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1.
J Ultrasound Med ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33463734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Focused US examinations of the liver in the routine hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening reduce the time spent on evaluating other structures deemed irrelevant to the clinical setting. It is still unknown, however, if such a strategy may additionally improve the frequency of nodules detection. We aimed to assess the impact of an HCC surveillance program in high-risk patients by means of targeted liver US following LI-RADS technical guidelines in comparison to a complete upper abdominal scan. METHODS: In this IRB-approved, single-center, prospective study, patients at high-risk for HCC enrolled from 06/2016 to 09/2019 were randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 institutional protocols: Group A (targeted liver US) or Group B (complete upper abdominal scan). Twenty examiners with similar experience in abdominal US were randomly assigned to perform the examinations exclusively in 1 of the groups (10 in each group). Frequency of hepatic nodules between groups was compared by using Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Four hundred and sixty-five patients were enrolled, with no significant differences in both groups regarding sex, age, etiology of liver disease, MELD scores, and alpha-fetoprotein levels. A significantly higher frequency of nodules detection was found in Group A (230 patients; 23 nodules detected; 10% of the sample) in comparison to Group B (235 patients; 3 nodules; 1.3% of the sample) (p <.001). Five patients in Group A and 1 in Group B were positive for HCC after full diagnostic work-up. CONCLUSION: Adopting an HCC screening program based on targeted liver US improved the detection of hepatic nodules among high-risk individuals.

2.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 20(2): 205-9, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26867472

RESUMO

Brazil is one of the 22 countries that concentrates 80% of global tuberculosis cases concomitantly to a large number of hepatitis C carriers and some epidemiological risk scenarios are coincident for both diseases. We analyzed tuberculosis cases that occurred during α-interferon-based therapy for hepatitis C in reference centers in Brazil between 2001 and 2012 and reviewed their medical records. Eighteen tuberculosis cases were observed in patients submitted to hepatitis C α-interferon-based therapy. All patients were human immunodeficiency virus-negative. Nine patients (50%) had extra-pulmonary tuberculosis; 15 (83%) showed significant liver fibrosis. Hepatitis C treatment was discontinued in 12 patients (67%) due to tuberculosis reactivation and six (33%) had sustained virological response. The majority of patients had a favorable outcome but one died. Considering the evidences of α-IFN interference over the containment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the immune impairment of cirrhotic patients, the increase of tuberculosis case reports during hepatitis C treatment with atypical and severe presentations and the negative impact on sustained virological response, we think these are strong arguments for latent tuberculosis infection screening before starting α-interferon-based therapy for any indication and even to consider IFN-free regimens against hepatitis C when a patient tests positive for latent tuberculosis infection.


Assuntos
Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Interferon-alfa/efeitos adversos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hepatite C Crônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tuberculose/imunologia
3.
Ann Hepatol ; 14(3): 317-24, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25864211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HBV/HCV coinfection is a common finding among hemodialysis patients. However, there is scarce information concerning the impact of HBV coinfection on the response to treatment of HCV-infected patients on hemodialysis. AIM: We aimed to compare the rate of sustained virologic response (SVR) to treatment with interferon-alfa (IFN) between hemodialysis patients with HBV/HCV coinfection and those with HCV-monoinfection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: HCV-infected patients on hemodialysis treated with IFN were included. Patients coinfected by HBV/HCV were compared to HCV-monoinfected patients, regarding clinical and biochemical features and rates of SVR. RESULTS: One hundred and eleven patients were treated. HBV/HCV coinfection was observed in 18/111 patients (16%). Coinfected patients were younger (p = 002), had more time on dialysis (p = 0.05) and showed a tendency to present a higher prevalence of septal fibrosis (p = 0.06). The analysis by intention to treat showed SVR of 56% among coinfected patients and 18% in HCV-monoinfected patients (p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, end-stage renal disease patients with HBV/HCV coinfection exhibit higher rate of SVR to HCV treatment than HCV-monoinfected patients. It is possible that factors related to the host immune response and viral interaction could explain the better response observed among coinfected patients.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 47(2): 143-8, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24861286

