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1.
J Intensive Care Med ; 35(6): 595-605, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29716425

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: An early diagnosis of intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW) is often not possible due to impaired consciousness. To avoid a diagnostic delay, we previously developed a prediction model, based on single-center data from 212 patients (development cohort), to predict ICU-AW at 2 days after ICU admission. The objective of this study was to investigate the external validity of the original prediction model in a new, multicenter cohort and, if necessary, to update the model. METHODS: Newly admitted ICU patients who were mechanically ventilated at 48 hours after ICU admission were included. Predictors were prospectively recorded, and the outcome ICU-AW was defined by an average Medical Research Council score <4. In the validation cohort, consisting of 349 patients, we analyzed performance of the original prediction model by assessment of calibration and discrimination. Additionally, we updated the model in this validation cohort. Finally, we evaluated a new prediction model based on all patients of the development and validation cohort. RESULTS: Of 349 analyzed patients in the validation cohort, 190 (54%) developed ICU-AW. Both model calibration and discrimination of the original model were poor in the validation cohort. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC-ROC) was 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54-0.66). Model updating methods improved calibration but not discrimination. The new prediction model, based on all patients of the development and validation cohort (total of 536 patients) had a fair discrimination, AUC-ROC: 0.70 (95% CI: 0.66-0.75). CONCLUSIONS: The previously developed prediction model for ICU-AW showed poor performance in a new independent multicenter validation cohort. Model updating methods improved calibration but not discrimination. The newly derived prediction model showed fair discrimination. This indicates that early prediction of ICU-AW is still challenging and needs further attention.


Assuntos
Regras de Decisão Clínica , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Debilidade Muscular/diagnóstico , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Calibragem , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Diagnóstico Tardio/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Países Baixos , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Padrões de Referência , Fatores de Risco
2.
Shock ; 52(1): 43-51, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113391

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Shock is characterized by micro- and macrovascular flow impairment contributing to acute kidney injury (AKI). Routine monitoring of the circulation regards the macrocirculation but not the renal circulation which can be assessed with Doppler ultrasound as renal resistive index (RRI). RRI reflects resistance to flow. High RRI predicts persistent AKI. Study aims were to determine whether RRI is elevated in shock and to identify determinants of RRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective observational cohort study included two cohorts of patients, with and without shock less than 24-h after intensive care admission. Apart from routine monitoring, three study measurements were performed simultaneously: RRI, sublingual microcirculation, and bioelectral impedance analysis. RESULTS: A total of 92 patients were included (40 shock, 52 nonshock), median age was 69 [60-76] vs. 67 [59-76], P = 0.541; APACHE III was 87 [65-119] vs. 57 [45-69], P < 0.001. Shock patients had higher RRI than patients without shock (0.751 [0.692-0.788] vs. 0.654 [0.610-0.686], P < 0.001). Overall, high age, APACHE III score, lactate, vasopressor support, pulse pressure index (PPI), central venous pressure (CVP), fluid balance, and low preadmission estimated glomerular filtration rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), creatinine clearance, and reactance/m were associated with high RRI at univariable regression (P < 0.01). Microcirculatory markers were not. At multivariable regression, vasopressor support, CVP, PPI and MAP, reactance/m, and preadmission eGFR were independent determinants of RRI (n = 92, adj. R = 0.587). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with shock have a higher RRI than patients without shock. Independent determinants of high RRI were pressure indices of the systemic circulation, low membrane capacitance, and preadmission renal dysfunction. Markers of the sublingual microcirculation were not.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/patologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Estado Terminal , Microcirculação/fisiologia , APACHE , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Choque/patologia , Choque/fisiopatologia
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(7)2018 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986381

