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1.
Environ Int ; 137: 105516, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007691

RESUMO

Swimming ponds are artificial ecosystems for bathing in which people imitate the conditions of natural waters. Swimming in natural water may pose health risks if the water quality is microbiologically poor. Swimming ponds are small water bodies that may be used by relatively large groups of people, moreover, the water is not disinfected, e.g. by using chlorine. The draft new swimming pool legislation in the Netherlands includes water quality requirements for swimming ponds. This study focused on the examination and evaluation of the new microbiological water quality requirements, including Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, in thirteen public swimming pools. In eight of thirteen swimming ponds the water quality met the requirements for fecal indicators; 93-95% of the samples met the requirement for E. coli (≤100/100 ml) and intestinal enterococci (≤50/100 ml). The requirement for P. aeruginosa (≤10/100 ml) was met in eleven of thirteen swimming ponds (99% of the samples). In 68% of the samples the requirement for S. aureus (<1/100 ml) was met. A linear mixed effect analysis showed that E. coli and intestinal enterococci concentrations were significantly dependent on the log10 of turbidity. P. aeruginosa concentrations were significantly dependent on water temperature. 31-45% of the variation between swimming ponds was explained by considering 'pond' as a random effect in the analysis. The monitoring of microbiological parameters in swimming pond water needs selective analytical methods, such as those used in this study, due to large numbers of background bacteria. The draft new Dutch swimming pool legislation provides proper guidance to ensure the microbiological safety of swimming pond water; it would benefit from inclusion of turbidity as an extra parameter. S. aureus is a relevant parameter for non-fecal shedding, although scientific literature does not provide evidence for a norm value based on a dose-response relation for exposure to S. aureus in water.

2.
J Water Health ; 17(6): 989-1001, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850905

RESUMO

Unsafe drinking water is a recognized health threat in Ethiopia, and climate change, rapid population growth, urbanization and agricultural practices put intense pressure on availability and quality of water. Climate change-related health problems due to floods and waterborne diseases are increasing. With increasing insight into impacts of climate change and urbanization on water availability and quality and of required adaptations, a shift towards climate-resilient water safety planning was introduced into an Ethiopian strategy and guidance document to guarantee safe drinking water. Climate-resilient water safety planning was implemented in the urban water supplies of Addis Ababa and Adama, providing drinking water to 5 million and 500,000 people, respectively. Based on the risks identified with climate-resilient water safety planning, water quality monitoring can be optimized by prioritizing parameters and events which pose a higher risk for contaminating the drinking water. Water quality monitoring was improved at both drinking water utilities and at the Public Health Institute to provide relevant data used as input for climate-resilient water safety planning. By continuously linking water quality monitoring and climate-resilient water safety planning, utilization of information was optimized, and both approaches benefit from linking these activities.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Água Potável , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Etiópia , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Gestão de Riscos
3.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(5): 744-755, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129137

RESUMO

In recent years, the water safety plan approach has been extended towards climate-resilient water safety planning. This happened in response to increasing insight into impacts of climate on drinking-water and required adaptation to anticipated climate change. Literature was reviewed for published guidance and case examples, documenting how to consider climate in water safety planning to support future uptake. Climate-resilient water safety plans were piloted within a project in the water supplies of Addis Ababa and Adama, Ethiopia. Case examples have been published in four of six WHO regions with a focus on urban supplies. Integration of climate aspects focused mostly on the steps of establishing the team, system description, hazard analysis and risk assessment, improvement planning and development of management procedures. While the traditional framework focuses on drinking-water quality, considering climate change augments aspects of water quantity. Therefore, other factors affecting water quantity such as population development and demand of other sectors need to be considered as well. Local climate information and tools should be employed as a significant success factor for future uptake. Such information should be incorporated as it becomes available, and may - depending on the setting - be incrementally integrated into existing water safety plans or used to develop new ones.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1124, 2019 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850636