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Six genotypes of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been identified thus far, and their distribution is well defined. Genotype 1, which is the most prevalent worldwide, is always compared to genotypes 2 and 3, particularly in terms of treatment response. However, little is known about the differences between genotypes 2 and 3 because these genotypes are analyzed together in most studies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate differences in the clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, and histological parameters between HCV-2 and HCV-3. METHODS: Patients with chronic hepatitis C infected with genotypes 2 and 3 were studied retrospectively and compared according to clinical, laboratory, and histological aspects. Hepatitis C virus-ribonucleic acid (HCV-RNA) was analyzed quantitatively by TaqMan® real-time PCR, and the HCV genotype was determined by sequencing the 5'-untranslated region. RESULTS: A total of 306 patients with chronic HCV-2 (n=50) and HCV-3 (n = 256) were studied. Subtype 2b (n=17/50) and subtype 3a (n=244/256) were the most prevalent among patients infected with HCV-2 and HCV-3, respectively. The mean age was 47 ± 10 years, and there was a predominance of men in the group studied (61%). Comparative analysis between HCV-2 and HCV-3 showed a younger age (p=0.002), less prevalence of arterial hypertension (p=0.03), higher serum albumin levels (p=0.01), more advanced stage of liver fibrosis (p=0.03), and higher frequency of steatosis in patients with HCV-3 (p=0.001). After multivariate regression analysis, all the variables, except serum albumin, remained as variables associated with HCV-3 in the final model. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and histological differences exist between HCV-2 and HVC-3, which suggests the need for separate analyses of these genotypes.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hepatite C Crônica/patologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 17(1): e50-3, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23041364

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine whether hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA present at week 12 is a good predictor of the response to interferon (IFN) monotherapy in hemodialysis patients with hepatitis C. METHODS: Hemodialysis patients with hepatitis C who were treated between 1997 and 2008 with IFN monotherapy for 48 weeks without dose reduction were included. The predictive value of HCV RNA at week 12 for achieving a sustained virological response (SVR) was determined. RESULTS: Forty patients (mean age 47±9 years; 75% males and 80% with genotype 1) were included. Septal fibrosis or cirrhosis was observed in 38% of these patients. Twelve (30%) of the 40 patients achieved SVR. HCV RNA was undetectable at week 12 in 68%. The positive predictive value of HCV RNA at week 12 was 45% and the negative predictive value was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of HCV RNA at week 12 had a high negative predictive value for SVR in hemodialysis patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with IFN for 48 weeks. Therefore, if HCV RNA is detected at week 12, treatment should be discontinued due to the low probability of a sustained response.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Diálise Renal , Carga Viral , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , RNA Viral/sangue , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Rheumatol Int ; 30(11): 1515-8, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19705122

RESUMO

Mixed cryoglobulinemia is one of the most closely related extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C virus and requires a challenging therapeutic approach depending on the severity of the symptoms. Here, we describe the long-term follow-up of a patient with important cutaneous, articular and neural manifestations of cryoglobulinemia associated with chronic hepatitis C treated with rituximab. A 42-year-old woman who did not respond to previous interferon-based treatments (standard and pegylated interferon plus ribavirin) and corticosteroids was subjected to treatment with rituximab at a dose of 375 mg/m(2) per week for 4 consecutive weeks. The drug was well tolerated and complete improvement of arthralgia was immediately evident. There was gradual improvement of lower limbs paresthesia and healing of a leg ulcer that had been active for 5 years. The clinical and immunological responses induced by rituximab are sustained over long-term follow-up, and this case illustrates the drug efficacy for non-responder patients to antiviral therapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos/uso terapêutico , Crioglobulinemia/tratamento farmacológico , Crioglobulinemia/imunologia , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/imunologia , Adulto , Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Rituximab , Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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