RESUMO

The beneficial effects of exercise training (EX) on cardiac pathology are well recognized. Previously, we found that the effects of EX on cardiac dysfunction in mice critically depend on the underlying etiology. EX exerted beneficial effects after myocardial infarction (MI); however, cardiac pathology following pressure overload produced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) was aggravated by EX. In the presented study, we investigated whether the contrasting effects of EX on cardiac dysfunction can be explained by an etiology-specific response of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) to EX, which divergently affects the balance between nitric oxide and superoxide. For this purpose, mice were exposed to eight weeks of voluntary wheel running or sedentary housing (SED), immediately after sham, MI, or TAC surgery. Left ventricular (LV) function was assessed using echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements. EX ameliorated LV dysfunction and remodeling after MI, but not following TAC, in which EX even aggravated fibrosis. Strikingly, EX attenuated superoxide levels after MI, but exacerbated NOS-dependent superoxide levels following TAC. Similarly, elevated eNOS S-glutathionylation and eNOS monomerization, which were observed in both MI and TAC, were corrected by EX in MI, but aggravated by EX after TAC. Additionally, EX reduced antioxidant activity in TAC, while it was maintained following EX in MI. In conclusion, the present study shows that EX mitigates cardiac dysfunction after MI, likely by attenuating eNOS uncoupling-mediated oxidative stress, whereas EX tends to aggravate cardiac dysfunction following TAC, likely due to exacerbating eNOS-mediated oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/enzimologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/reabilitação , Infarto do Miocárdio/enzimologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/reabilitação , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ecocardiografia , Fibrose , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Atividade Motora , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Comportamento Sedentário , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase-1/metabolismo , Função Ventricular Esquerda
4.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0197967, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29889830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) complicates shock. Diagnosis is based on rising creatinine, a late phenomenon. Intrarenal vasoconstriction occurs earlier. Measuring flow resistance in the renal circulation, Renal Resistive Index (RRI), could become part of vital organ function assessment using Doppler ultrasound. Our aim was to determine whether RRI on ICU admission is an early predictor and discriminator of AKI developed within the first week. METHODS: In this prospective cohort of mixed ICU patients with and without shock, RRI was measured <24-h of admission. Besides routine variables, sublingual microcirculation and bioelectrical impedance were measured. AKI was defined by the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Uni- and multivariate regression and Receiver Operating Characteristics curve analyses were performed. RESULTS: Ninety-nine patients were included, median age 67 years (IQR 59-75), APACHE III score 67 (IQR 53-89). Forty-nine patients (49%) developed AKI within the first week. AKI patients had a higher RRI on admission than those without: 0.71 (0.69-0.73) vs. 0.65 (0.63-0.68), p = 0.001. The difference was significant for AKI stage 2: RRI = 0.72 (0.65-0.80) and 3: RRI = 0.74 (0.67-0.81), but not for AKI stage 1: RRI = 0.67 (0.61-0.74). On univariate analysis, RRI significantly predicted AKI 2-3: OR 1.012 (1.006-1.019); Area Under the Curve (AUC) of RRI for AKI 2-3 was 0.72 (0.61-0.83), optimal cut-off 0.74, sensitivity 53% and specificity 87%. On multivariate analysis, RRI remained significant, independent of APACHE III and fluid balance; adjusted OR: 1.008 (1.000-1.016). CONCLUSIONS: High RRI on ICU admission was a significant predictor for development of AKI stage 2-3 during the first week. High RRI can be used as an early warning signal RRI, because of its high specificity. A combined score including RRI, APACHE III and fluid balance improved AKI prediction, suggesting that vasoconstriction or poor vascular compliance, severity of disease and positive fluid balance independently contribute to AKI development. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02558166.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Injúria Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Estado Terminal , Rim/fisiopatologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Crit Care Med ; 46(1): 29-36, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28991822

