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1.
Curr Opin Virol ; 39: 16-22, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382121

RESUMO

Since 2006, 115 countries and territories have introduced human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs. Several efforts have been undertaken to evaluate the impact of HPV vaccines. Many countries, mainly high-income and with high screening coverage, are already reporting a visible impact of the HPV vaccine on HPV-related diseases. Others, largely low-income and middle-income countries, are introducing HPV vaccine to control HPV diseases that will undoubtedly generate a similar impact. In this review, we will summarize the compelling evidence of the impact of vaccines in reducing the burden of HPV-related disease. The data support additional efforts to make HPV vaccines widely available to adolescent girls in the countries that bear the vast majority of cervical cancer-related morbidity and mortality.

2.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407831

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies show an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in patients with autoimmune disease (AD), due to a combination of shared environmental factors and/or genetic factors, or a causative cascade: chronic inflammation/antigen-stimulation in one disease leads to another. Here we assess shared genetic risk in genome-wide-association-studies (GWAS). Secondary analysis of GWAS of NHL subtypes (chronic lymphocytic leukemia, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and marginal zone lymphoma) and ADs (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis). Shared genetic risk was assessed by (a) description of regional genetic of overlap, (b) polygenic risk score (PRS), (c)"diseasome", (d)meta-analysis. Descriptive analysis revealed few shared genetic factors between each AD and each NHL subtype. The PRS of ADs were not increased in NHL patients (nor vice versa). In the diseasome, NHLs shared more genetic etiology with ADs than solid cancers (p = .0041). A meta-analysis (combing AD with NHL) implicated genes of apoptosis and telomere length. This GWAS-based analysis four NHL subtypes and three ADs revealed few weakly-associated shared loci, explaining little total risk. This suggests common genetic variation, as assessed by GWAS in these sample sizes, may not be the primary explanation for the link between these ADs and NHLs.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390052

RESUMO

Widespread adoption of primary human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening has encouraged the search for a triage test which retains high sensitivity for the detection of cervical cancer and precancer, but increases specificity to avoid overtreatment. Methylation analysis of FAM19A4 and miR124-2 genes has shown promise for the triage of high-risk (hr) HPV-positive women. In our study, we assessed the consistency of FAM19A4/miR124-2 methylation analysis in the detection of cervical cancer in a series of 519 invasive cervical carcinomas (n = 314 cervical scrapes, n = 205 tissue specimens) from over 25 countries, using a quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP)-based assay (QIAsure Methylation Test®). Positivity rates stratified per histotype, FIGO stage, hrHPV status, hrHPV genotype, sample type and geographical region were calculated. In total, 510 of the 519 cervical carcinomas (98.3%; 95% CI: 96.7-99.2) tested FAM19A4/miR124-2 methylation-positive. Test positivity was consistent across the different subgroups based on cervical cancer histotype, FIGO stage, hrHPV status, hrHPV genotype, sample type and geographical region. In conclusion, FAM19A4/miR124-2 methylation analysis detects nearly all cervical carcinomas, including rare histotypes and hrHPV-negative carcinomas. These results indicate that a negative FAM19A4/miR124-2 methylation assay result is likely to rule out the presence of cervical cancer.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10847, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350458

RESUMO

Antibodies to Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus (SGG) have been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). Because SGG may correlate with impaired gut epithelia, we assessed the association of antibodies to bacterial flagellin C (FliC), a measure potentially related to this impairment, with CRC and the CRC-specific interaction with antibodies to SGG proteins. Antibodies to FliC and SGG pilus proteins Gallo2178 and Gallo2179 were measured in two independent studies, a combined study from Nijmegen and Detroit (93 CRC cases, 74 controls) and a replication data set including 576 cases and 576 controls from the Spanish multicenter multicase-control study (MCC-Spain). Logistic regression was applied to assess whether antibodies to FliC were associated with CRC and modified the association of antibodies to SGG proteins with CRC. Antibodies to FliC were associated with those to SGG Gallo2178 among CRC cases, resulting in an interaction in the association of antibodies to Gallo2178 with CRC (p = 0.007). This association was only present among individuals with high antibody responses to FliC (OR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.45-4.06). In conclusion, our findings suggest that colorectal tumorigenesis could be accompanied by an impaired integrity of the epithelium that could result in associated increased antibody responses to bacterial proteins.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199503

RESUMO

Due to the anatomical continuity of the uterine cavity with the cervix, genomic exploitation of material from routine Pap smears and other noninvasive sampling methods represent a unique opportunity to detect signs of disease using biological material shed from the upper genital tract. Recent research findings offer a promising perspective in the detection of endometrial cancer, but certain questions need to be addressed in order to accelerate the implementation of novel technologies in a routine screening or clinical setting. We discuss here new perspectives on detection of endometrial cancer using genomic and other biomarkers in minimally invasive sampling methods with a special focus on public health classic screening criteria, highlighting current gaps in knowledge.

