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1.
Exp Parasitol ; 207: 107773, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605671

RESUMO

Studies of the primers that were designed to detect New World Leishmania were systematically reviewed to report the characteristics of each target, detection limit, specificity of the primers designed and diagnostic sensibility. The papers identified in the databases PubMed and Web of Science involved 50 studies. Minicircle is the most applied target in molecular research for diagnosis, due to its high sensitivity in detecting Leishmania in different clinical samples, a characteristic that can be partially attributed to the higher number of copies of the minicircle per cell. The other molecular targets shown in this review were less sensitive to diagnostic use because of the lower number of copies of the target gene per cell, but more specific for identification of the subgenus and/or species. The choice of the best target is an important step towards the result of the research. The target allows the design of primers that are specific to the genus, subgenus or a particular species and also imparts sensitivity to the method for diagnosis. The findings of this systematic review provide the advantages and disadvantages of the main molecular targets and primers designed for New World Leishmania, offering information so that the researcher can choose the PCR system best suited to their research need. This is a timely and extremely thorough review of the primers designed for New World Leishmania.


Assuntos
Primers do DNA/análise , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Leishmania/genética , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Humanos , Leishmania/isolamento & purificação , Limite de Detecção , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
2.
Exp Parasitol ; 157: 128-37, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26116864

RESUMO

Tetradenia riparia plant is used as a traditional medicine in Africa for the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases as like parasitic. Therapy for leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis specie often fails, and the conventional drugs are toxic, expensive, require a long period of treatment, and adverse effects are common. The alternative therapies using natural products are inexpensive and have few or any adverse reaction. These reasons are sufficient to investigate the new natural therapeutic for leishmaniasis. We evaluated the potential of the essential oil (TrEO) and 6,7-dehydroroyleanone (TrROY) isolated from T. riparia on L. (L.) amazonensis promastigote and amastigote forms, cytotoxicity on human erythrocytes and murine macrophages, nitric production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression. TrEO was the most effective to promote the Leishmania promastigote death. After 72 h incubation, the lethal dose of TrEO and TrROY that promoted 50% Leishmania death (LD50) were 0.8 µg/mL and 3 µg/mL, respectively. TrEO and TrROY were not cytotoxic to human erythrocytes, but TrROY was toxic to murine macrophages resulting in a low selectivity index. The transmission electronic microscopy showed that TrEO (0.03 µg/mL) was able to modify the promastigote ultrastructures suggesting autophagy as chromatin condensation, blebbing, membranous profiles and nuclear fragmentation. Infected-macrophages treated with TrEO (0.03 µg/mL) or TrROY (10 µg/mL) had an infection index decreased in 65 and 48%. TrEO did not induce iNOS mRNA expression or nitrite production in macrophages infected with Leishmania. TrROY and mainly TrEO promoted the Leishmania death, and TrROY showed loss toxicity to erythrocytes cells. Other compounds derived from T. riparia and the essential oil could be explored to develop a new alternative treatment for leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
/farmacologia , Lamiaceae/química , Leishmania mexicana/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , /química , /isolamento & purificação , Animais , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leishmania mexicana/ultraestrutura , Dose Letal Mediana , Macrófagos Peritoneais/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
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