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1.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513310

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE) refer to a heterogeneous group of devastating neurodevelopmental disorders. Variants in KCNB1 have been recently reported in patients with early-onset DEE. KCNB1 encodes the α subunit of the delayed rectifier voltage-dependent potassium channel Kv 2.1. We review the 37 previously reported patients carrying 29 distinct KCNB1 variants and significantly expand the mutational spectrum describing 18 novel variants from 27 unreported patients. Most variants occur de novo and mainly consist of missense variants located on the voltage sensor and the pore domain of Kv 2.1. We also report the first inherited variant (p.Arg583*). KCNB1-related encephalopathies encompass a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders with predominant language difficulties and behavioral impairment. Eighty-five percent of patients developed epilepsies with variable syndromes and prognosis. Truncating variants in the C-terminal domain are associated with a less-severe epileptic phenotype. Overall, this report provides an up-to-date review of the mutational and clinical spectrum of KCNB1, strengthening its place as a causal gene in DEEs and emphasizing the need for further functional studies to unravel the underlying mechanisms.

2.
Brain ; 142(10): 2996-3008, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532509

RESUMO

Epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures was first described in 1995. Fifteen years later, KCNT1 gene mutations were identified as the major disease-causing gene of this disease. Currently, the data on epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures associated with KCNT1 mutations are heterogeneous and many questions remain unanswered including the prognosis and the long-term outcome especially regarding epilepsy, neurological and developmental status and the presence of microcephaly. The aim of this study was to assess data from patients with epilepsy in infancy with migrating focal seizures with KCNT1 mutations to refine the phenotype spectrum and the outcome. We used mind maps based on medical reports of children followed in the network of the French reference centre for rare epilepsies and we developed family surveys to assess the long-term outcome. Seventeen patients were included [age: median (25th-75th percentile): 4 (2-15) years, sex ratio: 1.4, length of follow-up: 4 (2-15) years]. Seventy-one per cent started at 6 (1-52) days with sporadic motor seizures (n = 12), increasing up to a stormy phase with long lasting migrating seizures at 57 (30-89) days. The others entered this stormy phase directly at 1 (1-23) day. Ten patients entered a consecutive phase at 1.3 (1-2.8) years where seizures persisted at least daily (n = 8), but presented different semiology: brief and hypertonic with a nocturnal (n = 6) and clustered (n = 6) aspects. Suppression interictal patterns were identified on the EEG in 71% of patients (n = 12) sometimes from the first EEG (n = 6). Three patients received quinidine without reported efficacy. Long-term outcome was poor with neurological sequelae and active epilepsy except for one patient who had an early and long-lasting seizure-free period. Extracerebral symptoms probably linked with KCNT1 mutation were present, including arteriovenous fistula, dilated cardiomyopathy and precocious puberty. Eight patients (47%) had died at 3 (1.5-15.4) years including three from suspected sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Refining the electro-clinical characteristics and the temporal sequence of epilepsy in infancy with migrating focal seizures should help diagnosis of this epilepsy. A better knowledge of the outcome allows one to advise families and to define the appropriate follow-up and therapies. Extracerebral involvement should be investigated, in particular the cardiac system, as it may be involved in the high prevalence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy in these cases.

3.
Epilepsia ; 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30525185

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS), a rare, severe early onset developmental epilepsy related to KCNT1 mutation, and to define specific electroencephalography (EEG) markers using EEG quantitative analysis. The ultimate goal would be to improve early diagnosis and to better understand seizure onset and propagation of EIMFS as compared to other early onset developmental epilepsy. METHODS: EEG of 7 EIMFS patients with KCNT1 mutations (115 seizures) and 17 patients with other early onset epilepsies (30 seizures) was included in this study. After detection of seizure onset and termination, spatiotemporal characteristics were quantified. Seizure propagation dynamics were analyzed using chronograms and phase coherence. RESULTS: In patients with EIMFS, seizures started and were localized predominantly in temporal and occipital areas, and evolved with a stable frequency (4-10 Hz). Inter- and intrahemispheric migrations were present in 60% of EIMFS seizures with high intraindividual reproducibility of temporospatial dynamics. Interhemispheric migrating seizures spread in 71% from temporal or occipital channels to the homologous contralateral ones, whereas intrahemispheric seizures involved mainly frontotemporal, temporal, and occipital channels. Causality links were present between ictal activities detected under different channels during migrating seizures. Finally, time delay index (based on delays between the different ictal onsets) and phase correlation index (based on coherence of ictal activities) allowed discrimination of EIMFS and non-EIMFS seizures with a specificity of 91.2% and a sensitivity of 84.4%. SIGNIFICANCE: We showed that the migrating pattern in EIMFS is not a random process, as suggested previously, and that it is a particular propagation pattern that follows the classical propagation pathways. It is notable that this study reveals specific EEG markers (time delay and phase correlation) accessible to visual evaluation, which will improve EIMFS diagnosis.