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious threat to global public health, but obtaining representative data on AMR for healthy human populations is difficult. Here, we use metagenomic analysis of untreated sewage to characterize the bacterial resistome from 79 sites in 60 countries. We find systematic differences in abundance and diversity of AMR genes between Europe/North-America/Oceania and Africa/Asia/South-America. Antimicrobial use data and bacterial taxonomy only explains a minor part of the AMR variation that we observe. We find no evidence for cross-selection between antimicrobial classes, or for effect of air travel between sites. However, AMR gene abundance strongly correlates with socio-economic, health and environmental factors, which we use to predict AMR gene abundances in all countries in the world. Our findings suggest that global AMR gene diversity and abundance vary by region, and that improving sanitation and health could potentially limit the global burden of AMR. We propose metagenomic analysis of sewage as an ethically acceptable and economically feasible approach for continuous global surveillance and prediction of AMR.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Metagenoma , Esgotos/microbiologia , África , Ásia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Metagenômica/métodos , Consórcios Microbianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Consórcios Microbianos/genética , América do Norte , Oceania , Saúde da População , Fatores Socioeconômicos , América do Sul
5.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 221(8): 1107-1115, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30145117

RESUMO

Possible transmission pathways of fungi in indoor swimming pool facilities were assessed through fungal counting in different areas of the facilities and typing of the collected fungal isolates. Air, water and surface samples were collected from seven different indoor swimming pool facilities. Fungal species were identified based on their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Maximum fungal concentrations of 6.2 CFU/cm2, 1.39 CFU/100 mL, and 202 CFU/m³ were found on surfaces, in water and air, respectively. In total, 458 isolates were obtained, belonging to 111 fungal species, of which 50 species were clinically relevant. Phialophora oxyspora (13.3%) and Trichosporon dohaense (5.0%) were the most frequently isolated species and were merely detected on floors, as were the dermatophytes, Trichophyton interdigitale and T. rubrum. Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp. were the dominant fungi in water and air. No typical patterns of fungal concentrations along the preferential pathways of pool visitors were observed, however, sites where pool visitors converge while moving from one room (e.g. dressing room) to another (e.g. shower room) and walking barefoot displayed the highest fungal concentrations thus posing the highest risk of contamination. The dispersal of fungi on floors is most likely facilitated by the pool visitors and cleaning tools. Clinically relevant fungi, including the ones rarely identified in nature, were widely detected on floors, in water and in air, as well as on cleaning tools and flexibeams. Preventive measures such as cleaning should minimize the prevalence of clinically relevant fungi in swimming pool facilities since these potentially pose health risks to those vulnerable for infections.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/isolamento & purificação , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Micoses/transmissão , Piscinas , Poluentes da Água/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia do Ar , DNA Fúngico/análise , Detergentes , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Fungos/genética , Humanos , Materiais de Ensino , Microbiologia da Água
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29868496

RESUMO

Tularemia is an emerging zoonosis caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis, which is able to infect a range of animal species and humans. Human infections occur through contact with animals, ingestion of food, insect bites or exposure to aerosols or water, and may lead to serious disease. F. tularensis may persist in aquatic reservoirs. In the Netherland, no human tularemia cases were notified for over 60 years until in 2011 an endemic patient was diagnosed, followed by 17 cases in the 6 years since. The re-emergence of tularemia could be caused by changes in reservoirs or transmission routes. We performed environmental surveillance of F. tularensis in surface waters in the Netherlands by using two approaches. Firstly, 339 samples were obtained from routine monitoring -not related to tularemia- at 127 locations that were visited between 1 and 8 times in 2015 and 2016. Secondly, sampling efforts were performed after reported tularemia cases (n = 8) among hares or humans in the period 2013-2017. F. tularensis DNA was detected at 17% of randomly selected surface water locations from different parts of the country. At most of these positive locations, DNA was not detected at each time point and levels were very low, but at two locations contamination was clearly higher. From 7 out of the 8 investigated tularemia cases, F. tularensis DNA was detected in at least one surface water sample collected after the case. By using a protocol tailored for amplification of low amounts of environmental DNA, 10 gene targets were sequenced. Presence of F. tularensis subspecies holarctica was confirmed in 4 samples, and in 2 of these, clades B.12 and B.6 were identified. This study shows that for tularemia, information regarding the spatial and temporal distribution of its causative agent could be derived from environmental surveillance of surface waters. Tracking a particular strain in the environment as source of infection is feasible and could be substantiated by genotyping, which was achieved in water samples with only low levels of F. tularemia present. These techniques allow the establishment of a link between tularemia cases and environmental samples without the need for cultivation.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Francisella tularensis/isolamento & purificação , Tularemia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Francisella tularensis/genética , Lebres/microbiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Tularemia/microbiologia , Tularemia/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia da Água , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
7.
Environ Int ; 117: 132-138, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29747082

