS: This is a case-register study based on all those subjects attending community mental health services within a geographically well-defined area. Four hundred and sixty-seven patients had been diagnosed as DD cases at psychiatric services serving a catchment area of some 607,494 inhabitants living in South Barcelona (Spain) during a three-year period (2001-2003). A thorough systematic review of computerised medical records was used to establish DSM-IV diagnosis, rendering a valid sample of 370 patients who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for DD. Independent variables gathered include sociodemographic data, family and personal psychiatric history, and comorbid diagnoses on all DSM-IV axes (including GAF). We used descriptive and univariate statistical methods to explore sample frequencies and correlates across DD types. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 55 years and the sample had a mean GAF score of 51 suggesting a poor functionality; 56.5% of the patients were female. The most frequent DD types were persecutory (48%), jealous (11%), mixed (11%) and somatic (5%), whilst 23% qualified for the NOS type. Most frequent symptoms identified were self-reference (40%), irritability (30%), depressive mood (20%) and aggressiveness (15%). Hallucinations were present in 16% of the patients (6% tactile; 4% olfactory). Nearly 9% had a family history of schizophrenia (higher among those with the jealous subtype) and 42% had a comorbid axis II diagnosis (mostly paranoid personality disorder). Depression was significantly more frequent among the persecutory and jealous types. Finally, global functioning was significantly better among jealous and mixed types and worse amongst erotomanic and grandiose cases (p=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of other similar empirical data, this modest study provides unique empirical evidence of some clinical and risk correlates of DD and its subtypes.


Assuntos
Sistema de Registros , Esquizofrenia Paranoide/diagnóstico , Adulto , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Comorbidade , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/psicologia , Alucinações/diagnóstico , Alucinações/epidemiologia , Alucinações/genética , Alucinações/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Paranoides/diagnóstico , Transtornos Paranoides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Paranoides/genética , Transtornos Paranoides/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Paranoide/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Paranoide/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Paranoide/genética , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia Paranoide/epidemiologia , Esquizofrenia Paranoide/genética , Esquizofrenia Paranoide/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha , Revisão da Utilização de Recursos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
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