5.
Genet Med ; 2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093711

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To define the phenotypic and mutational spectrum of epilepsies related to DEPDC5, NPRL2 and NPRL3 genes encoding the GATOR1 complex, a negative regulator of the mTORC1 pathway METHODS: We analyzed clinical and genetic data of 73 novel probands (familial and sporadic) with epilepsy-related variants in GATOR1-encoding genes and proposed new guidelines for clinical interpretation of GATOR1 variants. RESULTS: The GATOR1 seizure phenotype consisted mostly in focal seizures (e.g., hypermotor or frontal lobe seizures in 50%), with a mean age at onset of 4.4 years, often sleep-related and drug-resistant (54%), and associated with focal cortical dysplasia (20%). Infantile spasms were reported in 10% of the probands. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) occurred in 10% of the families. Novel classification framework of all 140 epilepsy-related GATOR1 variants (including the variants of this study) revealed that 68% are loss-of-function pathogenic, 14% are likely pathogenic, 15% are variants of uncertain significance and 3% are likely benign. CONCLUSION: Our data emphasize the increasingly important role of GATOR1 genes in the pathogenesis of focal epilepsies (>180 probands to date). The GATOR1 phenotypic spectrum ranges from sporadic early-onset epilepsies with cognitive impairment comorbidities to familial focal epilepsies, and SUDEP.

6.
Epilepsia ; 59(2): 389-402, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29315614

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pathogenic SLC6A1 variants were recently described in patients with myoclonic atonic epilepsy (MAE) and intellectual disability (ID). We set out to define the phenotypic spectrum in a larger cohort of SCL6A1-mutated patients. METHODS: We collected 24 SLC6A1 probands and 6 affected family members. Four previously published cases were included for further electroclinical description. In total, we reviewed the electroclinical data of 34 subjects. RESULTS: Cognitive development was impaired in 33/34 (97%) subjects; 28/34 had mild to moderate ID, with language impairment being the most common feature. Epilepsy was diagnosed in 31/34 cases with mean onset at 3.7 years. Cognitive assessment before epilepsy onset was available in 24/31 subjects and was normal in 25% (6/24), and consistent with mild ID in 46% (11/24) or moderate ID in 17% (4/24). Two patients had speech delay only, and 1 had severe ID. After epilepsy onset, cognition deteriorated in 46% (11/24) of cases. The most common seizure types were absence, myoclonic, and atonic seizures. Sixteen cases fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for MAE. Seven further patients had different forms of generalized epilepsy and 2 had focal epilepsy. Twenty of 31 patients became seizure-free, with valproic acid being the most effective drug. There was no clear-cut correlation between seizure control and cognitive outcome. Electroencephalography (EEG) findings were available in 27/31 patients showing irregular bursts of diffuse 2.5-3.5 Hz spikes/polyspikes-and-slow waves in 25/31. Two patients developed an EEG pattern resembling electrical status epilepticus during sleep. Ataxia was observed in 7/34 cases. We describe 7 truncating and 18 missense variants, including 4 recurrent variants (Gly232Val, Ala288Val, Val342Met, and Gly362Arg). SIGNIFICANCE: Most patients carrying pathogenic SLC6A1 variants have an MAE phenotype with language delay and mild/moderate ID before epilepsy onset. However, ID alone or associated with focal epilepsy can also be observed.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/fisiopatologia , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de GABA/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Ataxia/complicações , Ataxia/genética , Ataxia/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/complicações , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsias Parciais/complicações , Epilepsias Parciais/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsias Parciais/genética , Epilepsias Parciais/fisiopatologia , Epilepsia Generalizada/complicações , Epilepsia Generalizada/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia Generalizada/genética , Epilepsia Generalizada/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/complicações , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/complicações , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Med Genet ; 54(12): 843-851, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28954837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phosphomannomutase 2-congenital disorder of glycosylation (PMM2-CDG) is a multisystem inborn error of metabolism. OBJECTIVES: To better characterise the natural history of PMM2-CDG. METHODS: Medical charts of 96 patients with PMM2-CDG (86 families, 41 males, 55 females) were retrospectively reviewed. Data on clinical, laboratory and molecular parameters at diagnosis were analysed. Follow-up data at last examination were reported for 25 patients. RESULTS: The patients were born between 1963 and 2011. Diagnosis of PMM2-CDG was made at a mean (SD) age of 6.8 (8.5) years. The presenting signs were mostly neurological (hypotonia, intellectual disability, cerebellar syndrome) and observed in almost all the patients. A total of 38 patients (14 males, 24 females) exhibited, in addition to neurological signs, visceral features including at least one of these: feeding difficulty requiring a nutritional support (n=23), cardiac features (n=20; pericarditis: 14, cardiac malformation: 9, cardiomyopathy: 2), hepato-gastrointestinal features (n=12; chronic diarrhoea: 7, protein-losing enteropathy: 1, ascites: 3, liver failure: 1, portal hypertension: 1), kidney features (n=4; nephrotic syndrome: 2, tubulopathy: 2) and hydrops fetalis (n=1). Twelve patients died at a mean age of 3.8 years (especially from pericarditis and other cardiac issues). Laboratory abnormalities mostly included elevated transaminases and abnormal coagulation parameters. High thyreostimulin levels, hypocholesterolemia, hypoalbuminemia and elevated transaminases were associated with the visceral phenotype. Besides the common Arg141His PMM2 variant harboured by half of the patients, 45 different variants were observed. CONCLUSIONS: PMM2-CDG clinical phenotype is heterogeneous in terms of clinical course, with no clear division between neurological and visceral presentations.