7.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(8): 889-900, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165419

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To conduct a pooled analysis assessing the association of blood transfusion with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). METHODS: We used harmonized data from 13 case-control studies (10,805 cases, 14,026 controls) in the InterLymph Consortium. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for study design variables. RESULTS: Among non-Hispanic whites (NHW), history of any transfusion was inversely associated with NHL risk for men (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.65-0.83) but not women (OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.83-1.03), pheterogeneity = 0.014. Transfusion history was not associated with risk in other racial/ethnic groups. There was no trend with the number of transfusions, time since first transfusion, age at first transfusion, or decade of first transfusion, and further adjustment for socioeconomic status, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, and HCV seropositivity did not alter the results. Associations for NHW men were stronger in hospital-based (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.45-0.70) but still apparent in population-based (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.72-0.98) studies. CONCLUSIONS: In the setting of a literature reporting mainly null and some positive associations, and the lack of a clear methodologic explanation for our inverse association restricted to NHW men, the current body of evidence suggests that there is no association of blood transfusion with risk of NHL.

8.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 61: 79-88, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In contrast to the recognized role of Helicobacter pylori in the etiology of non-cardia gastric cancer (GC), there is still insufficient epidemiological evidence for the involvement of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in gastric carcinogenesis. We aimed to evaluate the relation of antibody profile and antibody reactivity intensity against four individual EBV proteins to GC risk. METHODS: We used information from 281 GC cases and 2071 age and sex frequency matched controls recruited in the frame of the MCC-Spain multicase-control study, between 2008 and 2013. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and environmental factors were assessed in face-to-face interviews. Antibody responses to four EBV proteins (EBNA-1, ZEBRA, EA-D, and VCA-p18) were analyzed by multiplex serology. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using logistic regression mixed models to evaluate the association of seropositivity and antibody reactivity against EBV proteins with GC, adjusting for GC risk factors. Stratified analyses by tumor location (cardia vs. non-cardia) and morphology (intestinal vs. diffuse) were done. RESULTS: Among controls, seropositivity for EA-D, ZEBRA, EBNA-1 and VCA-p18 was 85%, 91%, 97% and 99%, respectively. Even though seropositivity for none of the studied proteins was associated with a higher GC risk, increasing antibody reactivity against EBNA-1 and VCA-p18 was associated with higher OR of GC. This association was present for cardia and non-cardia cancer cases, and for intestinal and diffuse types. CONCLUSION: Our results support the hypothesis that EBV may play a role in GC etiology, and highlight the importance of evaluating specific antibodies and the dose-response relations when studying widespread infections.

9.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 61: 129-132, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238232

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The current availability of genomic information represents an opportunity to develop new strategies for early detection of cancer. New molecular tests for endometrial cancer may improve performance and failure rates of histological aspirate-based diagnosis, and provide promising perspectives for a potential screening scenario. However, the selection of relevant biomarkers to develop efficient strategies can be a challenge. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed an algorithm to identify the largest number of patients with endometrial cancer using the minimum number of somatic mutations based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. RESULTS: The algorithm provided the number of subjects with mutations (sensitivity) for a given number of biomarkers included in the signature. For instance, by evaluating the 50 most representative point mutations, up to 81.9% of endometrial cancers can be identified in the TCGA dataset. At gene level, a 92.9% sensitivity can be obtained by interrogating five genes. DISCUSSION: We developed a computational method to aid in the selection of relevant genomic biomarkers in endometrial cancer that can be adapted to other cancer types or diseases.

