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1.
Lancet ; 394(10195): 345-356, 2019 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303318

RESUMO

In 1988, the Brazilian Constitution defined health as a universal right and a state responsibility. Progress towards universal health coverage in Brazil has been achieved through a unified health system (Sistema Único de Saúde [SUS]), created in 1990. With successes and setbacks in the implementation of health programmes and the organisation of its health system, Brazil has achieved nearly universal access to health-care services for the population. The trajectory of the development and expansion of the SUS offers valuable lessons on how to scale universal health coverage in a highly unequal country with relatively low resources allocated to health-care services by the government compared with that in middle-income and high-income countries. Analysis of the past 30 years since the inception of the SUS shows that innovations extend beyond the development of new models of care and highlights the importance of establishing political, legal, organisational, and management-related structures, with clearly defined roles for both the federal and local governments in the governance, planning, financing, and provision of health-care services. The expansion of the SUS has allowed Brazil to rapidly address the changing health needs of the population, with dramatic upscaling of health service coverage in just three decades. However, despite its successes, analysis of future scenarios suggests the urgent need to address lingering geographical inequalities, insufficient funding, and suboptimal private sector-public sector collaboration. Fiscal policies implemented in 2016 ushered in austerity measures that, alongside the new environmental, educational, and health policies of the Brazilian government, could reverse the hard-earned achievements of the SUS and threaten its sustainability and ability to fulfil its constitutional mandate of providing health care for all.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Brasil , Programas Governamentais/legislação & jurisprudência , Programas Governamentais/organização & administração , Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/economia
2.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 17: 88-93, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29754016

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the measurement equivalence of the original paper version of an adapted tablet version of the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D). METHODS: A randomly selected sample of 509 individuals aged 18 to 64 years from the general population responded to the EQ-5D at two time points separated by a minimum interval of 24 hours and were allocated to one of the following groups: test-retest group (tablet-tablet) or crossover group (paper-tablet and tablet-paper). Agreement between methods was determined using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the κ coefficient. RESULTS: In the crossover group, the following ICC values were obtained: 0.76 (confidence interval [CI] 0.58-0.89) for EQ-5D scores and 0.77 (CI 0.68-0.84) for visual analogue scale in subjects responding first to the tablet version; 0.83 (CI 0.75-0.89) for EQ-5D scores and 0.75 (CI 0.67-0.85) for visual analogue scale in subjects responding first to the paper version. In the test-retest group, the ICC was 0.85 (CI 0.73-0.91) for EQ-5D scores and 0.79 (CI 0.66-0.87) for visual analogue scale. The κ values were higher than 0.69 in this group. The internal consistencies of the paper and tablet methods were similar. CONCLUSIONS: The paper and tablet versions of the EQ-5D are equivalent. Test-retest and crossover agreement was high and the acceptability of the methods was similar among individuals.


Assuntos
Internet , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Cross-Over , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor/métodos , Papel , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Escala Visual Analógica
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