Assuntos
Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/diagnóstico , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Fosfotransferases (Fosfomutases)/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Defeitos Congênitos da Glicosilação/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Fosfotransferases (Fosfomutases)/metabolismo
8.
Epileptic Disord ; 19(3): 315-326, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28832003

RESUMO

Atonic seizures are common in some epileptic syndromes beginning in infancy or early childhood but they are rarely described in epilepsy with focal seizures of structural aetiology. We aimed to characterize the electroclinical features of atonic seizures in surgically remediable paediatric patients and to study the spatiotemporal organization of the underlying epileptogenic networks. We retrospectively analysed two consecutive, longitudinally evaluated and surgically treated paediatric patients presenting with atonic seizures as a manifestation of pharmacoresistant epilepsy of structural aetiology, evidenced by scalp- and stereotactic intracerebral video-EEG-recordings. A quantitative analysis of the epileptogenic zone organization was performed using the "epileptogenicity index". Long-lasting generalized ictal atonia, occurring in infancy, was a predominant clinical feature in both patients, with some hints of focal origin present in one case. The seizure phenotype evolved at later age into subtle segmental atonia, associated with prominent positive motor signs. The epileptogenic zone was localized within the dorsolateral or mesiolateral premotor region. Its spatial organization was focal, matching the lesional cortex in one and distributed involving several lesional and non-lesional structures in the other case. The emergence of atonic semiology temporally correlated with involvement of both lateral and mesial premotor, as well as primary motor areas. We hypothesize that atonic seizures may be considered as a motor system seizure phenotype in the setting of structural epilepsy. Complete removal of the epileptogenic area provided excellent seizure control.


Assuntos
Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/fisiopatologia
9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(3): 428-440, 2017 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28823707

RESUMO

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) is a heterogeneous group of rare recessive disorders with prenatal onset, characterized by hypoplasia of pons and cerebellum. Mutations in a small number of genes have been reported to cause PCH, and the vast majority of PCH cases are explained by mutations in TSEN54, which encodes a subunit of the tRNA splicing endonuclease complex. Here we report three families with homozygous truncating mutations in TBC1D23 who display moderate to severe intellectual disability and microcephaly. MRI data from available affected subjects revealed PCH, small normally proportioned cerebellum, and corpus callosum anomalies. Furthermore, through in utero electroporation, we show that downregulation of TBC1D23 affects cortical neuron positioning. TBC1D23 is a member of the Tre2-Bub2-Cdc16 (TBC) domain-containing RAB-specific GTPase-activating proteins (TBC/RABGAPs). Members of this protein family negatively regulate RAB proteins and modulate the signaling between RABs and other small GTPases, some of which have a crucial role in the trafficking of intracellular vesicles and are involved in neurological disorders. Here, we demonstrate that dense core vesicles and lysosomal trafficking dynamics are affected in fibroblasts harboring TBC1D23 mutation. We propose that mutations in TBC1D23 are responsible for a form of PCH with small, normally proportioned cerebellum and should be screened in individuals with syndromic pontocereballar hypoplasia.