RESUMO

There is growing understanding that the environment plays an important role both in the transmission of antibiotic resistant pathogens and in their evolution. Accordingly, researchers and stakeholders world-wide seek to further explore the mechanisms and drivers involved, quantify risks and identify suitable interventions. There is a clear value in establishing research needs and coordinating efforts within and across nations in order to best tackle this global challenge. At an international workshop in late September 2017, scientists from 14 countries with expertise on the environmental dimensions of antibiotic resistance gathered to define critical knowledge gaps. Four key areas were identified where research is urgently needed: 1) the relative contributions of different sources of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment; 2) the role of the environment, and particularly anthropogenic inputs, in the evolution of resistance; 3) the overall human and animal health impacts caused by exposure to environmental resistant bacteria; and 4) the efficacy and feasibility of different technological, social, economic and behavioral interventions to mitigate environmental antibiotic resistance.1.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Microbiologia Ambiental , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Humanos
8.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 73(2): 339-347, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29165596

RESUMO

Background: In recent years, ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL/AmpC-EC) have been isolated with increasing frequency from animals, food, environmental sources and humans. With incomplete and scattered evidence, the contribution to the human carriage burden from these reservoirs remains unclear. Objectives: To quantify molecular similarities between different reservoirs as a first step towards risk attribution. Methods: Pooled data on ESBL/AmpC-EC isolates were recovered from 35 studies in the Netherlands comprising >27 000 samples, mostly obtained between 2005 and 2015. Frequency distributions of ESBL/AmpC genes from 5808 isolates and replicons of ESBL/AmpC-carrying plasmids from 812 isolates were compared across 22 reservoirs through proportional similarity indices (PSIs) and principal component analyses (PCAs). Results: Predominant ESBL/AmpC genes were identified in each reservoir. PCAs and PSIs revealed close human-animal ESBL/AmpC gene similarity between human farming communities and their animals (broilers and pigs) (PSIs from 0.8 to 0.9). Isolates from people in the general population had higher similarities to those from human clinical settings, surface and sewage water and wild birds (0.7-0.8), while similarities to livestock or food reservoirs were lower (0.3-0.6). Based on rarefaction curves, people in the general population had more diversity in ESBL/AmpC genes and plasmid replicon types than those in other reservoirs. Conclusions: Our 'One Health' approach provides an integrated evaluation of the molecular relatedness of ESBL/AmpC-EC from numerous sources. The analysis showed distinguishable ESBL/AmpC-EC transmission cycles in different hosts and failed to demonstrate a close epidemiological linkage of ESBL/AmpC genes and plasmid replicon types between livestock farms and people in the general population.