11.
Papillomavirus Res ; 7: 184-187, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029852

RESUMO

In cervical cancer screening, HPV testing is best at reassuring women when they are negative, but proper management of HPV positives is still evolving. Most HPV infections are benign, and over-reacting clinically to HPV positivity can cause psychological and possible iatrogenic physical (e.g., obstetrical) harm. We describe the built-in false positives in current tests, and the real harm that can result when the meaning of such false positive HPV tests is misunderstood. We suggest steps that could reduce harm being done by flawed tests and excessive clinical responses to positive HPV testing. We focus the discussion by presenting an illustrative case.

12.
Papillomavirus Res ; 7: 173-175, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002883

RESUMO

Effective screening for pre-cancerous lesions of the cervix is the only protective intervention that can be offered to women that have not had the opportunity to be vaccinated. Elimination goals are being developed so that by 2030, 70% of women aged 35-45 years should have been screened at least once in a lifetime and 90% of all detected lesions should have been treated. These goals focus on a substantial reduction of cervical cancer burden in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Scaling-up screening in these settings may be substantially improved by using self-sampling (SS), human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, and managing screened-positive women with accessible treatment. The implementation of these tools requires minimal health information data for traceability, provider training, community education, operational management and quality control. Cost-effective algorithms tailored to country needs can greatly impact the burden of disease in a limited number of years.

13.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903361

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic inflammation plays a critical role in lymphomagenesis and several dietary factors seem to be involved its regulation. The aim of the current study was to assess the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and the risk of lymphoma and its subtypes in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. METHODS: The analysis included 476,160 subjects with an average follow-up of 13.9 years, during which 3,136 lymphomas (135 Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), 2606 non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and 395 NOS) were identified. The dietary inflammatory potential was assessed by means of an inflammatory score of the diet (ISD), calculated using 28 dietary components and their corresponding inflammatory weights. The association between the ISD and lymphoma risk was estimated by hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) calculated by multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: The ISD was not associated with overall lymphoma risk. Among lymphoma subtypes, a positive association between the ISD and mature B-cell NHL (HR for a 1-SD increase: 1.07 (95% CI 1.01; 1.14), p trend = 0.03) was observed. No statistically significant association was found among other subtypes. However, albeit with smaller number of cases, a suggestive association was observed for HL (HR for a 1-SD increase = 1.22 (95% CI 0.94; 1.57), p trend 0.13). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that a high ISD score, reflecting a pro-inflammatory diet, was modestly positively associated with the risk of B-cell lymphoma subtypes. Further large prospective studies on low-grade inflammation induced by diet are warranted to confirm these findings.

14.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 33(4): e22854, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HPV-based cervical screening detects women at an increased risk of cervical cancer and precancer. To differentiate among HPV-positive women those with (pre)cancer, triage testing is necessary. The detection of cancer-associated host-cell DNA methylation (FAM19A4 and hsa-mir124-2) in cervical samples has shown valuable as triage test. This multicenter study from 6 collaborating European laboratories and one reference laboratory was set out to determine the intra- and inter-laboratory agreement of FAM19A4/mir124-2 DNA methylation analysis utilizing the QIAsure Methylation Test. METHODS: Agreement analysis for the QIAsure Methylation Test was assessed on high-risk HPV-positive cervical specimens (n = 1680) both at the level of the assay and at the full workflow, including bisulfite conversion. RESULTS: Intra- and inter-laboratory assay agreement were 91.4% (534/584; 95% CI 88.9-93.5; κ = 0.82) and 92.5% (369/399; 95% CI 90.0-94.7; κ = 0.83), respectively. The inter-laboratory workflow (bisulfite conversion and assay combined) agreement was 90.0% (627/697; 95% CI 87.5%-92.0%; κ = 0.76). CONCLUSION: These data show that the QIAsure Methylation Test performs robust and reproducible in different laboratory contexts. These results support the use of the QIAsure Methylation Test for full molecular screening for cervical cancer, including primary HPV testing and triage testing by methylation analysis.