Assuntos
Doenças Cerebelares/genética , Cerebelo/anormalidades , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Homozigoto , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Neurônios/patologia , Adolescente , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Doenças Cerebelares/patologia , Cerebelo/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Embrião de Mamíferos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Microcefalia/patologia , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Neuroblastoma/genética , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Crescimento Neuronal , Neurônios/metabolismo , Linhagem
10.
Hum Genet ; 136(4): 463-479, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28283832

RESUMO

Subtelomeric 1q43q44 microdeletions cause a syndrome associating intellectual disability, microcephaly, seizures and anomalies of the corpus callosum. Despite several previous studies assessing genotype-phenotype correlations, the contribution of genes located in this region to the specific features of this syndrome remains uncertain. Among those, three genes, AKT3, HNRNPU and ZBTB18 are highly expressed in the brain and point mutations in these genes have been recently identified in children with neurodevelopmental phenotypes. In this study, we report the clinical and molecular data from 17 patients with 1q43q44 microdeletions, four with ZBTB18 mutations and seven with HNRNPU mutations, and review additional data from 37 previously published patients with 1q43q44 microdeletions. We compare clinical data of patients with 1q43q44 microdeletions with those of patients with point mutations in HNRNPU and ZBTB18 to assess the contribution of each gene as well as the possibility of epistasis between genes. Our study demonstrates that AKT3 haploinsufficiency is the main driver for microcephaly, whereas HNRNPU alteration mostly drives epilepsy and determines the degree of intellectual disability. ZBTB18 deletions or mutations are associated with variable corpus callosum anomalies with an incomplete penetrance. ZBTB18 may also contribute to microcephaly and HNRNPU to thin corpus callosum, but with a lower penetrance. Co-deletion of contiguous genes has additive effects. Our results confirm and refine the complex genotype-phenotype correlations existing in the 1qter microdeletion syndrome and define more precisely the neurodevelopmental phenotypes associated with genetic alterations of AKT3, ZBTB18 and HNRNPU in humans.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1 , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas/genética , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Humanos
11.
Epilepsy Res ; 131: 64-69, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28273610

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have suggested that the early introduction of a ketogenic diet (KD) could improve seizure control in myoclono-astatic epilepsy (MAE). This multicenter study sought to identify the benefits of KD use on seizure control and epilepsy and on developmental outcomes in children with resistant MAE. METHODS: Fifty children who were diagnosed with severe MAE in the French network of Reference Centers for Rare Epilepsies and who were treated with KD between 2000 and 2013 were included in this study. The seizure frequency and EEG recordings were assessed two weeks before KD introduction, 2 and 6 months after, and during the last follow-up, which also included an assessment of developmental outcome. RESULTS: Patients had a median follow up of 52 months (range 13-136) and received 4.3 antiepileptic drugs [2-9] before KD introduction. Fifty-four percent (54%) of our patients were seizure-free after 6 months of KD or more, and 86% experienced more than a 70% seizure reduction after 2 months of KD. Forty-four percent (44%) of them had a clear benefit of early KD treatment (after four AEDs failed). Early KD treatment did not result in a greater seizure reduction (p=0.055), but significantly resulted in remission (p<0.028). Fifty percent of patients with resistant MAE had normal development outcomes. Earlier KD treatment, after three AEDs failed, was correlated with a better cognitive outcome (p<0.01). SIGNIFICANCE: Early introduction of KD treatment in resistant MAE has a strong, persistent anticonvulsant effect with long-term remission and better cognitive outcomes.


Assuntos
Dieta Cetogênica/métodos , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/dietoterapia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/dietoterapia , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Dieta Cetogênica/tendências , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Eletroencefalografia/tendências , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(1): 151-159, 2017 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27989324

RESUMO

MDH2 encodes mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH), which is essential for the conversion of malate to oxaloacetate as part of the proper functioning of the Krebs cycle. We report bi-allelic pathogenic mutations in MDH2 in three unrelated subjects presenting with early-onset generalized hypotonia, psychomotor delay, refractory epilepsy, and elevated lactate in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Functional studies in fibroblasts from affected subjects showed both an apparently complete loss of MDH2 levels and MDH2 enzymatic activity close to null. Metabolomics analyses demonstrated a significant concomitant accumulation of the MDH substrate, malate, and fumarate, its immediate precursor in the Krebs cycle, in affected subjects' fibroblasts. Lentiviral complementation with wild-type MDH2 cDNA restored MDH2 levels and mitochondrial MDH activity. Additionally, introduction of the three missense mutations from the affected subjects into Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided functional evidence to support their pathogenicity. Disruption of the Krebs cycle is a hallmark of cancer, and MDH2 has been recently identified as a novel pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma susceptibility gene. We show that loss-of-function mutations in MDH2 are also associated with severe neurological clinical presentations in children.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Malato Desidrogenase/genética , Mutação , Idade de Início , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico/genética , Fibroblastos/enzimologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fumaratos/metabolismo , Teste de Complementação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malato Desidrogenase/química , Malato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Malatos/metabolismo , Masculino , Metabolômica , Modelos Moleculares
13.
Epileptic Disord ; 18(3): 252-88, 2016 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27435520