Assuntos
Microbiologia Ambiental , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/classificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Variação Genética , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Animais , Aves , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Países Baixos , Aves Domésticas , Suínos
9.
J Water Health ; 15(6): 849-862, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29215350

RESUMO

To study whether broiler and layer farms contribute to the environmental Campylobacter load, environmental matrices at or close to farms, and caecal material from chickens, were examined. Similarity between Campylobacter from poultry and environment was tested based on species identification and Multilocus Sequence Typing. Campylobacter prevalence in caecal samples was 97% at layer farms (n = 5), and 93% at broiler farms with Campylobacter-positive flocks (n = 2/3). Campylobacter prevalence in environmental samples was 24% at layer farms, and 29% at broiler farms with Campylobacter-positive flocks. Campylobacter was detected in soil and surface water, not in dust and flies. Campylobacter prevalence in adjacent and remote surface waters was not significantly (P > 0.1) different. Detected species were C. coli (52%), C. jejuni (40%) and C. lari (7%) in layers, and C. jejuni (100%) in broilers. Identical sequence types (STs) were detected in caecal material and soil. A deviating species distribution in surface water adjacent to farms indicated a high background level of environmental Campylobacter. STs from layer farms were completely deviant from surface water STs. The occasional detection of identical STs in broilers, wastewater at broiler farms and surface water in the farm environment suggested a possible contribution of broiler farms to the aquatic environmental Campylobacter load.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia Ambiental , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Campylobacter/classificação , Fazendas , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Países Baixos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
10.
Euro Surveill ; 22(35)2017 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28877846

RESUMO

Tularaemia, a disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, is a re-emerging zoonosis in the Netherlands. After sporadic human and hare cases occurred in the period 2011 to 2014, a cluster of F. tularensis-infected hares was recognised in a region in the north of the Netherlands from February to May 2015. No human cases were identified, including after active case finding. Presence of F. tularensis was investigated in potential reservoirs and transmission routes, including common voles, arthropod vectors and surface waters. F. tularensis was not detected in common voles, mosquito larvae or adults, tabanids or ticks. However, the bacterium was detected in water and sediment samples collected in a limited geographical area where infected hares had also been found. These results demonstrate that water monitoring could provide valuable information regarding F. tularensis spread and persistence, and should be used in addition to disease surveillance in wildlife.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Monitoramento Ambiental , Lebres/microbiologia , Tularemia/epidemiologia , Animais , Francisella tularensis , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Tularemia/microbiologia , Tularemia/veterinária
11.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 220(7): 1152-1160, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28716483

RESUMO

The density of fungal contamination and the fungal diversity in an indoor swimming pool facility were assessed. A total of 16 surface samples and 6 water samples were analysed by using a combination of different (semi-) selective culture media. Isolated fungal colonies were identified to the genus or species level by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS). The highest fungal counts in water and on surfaces were in the recreational pool (17CFU/100mL) and on a flexibeam (5.8CFU/cm2), respectively as compared with low counts (<0.1CFU/cm2) on the diving platform, bench tops and walls. The 357 obtained isolates belonged to 79 species and species complexes, 42 of which known as clinically relevant. Phialophora oxyspora (13.7%) and Phoma spp. (12.3%) were the most frequently identified groups. We demonstrated that despite chlorine treatment and regular cleaning of surfaces both water and surfaces were commonly infested with fungi, including many clinically relevant species.


Assuntos
Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Piscinas , Microbiologia da Água , Análise de Variância , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Equipamentos e Provisões/microbiologia , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Fungos/genética , Humanos , Países Baixos , Phialophora/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência , Água
12.
J Water Health ; 15(2): 175-184, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28362299

RESUMO

Clinically relevant antimicrobial resistant bacteria, genetic resistance elements, and antibiotic residues (so-called AMR) from human and animal waste are abundantly present in environmental samples. This presence could lead to human exposure to AMR. In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed a Global Action Plan for Antimicrobial Resistance with one of its strategic objectives being to strengthen knowledge through surveillance and research. With respect to a strategic research agenda on water, sanitation and hygiene and AMR, WHO organized a workshop to solicit input by scientists and other stakeholders. The workshop resulted in three main conclusions. The first conclusion was that guidance is needed on how to reduce the spread of AMR to humans via the environment and to introduce effective intervention measures. Second, human exposure to AMR via water and its health impact should be investigated and quantified, in order to compare with other human exposure routes, such as direct transmission or via food consumption. Finally, a uniform and global surveillance strategy that complements existing strategies and includes analytical methods that can be used in low-income countries too, is needed to monitor the magnitude and dissemination of AMR.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Saneamento , Microbiologia da Água , Humanos , Saneamento/normas , Microbiologia da Água/normas , Organização Mundial da Saúde
13.
Water Res ; 105: 11-21, 2016 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27591704