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The presence of respiratory viruses and the association with outcomes were assessed in invasively ventilated ICU patients, stratified by admission diagnosis. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Five ICUs in the Netherlands. PATIENTS: Between September 1, 2013, and April 30, 2014, 1,407 acutely admitted and invasively ventilated patients were included. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Nasopharyngeal swabs and tracheobronchial aspirates were collected upon intubation and tested for 14 respiratory viruses. Out of 1,407 patients, 156 were admitted because of a severe acute respiratory infection and 1,251 for other reasons (non-severe acute respiratory infection). Respiratory viruses were detected in 28.8% of severe acute respiratory infection patients and 17.0% in non-severe acute respiratory infection (p < 0.001). In one third, viruses were exclusively detected in tracheobronchial aspirates. Rhinovirus and human metapneumovirus were more prevalent in severe acute respiratory infection patients (9.6% and 2.6% vs 4.5 and 0.2%; p = 0.006 and p < 0.001). In both groups, there were no associations between the presence of viruses and the number of ICU-free days at day 28, crude mortality, and mortality in multivariate regression analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory viruses are frequently detected in acutely admitted and invasively ventilated patients. Rhinovirus and human metapneumovirus are more frequently found in severe acute respiratory infection patients. Detection of respiratory viruses is not associated with worse clinically relevant outcomes in the studied cohort of patients.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Respiração Artificial , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Viroses/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecção Hospitalar/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/mortalidade , Viroses/mortalidade
6.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 196(12): 1544-1558, 2017 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28787181

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The clinical significance of diaphragm weakness in critically ill patients is evident: it prolongs ventilator dependency and increases morbidity, duration of hospital stay, and health care costs. The mechanisms underlying diaphragm weakness are unknown, but might include mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that weakness of diaphragm muscle fibers in critically ill patients is accompanied by impaired mitochondrial function and structure, and by increased markers of oxidative stress. METHODS: To test these hypotheses, we studied contractile force, mitochondrial function, and mitochondrial structure in diaphragm muscle fibers. Fibers were isolated from diaphragm biopsies of 36 mechanically ventilated critically ill patients and compared with those isolated from biopsies of 27 patients with suspected early-stage lung malignancy (control subjects). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Diaphragm muscle fibers from critically ill patients displayed significant atrophy and contractile weakness, but lacked impaired mitochondrial respiration and increased levels of oxidative stress markers. Mitochondrial energy status and morphology were not altered, despite a lower content of fusion proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Critically ill patients have manifest diaphragm muscle fiber atrophy and weakness in the absence of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Thus, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress do not play a causative role in the development of atrophy and contractile weakness of the diaphragm in critically ill patients.


Assuntos
Diafragma/fisiopatologia , Mitocôndrias , Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Atrofia Muscular/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial , Adulto Jovem
7.
Intensive Care Med Exp ; 5(1): 22, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28409476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperoxia, an arterial oxygen pressure of more than 100 mmHg or 13% O2, frequently occurs in hospitalized patients due to administration of supplemental oxygen. Increasing evidence suggests that hyperoxia induces vasoconstriction in the systemic (micro)circulation, potentially affecting organ perfusion. This study addresses effects of hyperoxia on viability, proliferative capacity, and on pathways affecting vascular tone in cultured human microvascular endothelial cells (hMVEC). METHODS: hMVEC of the systemic circulation were exposed to graded oxygen fractions of 20, 30, 50, and 95% O2 for 8, 24, and 72 h. These fractions correspond to 152, 228, 380, and 722 mmHg, respectively. Cell proliferation and viability was measured via a proliferation assay, peroxynitrite formation via anti-nitrotyrosine levels, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels via q-PCR and western blot analysis. RESULTS: Exposing hMVEC to 50 and 95% O2 for more than 24 h impaired cell viability and proliferation. Hyperoxia did not significantly affect nitrotyrosine levels, nor eNOS mRNA and protein levels, regardless of the exposure time or oxygen concentration used. Phosphorylation of eNOS at the serine 1177 (S1177) residue and ET-1 mRNA levels were also not significantly affected. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure of isolated human microvascular endothelial cells to marked hyperoxia for more than 24 h decreases cell viability and proliferation. Our results do not support a role of eNOS mRNA and protein or ET-1 mRNA in the potential vasoconstrictive effects of hyperoxia on isolated hMVEC.