RESUMO

The term idiopathic focal epilepsies of childhood (IFE) is not formally recognised by the ILAE in its 2010 revision (Berg et al., 2010), nor are its members and boundaries precisely delineated. The IFEs are amongst the most commonly encountered epilepsy syndromes affecting children. They are fascinating disorders that hold many "treats" for both clinicians and researchers. For example, the IFEs pose many of the most interesting questions central to epileptology: how are functional brain networks involved in the manifestation of epilepsy? What are the shared mechanisms of comorbidity between epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders? How do focal EEG discharges impact cognitive functioning? What explains the age-related expression of these syndromes? Why are EEG discharges and seizures so tightly locked to slow-wave sleep? In the last few decades, the clinical symptomatology and the respective courses of many IFEs have been described, although they are still not widely appreciated beyond the specialist community. Most neurologists would recognise the core syndromes of IFE to comprise: benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes or Rolandic epilepsy (BECTS/RE); Panayiotopoulos syndrome; and the idiopathic occipital epilepsies (Gastaut and photosensitive types). The Landau-Kleffner syndrome and the related (idiopathic) epilepsy with continuous spikes and waves in sleep (CSWS or ESES) are also often included, both as a consequence of the shared morphology of the interictal discharges and their potential evolution from core syndromes, for example, CSWS from BECTS. Atypical benign focal epilepsy of childhood also has shared electro-clinical features warranting inclusion. In addition, a number of less well-defined syndromes of IFE have been proposed, including benign childhood seizures with affective symptoms, benign childhood epilepsy with parietal spikes, benign childhood seizures with frontal or midline spikes, and benign focal seizures of adolescence. The term "benign" is often used in connection with the IFEs and is increasingly being challenged. Certainly most of these disorders are not associated with the devastating cognitive and behavioural problems seen with early childhood epileptic encephalopathies, such as West or Dravet syndromes. However, it is clear that specific, and sometimes persistent, neuropsychological deficits in attention, language and literacy accompany many of the IFEs that, when multiplied by the large numbers affected, make up a significant public health problem. Understanding the nature, distribution, evolution, risk and management of these is an important area of current research. A corollary to such questions regarding comorbidities is the role of focal interictal spikes and their enduring impact on cognitive functioning. What explains the paradox that epilepsies characterised by abundant interictal epileptiform abnormalities are often associated with very few clinical seizures? This is an exciting area in both clinical and experimental arenas and will eventually have important implications for clinical management of the whole child, taking into account not just seizures, but also adaptive functioning and quality of life. For several decades, we have accepted an evidence-free approach to using or not using antiepileptic drugs in IFEs. There is huge international variation and only a handful of studies examining neurocognitive outcomes. Clearly, this is a situation ready for an overhaul in practice. Fundamental to understanding treatment is knowledge of aetiology. In recent years, there have been several significant discoveries in IFEs from studies of copy number variation, exome sequencing, and linkage that prompt reconsideration of the "unknown cause" classification and strongly suggest a genetic aetiology. The IFE are strongly age-related, both with regards to age of seizure onset and remission. Does this time window solely relate to a similar age-related gene expression, or are there epigenetic factors involved that might also explain low observed twin concordance? The genetic (and epigenetic) models for different IFEs, their comorbidities, and their similarities to other neurodevelopmental disorders deserve investigation in the coming years. In so doing, we will probably learn much about normal brain functioning. This is because these disorders, perhaps more than any other human brain disease, are disorders of functional brain systems (even though these functional networks may not yet be fully defined). In June 2012, an international group of clinical and basic science researchers met in London under the auspices of the Waterloo Foundation to discuss and debate these issues in relation to IFEs. This Waterloo Foundation Symposium on the Idiopathic Focal Epilepsies: Phenotype to Genotype witnessed presentations that explored the clinical phenomenology, phenotypes and endophenotypes, and genetic approaches to investigation of these disorders. In parallel, the impact of these epilepsies on children and their families was reviewed. The papers in this supplement are based upon these presentations. They represent an updated state-of-the-art thinking on the topics explored. The symposium led to the formation of international working groups under the umbrella of "Luke's Idiopathic Focal Epilepsy Project" to investigate various aspects of the idiopathic focal epilepsies including: semiology and classification, genetics, cognition, sleep, high-frequency oscillations, and parental resources (see www.childhood-epilepsy.org). The next sponsored international workshop, in June 2014, was on randomised controlled trials in IFEs and overnight learning outcome measures.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Parciais/fisiopatologia , Criança , Humanos
14.
Epilepsia ; 57(4): 648-59, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26873267