15.
Sex Transm Infect ; 95(5): 374-379, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA has been detected in vaginal samples from adolescent girls who report no previous sex and, in high-income settings, from fingertips, raising the possibility of non-sexual transmission. No such studies originate from East Africa which bears among the highest cervical cancer incidence and HPV prevalence worldwide. HPV-related oral cancer incidence is increasing, but oral HPV prevalence data from East Africa are limited. We aimed to describe the HPV DNA prevalence in genital and non-genital sites and in the bathroom of unvaccinated adolescent girls, and examine genotype concordance between sites. METHODS: We nested a cross-sectional study of HPV in genital and extragenital sites within a cohort study of vaginal HPV acquisition. Unvaccinated girls age 16-18 years in Tanzania, who reported ever having had sex, were consented, enrolled and tested for the presence of HPV DNA in vaginal samples collected using self-administered swabs, oral samples collected using an oral rinse, and on fingertips and bathroom surfaces collected using a cytobrush. RESULTS: Overall, 65 girls were enrolled and 23 (35%, 95% CI 23% to 47%) had detectable vaginal HPV. Adequate (ß-globin positive) samples were collected from 36 girls' fingertips and HPV was detected in 7 (19%, 95% CI 6% to 33%). 63 girls provided adequate oral samples, 4 (6%, 95% CI 0% to 13%) of which had HPV DNA detected. In bathroom samples from 58 girls, 4 (7%, 95% CI 0% to 14%) had detectable HPV DNA. Of the 11 girls with extragenital HPV, six had the same genotype in >1 site. CONCLUSION: We found a high prevalence of HPV in non-genital sites in adolescent girls and in their bathrooms, in this region with a high cervical cancer incidence. Concordance of genotypes between sites supports the possibility of autoinoculation.

16.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 15(7-8): 1672-1677, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30625017

RESUMO

Purpose: To examine provider knowledge of HPV vaccination age guidelines in five countries. Methods: A total of 151 providers of adolescent vaccinations in Argentina, Malaysia, South Africa, South Korea, and Spain were interviewed between October 2013 and April 2014. Univariate analyses compared providers' understanding of recommended age groups for HPV vaccination to that of each country's national guidelines. Results: In three of five countries surveyed, most providers (97% South Africa, 95% Argentina, 87% Malaysia) included all nationally recommended ages in their target age group. However, a relatively large proportion of vaccinators in some countries (83% Malaysia, 55% Argentina) believed that HPV vaccination was recommended for women above age 26, far exceeding national guidelines, and beyond the maximum recommended age in the United States. National median minimum and maximum age recommendations cited by the respondents for HPV vaccination were 11 and 29 years in Argentina (national guideline: 11-14), 13 and 48 years in Malaysia (guideline 13-14), 8 and 14 years in South Africa (guideline 9-14), 10 and 20 years in South Korea (guideline 11-14), and 11 and 12 years in Spain (guideline 11-14). In all countries, a higher percentage of vaccinators included all nationally recommended ages for vaccination, as compared to providers who did not administer HPV vaccination. Conclusions: Overall, a substantial proportion of providers incorrectly reported their country's age guidelines for HPV vaccination, particularly the upper age limit. As provider recommendation is among the strongest predictors of successful vaccination uptake among adolescents, improved education and clarification of national guidelines for providers administering HPV vaccination is essential to optimize prevention of infection and associated disease.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 145(1): 122-131, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30588620

RESUMO

There is a growing evidence of the protective role of the Mediterranean diet (MD) on cancer. However, no prospective study has yet investigated its influence on lymphoma. We evaluated the association between adherence to the MD and risk of lymphoma and its subtypes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The analysis included 476,160 participants, recruited from 10 European countries between 1991 and 2001. Adherence to the MD was estimated through the adapted relative MD (arMED) score excluding alcohol. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used while adjusting for potential confounders. During an average follow-up of 13.9 years, 3,136 lymphomas (135 Hodgkin lymphoma [HL], 2,606 non-HL and 395 lymphoma not otherwise specified) were identified. Overall, a 1-unit increase in the arMED score was associated with a 2% lower risk of lymphoma (95% CI: 0.97; 1.00, p-trend = 0.03) while a statistically nonsignificant inverse association between a high versus low arMED score and risk of lymphoma was observed (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.91 [95% CI 0.80; 1.03], p-trend = 0.12). Analyses by lymphoma subtype did not reveal any statistically significant associations. Albeit with small numbers of cases (N = 135), a suggestive inverse association was found for HL (HR 1-unit increase = 0.93 [95% CI: 0.86; 1.01], p-trend = 0.07). However, the study may have lacked statistical power to detect small effect sizes for lymphoma subtype. Our findings suggest that an increasing arMED score was inversely related to the risk of overall lymphoma in EPIC but not by subtypes. Further large prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