8.
J Surg Res ; 205(1): 147-54, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27621012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related coagulopathy appears to be most prevalent in patients with tissue hypoperfusion, but evidence for this association is scarce. This study investigated the relationship between tissue perfusion and hemostatic derangements in TBI patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Coagulation parameters were measured on emergency department admission in patients with TBI (head abbreviated injury scale ≥ 3). The level of hypoperfusion was simultaneously assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) at the forehead and arm, and by base excess and lactate. Coagulopathy was defined as an international normalized ratio > 1.2 and/or activated partial thromboplastin time > 40 s and/or thrombocytopenia (<120 × 10(9)/L). RESULTS: TBI patients with coagulopathy (42%) had more signs of tissue hypoperfusion as indicated by increased lactate levels (2.1 [1.1-3.2] mmol/L versus 1.2 [1.0-1.7] mmol/L; P = 0.017) and a larger base deficit (-3.0 [-4.6 to -2.0] mmol/L versus -0.1 [-2.5 to 1.8] mmol/L; P < 0.001). There was no difference in the cerebral or somatic tissue oxygenation index. However, there was a distinct trend toward a moderate inverse association between the cerebral tissue oxygenation index and D-dimer levels (r=-0.40; P = 0.051) as marker of fibrinolysis. The presence of coagulopathy was associated with an increased inhospital mortality rate (45.5% versus 6.7%; P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to investigate the relationship between hemostatic derangements and tissue oxygenation using NIRS in TBI patients. This study showed that TBI-related coagulopathy is more profound in patients with metabolic acidosis and increased lactate levels. Although there was no direct relationship between tissue oxygenation and coagulopathy, we observed an inverse relationship between NIRS tissue oxygenation levels and fibrinolysis.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Oxigênio/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/sangue , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Crit Care ; 20: 55, 2016 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26968380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety of perioperative hyperoxia is currently unclear. Previous studies in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery suggest reduced myocardial damage when avoiding extreme perioperative hyperoxia (>400 mmHg). In this study we investigated whether an oxygenation strategy from moderate hyperoxia to a near-physiological oxygen tension reduces myocardial damage and improves haemodynamics, organ dysfunction and oxidative stress. METHODS: This was a single-blind, single-centre, open-label, randomised controlled trial in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass surgery. Fifty patients were randomised to a partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2) target of 200-220 mmHg during cardiopulmonary bypass and 130-150 mmHg during intensive care unit (ICU) admission (control group) versus lower targets of 130-150 mmHg during cardiopulmonary bypass and 80-100 mmHg at the ICU (conservative group). Primary outcome was myocardial injury (CK-MB and Troponin-T) at ICU admission and 2, 6 and 12 hours thereafter. RESULTS: Weighted PaO2 during cardiopulmonary bypass was 220 mmHg (interquartile range (IQR) 211-233) vs. 157 (151-162) in the control and conservative group, respectively (P < 0.0001). During ICU admission, weighted PaO2 was 107 mmHg (86-141) vs. 90 (84-98) (P = 0.03), respectively. Area under the curve of CK-MB was median 23.5 µg/L/h (IQR 18.4-28.1) vs. 21.5 (15.8-26.6) (P = 0.35) and 0.30 µg/L/h (0.25-0.44) vs. 0.39 (0.24-0.43) (P = 0.81) for Troponin-T. Cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance index, creatinine, lactate and F2-isoprostane levels were not different between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to moderate hyperoxia, a near-physiological oxygen strategy does not reduce myocardial damage in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. Conservative oxygen administration was not associated with increased lactate levels or hypoxic events. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Registry NTR4375, registered on 30 January 2014.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Hiperóxia/metabolismo , Hiperóxia/cirurgia , Idoso , Anestesia , Gasometria , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperóxia/patologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Países Baixos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Método Simples-Cego
10.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0149941, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26953569