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the epileptic phenotype of Tsc1(+/-) mice pups in comparison with age-related seizures in human tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). METHODS: Tsc1(+/-) and control mice underwent intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) recording at postnatal ages (P)8 to P33, with linear silicon probe implanted in the somatosensory cortex of one or both hemispheres for 8-24 h. Ictal events were classified visually by independent analyzers; distinct EEG patterns were related to age and analyzed to quantify field potential characteristics and signal dynamics between hemispheres. We collected retrospectively 20 infants with prenatally diagnosed TSC and EEG before seizure onset, and analyzed the electroclinical course of epilepsy, taking into account a first-line treatment by vigabatrin. RESULTS: Spontaneous seizures were disclosed in 55% of Tsc1(+/-) mice at P9-18. Three ictal patterns were identified: from P9 to P12 "spike clusters" consisted of recurring large spikes without clinical correlate; "spasm-like" discharges dominated from P13 to P16 consisting of high amplitude large field potential superimposed with or followed by fast activity repeated every 2-10 s for at least 20 s, accompanied by rhythmic limb contractions; from P14 to P18 a "tonic-clonic like" pattern comprised rhythmic spikes of increasing amplitude with tonic-clonic movements. Early onset "spike clusters" were mainly unilateral, whereas "spasm-like" and "tonic-clonic like" patterns were bilateral. Interhemispheric propagation was significantly faster for "tonic-clonic like" than for "spasm-like" events. In infants diagnosed prenatally with TSC, clusters of sharp waves or spikes preceded the first seizure, and vigabatrin prevented the development of seizures. Patients treated after seizure onset developed spasms or focal seizures that were pharmacoresistant in 66.7% of cases. SIGNIFICANCE: Tsc1(+/-) mice pups exhibit an age-dependent seizure pattern sequence mimicking early human TSC epilepsy features. Spike clusters before seizure onset in TSC should be considered as a first stage of epilepsy reinforcing the concept of preventive antiepileptic therapy.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/metabolismo , Esclerose Tuberosa/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/biossíntese , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Esclerose Tuberosa/patologia , Proteína 1 do Complexo Esclerose Tuberosa , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética
15.
Epilepsia ; 56(12): 1931-40, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26514728

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mutations in the syntaxin binding protein 1 gene (STXBP1) have been associated mostly with early onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEEs) and Ohtahara syndrome, with a mutation detection rate of approximately 10%, depending on the criteria of selection of patients. The aim of this study was to retrospectively describe clinical and electroencephalography (EEG) features associated with STXBP1-related epilepsies to orient molecular screening. METHODS: We screened STXBP1 in a cohort of 284 patients with epilepsy associated with a developmental delay/intellectual disability and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without any obvious structural abnormality. We reported on patients with a mutation and a microdeletion involving STXBP1 found using array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). RESULTS: We found a mutation of STXBP1 in 22 patients and included 2 additional patients with a deletion including STXBP1. In 22 of them, epilepsy onset was before 3 months of age. EEG at onset was abnormal in all patients, suppression-burst and multifocal abnormalities being the most common patterns. The rate of patients carrying a mutation ranged from 25% in Ohtahara syndrome to <5% in patients with an epilepsy beginning after 3 months of age. Epilepsy improved over time for most patients, with an evolution to West syndrome in half. Patients had moderate to severe developmental delay with normal head growth. Cerebellar syndrome with ataxic gait and/or tremor was present in 60%. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data confirm that STXBP1 mutations are associated with neonatal-infantile epileptic encephalopathies. The initial key features highlighted in the cohort of early epileptic patients are motor seizures either focal or generalized, abnormal initial interictal EEG, and normal head growth. In addition, we constantly found an ongoing moderate to severe developmental delay with normal head growth. Patients often had ongoing ataxic gait with trembling gestures. Altogether these features should help the clinician to consider STXBP1 molecular screening.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Proteínas Munc18/genética , Idade de Início , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsia/patologia , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Mutação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Deleção de Sequência , Espasmos Infantis/genética
16.
Eur J Med Genet ; 58(9): 479-87, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26188272