RESUMO

Climate change is expected to influence infection risks while bathing downstream of sewage emissions from combined sewage overflows (CSOs) or waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) due to changes in pathogen influx, rising temperatures and changing flow rates of the receiving waters. In this study, climate change impacts on the surface water concentrations of Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium and norovirus originating from sewage were modelled. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was used to assess changes in risks of infection. In general, infection risks downstream of WWTPs are higher than downstream CSOs. Even though model outputs show an increase in CSO influxes, in combination with changes in pathogen survival, dilution within the sewage system and bathing behaviour, the effects on the infection risks are limited. However, a decrease in dilution capacity of surface waters could have significant impact on the infection risks of relatively stable pathogens like Cryptosporidium and norovirus. Overall, average risks are found to be higher downstream WWTPs compared to CSOs. Especially with regard to decreased flow rates, adaptation measures on treatment at WWTPs may be more beneficial for human health than decreasing CSO events.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Águas Residuárias , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Água , Microbiologia da Água
14.
J Environ Qual ; 45(4): 1205-14, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27380068

RESUMO

Protection of drinking water resources requires addressing all relevant fecal pollution sources in the considered catchment. A freely available simulation tool, QMRAcatch, was recently developed to simulate concentrations of fecal indicators, a genetic microbial source tracking (MST) marker, and intestinal pathogens in water resources and to conduct a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). At the same time, QMRAcatch was successfully applied to a region of the Danube River in Austria, focusing on municipal wastewater emissions. Herein, we describe extension of its application to a Danube River floodplain, keeping the focus on fecal sources of human origin. QMRAcatch was calibrated to match measured human-associated MST marker concentrations for a dry year and a wet year. Appropriate performance characteristics of the human-associated MST assay were proven by simulating correct and false-positive marker concentrations, as determined in human and animal feces. With the calibrated tool, simulated and measured enterovirus concentrations in the rivers were compared. Finally, the calibrated tool allowed demonstrating that 4.5 log enterovirus and 6.6 log norovirus reductions must be achieved to convert current surface water to safe drinking water that complies with a health-based target of 10 infections person yr. Simulations of the low- and high-pollution scenarios showed that the required viral reductions ranged from 0 to 8 log. This study has implications for water managers with interests in assessing robust catchment protection measures and water treatment criteria by considering the fate of fecal pollution from its sources to the point of abstraction.


Assuntos
Fezes , Poluição da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Rios , Microbiologia da Água
15.
Water Res ; 95: 90-102, 2016 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26986498

RESUMO

Faeces originating from wildlife, domestic animals or manure-fertilized fields, is considered an important source of zoonotic pathogens to which people may be exposed by, for instance, bathing or drinking-water consumption. An increase in runoff, and associated wash-off of animal faeces from fields, is assumed to contribute to the increase of disease outbreaks during periods of high precipitation. Climate change is expected to increase winter precipitation and extreme precipitation events during summer, but has simultaneously also other effects such as temperature rise and changes in evapotranspiration. The question is to what extent the combination of these effects influence the input of zoonotic pathogens to the surface waters. To quantitatively analyse the impacts of climate change on pathogen runoff, pathogen concentrations reaching surface waters through runoff were calculated by combining an input model for catchment pathogen loads with the Wageningen Lowland Runoff Simulator (WALRUS). Runoff of Cryptosporidium and Campylobacter was evaluated under different climate change scenarios and by applying different scenarios for sources of faecal pollution in the catchments, namely dairy cows and geese and manure fertilization. Model evaluation of these scenarios shows that climate change has little overall impact on runoff of Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium from land to the surface waters. Even though individual processes like runoff fluxes, pathogen release and dilution are affected, either positively or negatively, the net effect on the pathogen concentration in surface waters and consequently also on infection risks through recreation seems limited.