RESUMO

DNA damage contributes to the process of aging, as underscored by premature aging syndromes caused by defective DNA repair. Thyroid state changes during aging, but underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Since thyroid hormone (TH) is a key regulator of metabolism, changes in TH signaling have widespread effects. Here, we reveal a significant common transcriptomic signature in livers from hypothyroid mice, DNA repair-deficient mice with severe (Csbm/m/Xpa-/-) or intermediate (Ercc1-/Δ-7) progeria and naturally aged mice. A strong induction of TH-inactivating deiodinase D3 and decrease of TH-activating D1 activities are observed in Csbm/m/Xpa-/- livers. Similar findings are noticed in Ercc1-/Δ-7, in naturally aged animals and in wild-type mice exposed to a chronic subtoxic dose of DNA-damaging agents. In contrast, TH signaling in muscle, heart and brain appears unaltered. These data show a strong suppression of TH signaling in specific peripheral organs in premature and normal aging, probably lowering metabolism, while other tissues appear to preserve metabolism. D3-mediated TH inactivation is unexpected, given its expression mainly in fetal tissues. Our studies highlight the importance of DNA damage as the underlying mechanism of changes in thyroid state. Tissue-specific regulation of deiodinase activities, ensuring diminished TH signaling, may contribute importantly to the protective metabolic response in aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Iodeto Peroxidase/metabolismo , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/genética , Animais , Hipotireoidismo/genética , Hipotireoidismo/metabolismo , Iodeto Peroxidase/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Especificidade de Órgãos , Hormônios Tireóideos/genética
12.
Anesth Analg ; 121(5): 1274-80, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26484461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The medium care unit (MCU) or "stepdown" unit is an increasingly important, but understudied care environment. With an aging population and more patients with complex multiple diseases, many patients often require a higher level of inpatient care even when full intensive care is not indicated. However, the nurse-to-patient ratio required on a MCU is neither well defined nor clear whether this ratio should be adjusted per shift. The Nursing Activities Score (NAS) is an effective instrument for measuring nursing workload in the intensive care unit (ICU) but has not been used in an MCU. The aim of this study was to measure the nursing workload per 8-hour shift on an MCU using the NAS and compare it with the NAS from an ICU in the same hospital. We also compared the NAS between groups of patients with different admission sources. METHODS: The NAS was prospectively measured per patient per shift for 2 months in a 9-bed tertiary referral university hospital MCU and during a similar period in an ICU in the same hospital. RESULTS: The mean NAS per patient did not differ between day (7:30 AM to 4:00 PM) and evening (3:00 PM to 11:30 PM) shifts, but the NAS was significantly lower during the night shift (11:00 PM to 8:00 AM) than during the day (P < 0.0001) and evening (P < 0.0001) shifts. The mean NASs in the ICU for day and night shifts were significantly lower than the scores in the MCU (P = 0.0056 and P < 0.0001, respectively), but NAS during the evening shift did not differ between the ICU and the MCU. The mean NAS for patients admitted to the MCU from the accident and emergency department was significantly higher than for those admitted from the ICU (P = 0.002), recovery (P = 0.002), and general ward (P < 0.0001). Patients on the MCU had a NAS comparable with that of ICU patients. CONCLUSIONS: In our university hospital, NAS was higher during the day and evening hours and lower at night. We also found that patients from accident and emergency had a higher NAS than those admitted to the MCU from other locations. NAS in the MCU was not lower than the NAS in the ICU. Because of its ability to discriminate between day and evening workloads and between patients from different sources, the NAS may assist MCU managers in assessing staffing needs.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Cuidados de Enfermagem/tendências , Unidades de Autocuidado/tendências , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários/tendências , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Anesthesiology ; 123(4): 820-9, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26263429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The authors investigated whether patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with an initial low cerebral oxygen level during cardiopulmonary resuscitation are more prone to develop hyperfibrinolysis than patients with normal cerebral oxygenation levels and which part of the fibrinolytic system is involved in this response. METHODS: In 46 patients, hyperfibrinolysis was diagnosed immediately upon emergency department admission using rotational thromboelastometry and defined as a lysis more than 15%. Simultaneously, initial cerebral tissue oxygenation was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy, and oxygen desaturation was defined as a tissue oxygenation index (TOI) of 50% or less. Blood sample analysis included markers for hypoperfusion and fibrinolysis. RESULTS: There was no difference in prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation duration between patients with or without hyperfibrinolysis. An initial TOI of 50% or less was associated with more clot lysis (91% [17 to 100%; n = 16]) compared with patients with a normal TOI (6% [4 to 11%]; n = 30; P < 0.001), with lower levels of plasminogen (151.6 ± 61.0 vs. 225.3 ± 47.0 µg/ml; P < 0.001) and higher levels of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA; 18.3 ± 7.4 vs. 7.9 ± 4.7 ng/ml; P < 0.001) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (19.3 ± 8.9 vs. 12.1 ± 6.1 ng/ml; P = 0.013). There were no differences in (activated) protein C levels among groups. The initial TOI was negatively correlated with t-PA (r = -0.69; P < 0001). Mortality rates were highest in patients with hyperfibrinolysis. CONCLUSION: Activation of the fibrinolytic system is more common in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with an initial cerebral tissue oxygenation value of 50% or less during resuscitation and is linked to increased levels of t-PA rather than involvement of protein C.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Fibrinólise/fisiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/metabolismo , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Ressuscitação/tendências , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 15: 48, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25883532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In spite of the introduction of mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH), mortality rates remain high in patients with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after cardiac arrest (CA). To date, no accurate and independent biomarker to predict survival in these patients exists. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) was found to provide both prognostic and diagnostic value in various cardiovascular diseases, including survival to hospital discharge in patients with ROSC. However, the biologically inactive counterpart of BNP, NT-proBNP, was found to be a more stable and accurate analyte. The current retrospective observational study investigates the value of NT-proBNP to predict 28-day mortality in post-CA patients treated with MTH, as well as the dynamics of NT-proBNP during MTH. METHODS: NT-proBNP levels were measured in post-CA patients cooled via cold intravenous saline infusion and water-circulating body wraps (Medi-Therm®, Gaymar). Plasma samples were obtained before cooling was started, at the start and end of the maintenance phase and at the end of rewarming. RESULTS: 250 patients, admitted between 2009 and 2013, had NT-proBNP levels measured on ICU admission and were included for the evaluation of NT-proBNP as a prognostic marker. In the 28 days following ICU admission, 114 patients died (46%). Non-survivors had significantly higher NT-proBNP (median 1448 ng/l, IQR 366-4623 vs median 567 ng/1, IQR 148-1899; P < 0.001) levels on ICU admission. Unadjusted odds ratios for 28-day mortality were 1.7 (95% CI 0.8-3.5), 1.6 (0.8-3.3) and 3.6 (1.7-7.5) for increasing quartiles of NT-proBNP as compared to the lowest quartile. Adjusted odds ratios were 1.1 (95% CI 0.5-2.5), 1.1 (0.5-2.5) and 1.6 (0.7-3.8), respectively. A cut-off value of 834 ng/l achieved a sensitivity of 58% and a specificity of 58% to predict 28-day mortality. Of 113 patients, NT-proBNP values of each MTH phase were available and grouped in decreased or increased levels in time. Both decreases and increases of NT-proBNP values were observed during the MTH phases, but presence of either was not associated with outcome. CONCLUSIONS: High NT-proBNP plasma concentrations on ICU admission are associated with high 28-day mortality in post-CA patients treated with MTH in a univariate analysis, but not in a multivariate analysis. Increases or decreases of NT-proBNP levels during MTH appear unrelated to 28 day mortality.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/mortalidade , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Hipotermia Induzida/mortalidade , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/metabolismo , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Idoso , Cuidados Críticos , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
15.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 191(10): 1126-38, 2015 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25760684