RESUMO

Schinzel-Giedion syndrome (SGS, MIM #269150) is a rare syndrome characterized by severe intellectual disability, typical facial gestalt, hypertrichosis and multiple congenital malformations including skeletal, genitourinary, renal and cardiac abnormalities. The prognosis of SGS is very severe and death occurs generally within a few years after birth. In 2002, we reported 2 children with SGS with a follow-up of 3 years. They presented a very similar and particular phenotype associating distinctive facial gestalt, severe developmental delay, megacalycosis, progressive neurodegeneration, alacrimi, corneal hypoesthesia and deafness. Furthermore, temporal bone imaging revealed a tuning-fork malformation of the stapes. In 2010, Hoischen et al. identified in SGS patients pathogenic heterozygous de novo mutations in SETBP1. We sequenced SETBP1 in our patients and found the previously reported c.2608G>A (p.Gly870Ser) mutation in both children. Since 2002, one of our patients died at 6 years old and the other patient is still alive at 15 years old. Such a life expectancy has never been reported so far. We describe herein the follow up of the 2 children during 6 and 15 years respectively. This article gives further evidence of the implication of SETBP1 as the major gene of SGS, and reports the previously unseen natural evolution of the disease in a 15 years old patient.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Unhas Malformadas/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Criança , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico , Face/anormalidades , Feminino , Seguimentos , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/diagnóstico , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Unhas Malformadas/diagnóstico , Nefrolitíase/diagnóstico , Nefrolitíase/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Linhagem , Prognóstico , Transtornos Psicomotores/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicomotores/genética
17.
Eur J Med Genet ; 58(9): 443-54, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26193382

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS) is a rare genetic disorder due to mutations or deletions in SLC2A1, resulting in impaired glucose uptake through the blood brain barrier. The classic phenotype includes pharmacoresistant epilepsy, intellectual deficiency, microcephaly and complex movement disorders, with hypoglycorrhachia, but milder phenotypes have been described (carbohydrate-responsive phenotype, dystonia and ataxia without epilepsy, paroxysmal exertion-induced dystonia). The aim of our study was to provide a comprehensive overview of GLUT1DS in a French cohort. METHODS: 265 patients were referred to the French national laboratory for molecular screening between July 2006 and January 2012. Mutations in SLC2A1 were detected in 58 patients, with detailed clinical data available in 24, including clinical features with a focus on their epileptic pattern and electroencephalographic findings, biochemical findings and neuroimaging findings. RESULTS: 53 point mutations and 5 deletions in SLC2A1 were identified. Most patients (87.5%) exhibited classic phenotype with intellectual deficiency (41.7%), epilepsy (75%) or movement disorder (29%) as initial symptoms at a medium age of 7.5 months, but diagnostic was delayed in most cases (median age at diagnostic 8 years 5 months). Sensitivity to fasting or exertion in combination with those 3 main symptoms were the main differences between mutated and negative patients (p < 0.001). Patients with myoclonic seizures (52%) evolved with more severe intellectual deficiency and movement disorders compared with those with Early Onset Absence Epilepsy (38%). Three patients evolved from a classic phenotype during early childhood to a movement disorder predominant phenotype at a late childhood/adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm that the classic phenotype is the most frequent in GLUT1DS. Myoclonic seizures are a distinctive feature of severe forms. However a great variability among patients and overlapping through life from milder classic phenotype to paroxysmal-prominent- movement-disorder phenotype are possible, thus making it difficult to identify definite genotype-phenotype correlations.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/deficiência , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta Cetogênica , Epilepsia/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/genética , Transtornos dos Movimentos/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Mutação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
Ann Neurol ; 78(1): 104-14, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25899932