Assuntos
Cryptosporidium , Água , Animais , Campylobacter , Bovinos , Mudança Climática , Feminino
16.
Euro Surveill ; 21(11): 30169, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27020766

RESUMO

On 6 September 2014, the accidental release of 10(13) infectious wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) particles by a vaccine production plant in Belgium was reported. WPV3 was released into the sewage system and discharged directly to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and subsequently into rivers that flowed to the Western Scheldt and the North Sea. No poliovirus was detected in samples from the WWTP, surface waters, mussels or sewage from the Netherlands. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) showed that the infection risks resulting from swimming in Belgium waters were above 50% for several days and that the infection risk by consuming shellfish harvested in the eastern part of the Western Scheldt warranted a shellfish cooking advice. We conclude that the reported release of WPV3 has neither resulted in detectable levels of poliovirus in any of the samples nor in poliovirus circulation in the Netherlands. This QMRA showed that relevant data on water flows were not readily available and that prior assumptions on dilution factors were overestimated. A QMRA should have been performed by all vaccine production facilities before starting up large-scale culture of WPV to be able to implement effective interventions when an accident happens.


Assuntos
Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vacina Antipólio Oral/administração & dosagem , Poliovirus/patogenicidade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Gestão de Riscos/métodos , Bélgica , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Poliomielite/transmissão , Esgotos , Microbiologia da Água
17.
J Environ Qual ; 44(5): 1491-502, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26436266

RESUMO

Given the complex hydrologic dynamics of water catchments and conflicts between nature protection and public water supply, models may help to understand catchment dynamics and evaluate contamination scenarios and may support best environmental practices and water safety management. A catchment model can be an educative tool for investigating water quality and for communication between parties with different interests in the catchment. This article introduces an interactive computational tool, QMRAcatch, that was developed to simulate concentrations in water resources of , a human-associated microbial source tracking (MST) marker, enterovirus, norovirus, , and as target microorganisms and viruses (TMVs). The model domain encompasses a main river with wastewater discharges and a floodplain with a floodplain river. Diffuse agricultural sources of TMVs that discharge into the main river are not included in this stage of development. The floodplain river is fed by the main river and may flood the plain. Discharged TMVs in the river are subject to dilution and temperature-dependent degradation. River travel times are calculated using the Manning-Gauckler-Strickler formula. Fecal deposits from wildlife, birds, and visitors in the floodplain are resuspended in flood water, runoff to the floodplain river, or infiltrate groundwater. Fecal indicator and MST marker data facilitate calibration. Infection risks from exposure to the pathogenic TMVs by swimming or drinking water consumption are calculated, and the required pathogen removal by treatment to meet a health-based quality target can be determined. Applicability of QMRAcatch is demonstrated by calibrating the tool for a study site at the River Danube near Vienna, Austria, using field TMV data, including a sensitivity analysis and evaluation of the model outcomes.

18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 49(20): 11993-2004, 2015 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26355462