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The clinical significance of diaphragm weakness in critically ill patients is evident: it prolongs ventilator dependency, and increases morbidity and duration of hospital stay. To date, the nature of diaphragm weakness and its underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that diaphragm muscle fibers of mechanically ventilated critically ill patients display atrophy and contractile weakness, and that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is activated in the diaphragm. METHODS: We obtained diaphragm muscle biopsies from 22 critically ill patients who received mechanical ventilation before surgery and compared these with biopsies obtained from patients during thoracic surgery for resection of a suspected early lung malignancy (control subjects). In a proof-of-concept study in a muscle-specific ring finger protein-1 (MuRF-1) knockout mouse model, we evaluated the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in the development of contractile weakness during mechanical ventilation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Both slow- and fast-twitch diaphragm muscle fibers of critically ill patients had approximately 25% smaller cross-sectional area, and had contractile force reduced by half or more. Markers of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway were significantly up-regulated in the diaphragm of critically ill patients. Finally, MuRF-1 knockout mice were protected against the development of diaphragm contractile weakness during mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that diaphragm muscle fibers of critically ill patients display atrophy and severe contractile weakness, and in the diaphragm of critically ill patients the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is activated. This study provides rationale for the development of treatment strategies that target the contractility of diaphragm fibers to facilitate weaning.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Diafragma/fisiopatologia , Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Atrofia Muscular/fisiopatologia , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Biópsia , Western Blotting , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diafragma/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/patologia , Proteínas Musculares , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Debilidade Muscular/patologia , Atrofia Muscular/etiologia , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Países Baixos , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS Genet ; 10(10): e1004686, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25299392