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have cognitive side effects that, particularly in children, may affect intellectual functioning. With the TimeToStop (TTS) study, we showed that timing of AED withdrawal does not majorly influence long-term seizure outcomes. We now aimed to evaluate the effect of AED withdrawal on postoperative intelligence quotient (IQ), and change in IQ (delta IQ) following pediatric epilepsy surgery. METHODS: We collected IQ scores of children from the TTS cohort with both pre- and postoperative neuropsychological assessments (NPAs; n = 301) and analyzed whether reduction of AEDs prior to the latest NPA was related to postoperative IQ and delta IQ, using linear regression analyses. Factors previously identified as independently relating to (delta) IQ, and currently identified predictors of (delta) IQ, were considered possible confounders and used for adjustment. Additionally, we adjusted for a compound propensity score that contained previously identified determinants of timing of AED withdrawal. RESULTS: Mean interval to the latest NPA was 19.8 ± 18.9 months. Reduction of AEDs at the latest NPA significantly improved postoperative IQ and delta IQ (adjusted regression coefficient [RC] = 3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.6-6.2, p = 0.018 and RC = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.7-7.4, p = 0.002), as did complete withdrawal (RC = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.4-8.3, p = 0.006 and RC = 5.1, 95% CI = 1.5-8.7, p = 0.006). AED reduction also predicted ≥ 10-point IQ increase (p = 0.019). The higher the number of AEDs reduced, the higher was the IQ (gain) after surgery (RC = 2.2, 95% CI = 0.6-3.7, p = 0.007 and RC = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.0-4.2, p = 0.001, IQ points per AED reduced). INTERPRETATION: Start of AED withdrawal, number of AEDs reduced, and complete AED withdrawal were associated with improved postoperative IQ scores and gain in IQ, independent of other determinants of cognitive outcome.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Transtornos Cognitivos/induzido quimicamente , Epilepsia/terapia , Testes de Inteligência , Inteligência , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/cirurgia , Adolescente , Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Criança , Cognição , Estudos de Coortes , Epilepsia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/complicações , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Epilepsia ; 55 Suppl 3: 21-3, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25209081

RESUMO

Epileptic encephalopathy with continuous diffuse spike-waves during slow-wave sleep (ECSWS) presents clinically with infrequent nocturnal focal seizures, atypical absences related to secondary bilateral synchrony, negative myoclonia, and atonic and rare generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The unique electroencephalography (EEG) pattern found in ECSWS consists of continuous, diffuse, bilateral spike-waves during slow-wave sleep. Despite the eventual disappearance of clinical seizures and EEG abnormalities by adolescence, the prognosis is guarded in most cases because of neuropsychological and behavioral deficits. ECSWS has a heterogeneous etiology (genetic, structural, and unknown). Because epilepsy and electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities in epileptic encephalopathy with continuous diffuse spike-waves during slow-wave sleep (ECSWS) are self-limited and age related, the need for ongoing medical care and transition to adult care might be questioned. For adolescents in whom etiology remains unknown (possibly genetic) and who experience the disappearance of seizures and EEG abnormalities, there is rarely need for long-term neurologic follow-up, because often a relatively normal cognitive and social evolution follows. However, the majority of patients with structural and possibly "genetic syndromic" etiologies will have persistent cognitive deficits and will need suitable socioeducative care. Therefore, the transition process in ECSWS will depend mainly on etiology and its related features (epileptic active phase duration, and cognitive and behavioral evolution) and revolve around neuropsychological and social support rather than medical and pharmacologic follow-up.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia/etiologia , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Transição para Assistência do Adulto , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Epilepsia/genética , Epilepsia/psicologia , Humanos , Sono/genética , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 95(1): 113-20, 2014 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24995870

RESUMO

Epileptic encephalopathy (EE) refers to a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of severe disorders characterized by seizures, abnormal interictal electro-encephalogram, psychomotor delay, and/or cognitive deterioration. We ascertained two multiplex families (including one consanguineous family) consistent with an autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern of EE. All seven affected individuals developed subclinical seizures as early as the first day of life, severe epileptic disease, and profound developmental delay with no facial dysmorphism. Given the similarity in clinical presentation in the two families, we hypothesized that the observed phenotype was due to mutations in the same gene, and we performed exome sequencing in three affected individuals. Analysis of rare variants in genes consistent with an autosomal-recessive mode of inheritance led to identification of mutations in SLC13A5, which encodes the cytoplasmic sodium-dependent citrate carrier, notably expressed in neurons. Disease association was confirmed by cosegregation analysis in additional family members. Screening of 68 additional unrelated individuals with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy for SLC13A5 mutations led to identification of one additional subject with compound heterozygous mutations of SLC13A5 and a similar clinical presentation as the index subjects. Mutations affected key residues for sodium binding, which is critical for citrate transport. These findings underline the value of careful clinical characterization for genetic investigations in highly heterogeneous conditions such as EE and further highlight the role of citrate metabolism in epilepsy.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Genes Recessivos , Mutação , Convulsões/genética , Simportadores/genética , Encefalopatias/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Convulsões/etiologia
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