18.
J Infect Dis ; 219(10): 1574-1585, 2019 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differences in oral human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and contrasts in HPV-attributable fractions (AFs) in oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) have not been evaluated in depth. METHODS: A systematic review was performed to identify studies in which at least 50 healthy individuals were tested for oral HPV infection. Information on sex, age, tobacco/alcohol consumption, sex practices, specimen collection, HPV detection, and population type was extracted. Prevalences were pooled using random-effects models for meta-analyses of binomial data. Correlations were assessed by the Spearman test. RESULTS: Forty-eight reports comprising 28 544 individuals fulfilled inclusion criteria. Global oral HPV prevalence was 4.9%. Estimates were highest in Europe, although regional differences were not statistically significant. HPV16 prevalence was 1.0% globally, and regional differences became statistically significant. A lifetime history of >6 sex partners showed a higher risk of oral HPV infection. The age-specific HPV distribution revealed a prevalence of ≥5% over 40 years of age and a lower prevalence at younger ages. There was no association between oral HPV prevalence and HPV-AFs or age-standardized rates (ASRs) of OPC, genital HPV in healthy women, or tobacco use. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in HPV-AFs or ASRs of OPC cannot be explained by differences in the prevalence of oral HPV infection across healthy populations. Consistent research on determinants of oral HPV prevalence, acquisition, clearance, and persistence is warranted.

19.
Environ Int ; 122: 389-399, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alkylphenolic compounds are chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties that have been widely used in industry with important changes in their usage over time. Few epidemiologic studies have evaluated the effect of alkylphenolic compounds on human health. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether occupational exposure to alkylphenolic compounds is associated with breast and prostate cancer. METHODS: We carried out a population-based case-control study including 1513 incident cases of breast cancer, 1095 of prostate cancer, and 3055 controls, frequency matched by sex, age and region. Occupational exposure to alkylphenolic compounds was estimated using a recently developed job-exposure matrix, which considered different scenarios of exposure and different subtypes of alkylphenolic compounds. RESULTS: History of occupational exposure to alkylphenolic compounds was modestly associated with breast cancer (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.01-1.48). Within the different scenarios, the occupational use of domestic tensioactives was positively associated with breast cancer (OR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.02-1.60), while occupational exposure in other scenarios showed mostly a suggestion of a similar positive associations. Exposure to nonylphenol ethoxylates was positively associated with breast cancer (OR = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.00-1.47), while exposure to other compounds was uncommon. In general, we did not observe associations between alkylphenolic compounds and prostate cancer, except for a positive association among men occupationally exposed to cosmetic, hair and personal hygiene products. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a modest association between breast cancer risk and occupational exposure to alkylphenolic compounds, and no associations between these compounds and prostate cancer risk. These findings warrant further corroboration in other studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional , Fenóis/toxicidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Indústrias , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
20.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387873

RESUMO

Co-infections by multiple Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are observed in approximately 6-8% of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases worldwide. But neither the presence of persistent HPVs co-infections nor their etiological role in the development of ICC is well understood. Cervical HPVs co-infections have been observed randomly, mostly in women with pre-neoplastic lesions, and only few studies have globally analyzed ICC cases. Here we explored the HPVs multiple infection patterns in a large worldwide sample of cross-sectional ICC cases. Paraffin-embedded ICC biopsy samples were tested using stringent HPV genotyping. Logistic regression models were used to identify the most likely pairwise HPV types in multiple infections. Multivariate analysis was applied to detect significant HPV co-infection patterns beyond pairwise HPVs comparison. Among 8,780 HPV DNA-positive ICC cases worldwide, 6.7% (N = 587) contained multiple HPVs. Pairwise analysis revealed that HPV16|74, HPV31|33, HPV31|44, HPV33|44 and HPV45|70 pairs were significantly more frequently found together in multiple infections compared to any other HPV type combination, which supports the occasional role of Alpha-10 LR-HPVs in cervical cancers. In contrast, HPV16|31, HPV16|45, HPV16|51 and HPV18|HPV45 pairs were significantly less frequently found together than with any other HPV pair combination. Multivariate analysis sustained the results and revealed for the first time a distinct co-infection pattern in African ICCs stemming from the clustering of oncogenic HPV51/35/18/52 co-infections in African women. We suggest that the differential geographic HPVs co-infections clustering observed might be compatible with a specific modulation of the natural history/oncogenic potential of particular HPVs multiple infections and warrant monitoring for post-vaccinated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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