RESUMO

As part of the Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) process, the endonuclease XPG is involved in repair of helix-distorting DNA lesions, but the protein has also been implicated in several other DNA repair systems, complicating genotype-phenotype relationship in XPG patients. Defects in XPG can cause either the cancer-prone condition xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) alone, or XP combined with the severe neurodevelopmental disorder Cockayne Syndrome (CS), or the infantile lethal cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal (COFS) syndrome, characterized by dramatic growth failure, progressive neurodevelopmental abnormalities and greatly reduced life expectancy. Here, we present a novel (conditional) Xpg-/- mouse model which -in a C57BL6/FVB F1 hybrid genetic background- displays many progeroid features, including cessation of growth, loss of subcutaneous fat, kyphosis, osteoporosis, retinal photoreceptor loss, liver aging, extensive neurodegeneration, and a short lifespan of 4-5 months. We show that deletion of XPG specifically in the liver reproduces the progeroid features in the liver, yet abolishes the effect on growth or lifespan. In addition, specific XPG deletion in neurons and glia of the forebrain creates a progressive neurodegenerative phenotype that shows many characteristics of human XPG deficiency. Our findings therefore exclude that both the liver as well as the neurological phenotype are a secondary consequence of derailment in other cell types, organs or tissues (e.g. vascular abnormalities) and support a cell-autonomous origin caused by the DNA repair defect itself. In addition they allow the dissection of the complex aging process in tissue- and cell-type-specific components. Moreover, our data highlight the critical importance of genetic background in mouse aging studies, establish the Xpg-/- mouse as a valid model for the severe form of human XPG patients and segmental accelerated aging, and strengthen the link between DNA damage and aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/deficiência , Deficiências Nutricionais/etiologia , Endonucleases/deficiência , Proteínas Nucleares/deficiência , Fatores de Transcrição/deficiência , Envelhecimento/genética , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Caquexia/etiologia , Caquexia/genética , Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiopatologia , Reparo do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Deficiências Nutricionais/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endonucleases/genética , Endonucleases/metabolismo , Feminino , Fígado/patologia , Longevidade/genética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Osteoporose/etiologia , Osteoporose/genética , Gravidez , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
17.
Crit Care ; 18(4): 460, 2014 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25185110