RESUMO

To establish a possible role for the natural environment in the transmission of clinically relevant AMR bacteria to humans, a literature review was conducted to systematically collect and categorize evidence for human exposure to extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. in the environment. In total, 239 datasets adhered to inclusion criteria. AMR bacteria were detected at exposure-relevant sites (35/38), including recreational areas, drinking water, ambient air, and shellfish, and in fresh produce (8/16). More datasets were available for environmental compartments (139/157), including wildlife, water, soil, and air/dust. Quantitative data from exposure-relevant sites (6/35) and environmental compartments (11/139) were scarce. AMR bacteria were detected in the contamination sources (66/66) wastewater and manure, and molecular data supporting their transmission from wastewater to the environment (1/66) were found. The abundance of AMR bacteria at exposure-relevant sites suggests risk for human exposure. Of publications pertaining to both environmental and human isolates, however, only one compared isolates from samples that had a clear spatial and temporal relationship, and no direct evidence was found for transmission to humans through the environment. To what extent the environment, compared to the clinical and veterinary domains, contributes to human exposure needs to be quantified. AMR bacteria in the environment, including sites relevant for human exposure, originate from contamination sources. Intervention strategies targeted at these sources could therefore limit emission of AMR bacteria to the environment.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Enterobacteriaceae/metabolismo , Meio Ambiente , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Esterco , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Recreação , Microbiologia do Solo , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia da Água , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 49(19): 11825-33, 2015 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26338143

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to determine the fate of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) emitted from faecal sources in surface water, and the probability of human exposure through swimming. Concentrations of ESBL-EC were measured in recreational waters and in source waters, being water in ditches surrounding poultry farms and municipal wastewater. Additionally, the potential of ESBL-EC in source waters to reach recreational waters located downstream of these sources was modeled. Modeled ESBL-EC concentrations in recreational waters appeared to be mostly determined by the concentrations in the source waters and by subsequent dilution in surface water, and less by inactivation. The mean (95%) risk of human exposure to ESBL-EC per person per swimming event, as assessed from measured ESBL-EC concentrations in recreational waters, was 0.16 (0.89) for men, 0.13 (0.72) for women and 0.20 (0.95) for children. Similar exposure risks were estimated for hypothetical recreational waters containing 100- or 1000-times diluted source water, located 10 days water travel time downstream of the sources. Human exposure to ESBL-EC through swimming is likely, if recreational waters are located downstream of poultry farms and municipal wastewater discharge points.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Animais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esterco/microbiologia , Países Baixos , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Probabilidade , Recreação , Natação , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Microbiologia da Água
20.
PLoS One ; 10(8): e0135402, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26270644

RESUMO

This study aimed to discern the contribution of poultry farms to the contamination of the environment with ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and therewith, potentially to the spread of these bacteria to humans and other animals. ESBL-producing E. coli were detected at all investigated laying hen farms (n = 5) and broiler farms (n = 3) in 65% (46/71) and 81% (57/70) of poultry faeces samples, respectively. They were detected in rinse water and run-off water (21/26; 81%), other farm animals (11/14; 79%), dust (21/35; 60%), surface water adjacent to farms (20/35; 57%), soil (48/87; 55%), on flies (11/73; 15%), and in barn air (2/33; 6%). The highest prevalence and concentrations in the outdoor environment were observed in soil of free-range areas at laying hen farms (100% of samples positive, geometric mean concentration 2.4×10(4) cfu/kg), and surface waters adjacent to broiler farms during, or shortly after, cleaning between production rounds (91% of samples positive, geometric mean concentration 1.9×10(2) cfu/l). The diversity of ESBL-producing E. coli variants with respect to sequence type, phylogenetic group, ESBL-genotype and antibiotic resistance profile was high, especially on broiler farms where on average 16 different variants were detected, and the average Simpson's Indices of diversity (SID; 1-D) were 0.93 and 0.94 among flock and environmental isolates respectively. At laying hen farms on average nine variants were detected, with SIDs of 0.63 (flock isolates) and 0.77 (environmental isolates). Sixty percent of environmental isolates were identical to flock isolates at the same farm. The highest proportions of 'flock variants' were observed in dust (94%), run-off gullies (82%), and barn air (67%), followed by surface water (57%), soil (56%), flies (50%) and other farm animals (35%).The introduction of ESBL-producing E. coli from poultry farms to the environment may pose a health risk if these bacteria reach places where people may become exposed.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Galinhas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Resistência beta-Lactâmica/genética , beta-Lactamases , Animais , Cefalosporinas , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , beta-Lactamases/genética , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
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