RESUMO

This narrative review summarizes the role of vitamin C in mitigating oxidative injury-induced microcirculatory impairment and associated organ failure in ischemia/reperfusion or sepsis. Preclinical studies show that high-dose vitamin C can prevent or restore microcirculatory flow impairment by inhibiting activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase, augmenting tetrahydrobiopterin, preventing uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, and decreasing the formation of superoxide and peroxynitrite, and by directly scavenging superoxide. Vitamin C can additionally restore vascular responsiveness to vasoconstrictors, preserve endothelial barrier by maintaining cyclic guanylate phosphatase and occludin phosphorylation and preventing apoptosis. Finally, high-dose vitamin C can augment antibacterial defense. These protective effects against overwhelming oxidative stress due to ischemia/reperfusion, sepsis or burn seems to mitigate organ injury and dysfunction, and promote recovery after cardiac revascularization and in critically ill patients, in the latter partially in combination with other antioxidants. Of note, several questions remain to be solved, including optimal dose, timing and combination of vitamin C with other antioxidants. The combination obviously offers a synergistic effect and seems reasonable during sustained critical illness. High-dose vitamin C, however, provides a cheap, strong and multifaceted antioxidant, especially robust for resuscitation of the circulation. Vitamin C given as early as possible after the injurious event, or before if feasible, seems most effective. The latter could be considered at the start of cardiac surgery, organ transplant or major gastrointestinal surgery. Preoperative supplementation should consider the inhibiting effect of vitamin C on ischemic preconditioning. In critically ill patients, future research should focus on the use of short-term high-dose intravenous vitamin C as a resuscitation drug, to intervene as early as possible in the oxidant cascade in order to optimize macrocirculation and microcirculation and limit cellular injury.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Ácido Ascórbico/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/fisiopatologia , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Vitaminas/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacocinética , Permeabilidade Capilar , Cuidados Críticos , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Microcirculação , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/fisiopatologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/farmacocinética
18.
Neurobiol Aging ; 35(9): 2147-60, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24799273

RESUMO

Aging is associated with reduced function, degenerative changes, and increased neuroinflammation of the central nervous system (CNS). Increasing evidence suggests that changes in microglia cells contribute to the age-related deterioration of the CNS. The most prominent age-related change of microglia is enhanced sensitivity to inflammatory stimuli, referred to as priming. It is unclear if priming is due to intrinsic microglia ageing or induced by the ageing neural environment. We have studied this in Ercc1 mutant mice, a DNA repair-deficient mouse model that displays features of accelerated aging in multiple tissues including the CNS. In Ercc1 mutant mice, microglia showed hallmark features of priming such as an exaggerated response to peripheral lipopolysaccharide exposure in terms of cytokine expression and phagocytosis. Specific targeting of the Ercc1 deletion to forebrain neurons resulted in a progressive priming response in microglia exemplified by phenotypic alterations. Summarizing, these data show that neuronal genotoxic stress is sufficient to switch microglia from a resting to a primed state.


Assuntos
Senilidade Prematura/genética , Senilidade Prematura/patologia , Envelhecimento/patologia , Distúrbios no Reparo do DNA/genética , Distúrbios no Reparo do DNA/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Microglia/patologia , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endonucleases/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos Mutantes , Mutação , Fagocitose , Prosencéfalo/patologia
20.
Pflugers Arch ; 466(6): 1079-91, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24573174

RESUMO

Cardiac remodeling in response to a myocardial infarction or chronic pressure-overload is an independent risk factor for the development of heart failure. In contrast, cardiac remodeling produced by regular physical exercise is associated with a decreased risk for heart failure. There is evidence that exercise training has a beneficial effect on disease progression and survival in patients with cardiac remodeling and dysfunction, but concern has also been expressed that exercise training may aggravate pathological remodeling and dysfunction. Here we present studies from our laboratory into the effects of exercise training on pathological cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in mice. The results indicate that even in the presence of a large infarct, exercise training exerts beneficial effects on the heart. These effects were mimicked in part by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) overexpression and abrogated by eNOS deficiency, demonstrating the importance of nitric oxide signaling in mediating the cardiac effects of exercise. Exercise prior to a myocardial infarction was also cardioprotective. In contrast, exercise tended to aggravate pathological cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in the setting of pressure-overload produced by an aortic stenosis. These observations emphasize the critical importance of the underlying pathological stimulus for cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling, in determining the effects of exercise training. Future studies are needed to define the influence of exercise type, intensity and duration in different models and severities of pathological cardiac remodeling. Together such studies will aid in optimizing the therapy of exercise training in the setting of cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Esforço Físico , Remodelação Ventricular , Animais , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos
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