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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(2): 1145-1154, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400865

RESUMO

Very-short- (vSCCPs, C6-9), short- (SCCPs, C10-13), medium- (MCCPs, C14-17), and long-chain chlorinated paraffins (LCCPs, C>17) were analyzed in indoor air and dust collected from the living rooms and personal 24 h air of 61 adults from a Norwegian cohort. Relatively volatile CPs, i.e., vSCCPs and SCCPs, showed a greater tendency to partition from settled indoor dust to paired stationary indoor air from the same living rooms than MCCPs and LCCPs, with median logarithmic dust-air partition ratios of 1.3, 2.9, 4.1, and 5.4, respectively. Using the stationary indoor air and settled indoor dust concentrations, the combined median daily exposures to vSCCPs, SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs were estimated to be 0.074, 2.7, 0.93, and 0.095 ng/kg bw/d, respectively. Inhalation was the predominant exposure pathway for vSCCPs (median 99%) and SCCPs (59%), while dust ingestion was the predominant exposure pathway for MCCPs (75%) and LCCPs (95%). The estimated inhalation exposure to total CPs was ∼ 5 times higher when the personal 24 h air results were used rather than the corresponding stationary indoor air results in 13 paired samples, indicating that exposure situations other than living rooms contributed significantly to the overall personal exposure. The 95th percentile exposure for CPs did not exceed the reference dose.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143351, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183795

RESUMO

Fish dwelling in remote mountain water systems are sensitive to long term exposure of POPs and can be used as an important bioindicator of POPs pollution in fragile mountain ecosystems. Current study aimed to investigate the concentrations and patterns of organic pollutants in fish tissues from different lakes of the Lesser Himalayan Region (LHR). OCPs, PCBs, PBDEs were analyzed in four common edible fish species of the LHR: Oncorhynchus mykiss, Labeo rohita, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Orechromis aureus. The fish were collected from lakes with different types of catchment areas (glacial, non-glacial mountain region and urban region) and extent of anthropogenic influence. The levels OCPs, PCBs and PBDEs analyzed in the selected fish species were in range of 0.21-587, 6.4-138 and 1.2-14 ng g-1 lw, respectively. The ∑DDTs, higher chlorinated PCBs, tetra- and penta-BDEs were more prevalent in urban and remote lakes whereas pp'-DDE, lower chlorinated PCBs and BDE-47 and -99 were predominant in fish species from glacial lakes. ∑DDTs, ∑PCBs and ∑PBDEs showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) among species, trophic guilds (carnivore, herbivore and omnivore) and feeding regimes (surface, bottom and column feeder) and ∑HCH showed a significant difference only among trophic guilds. The stable isotope values of δ 15N and δ13C differed significantly among species for ∑HCH, ∑PCBs, ∑PBDEs (p < 0.05) and ∑DDT (p < 0.01). The range of δ13C values (-34 to -19‰) indicated the importance of littoral and pelagic sources of dietary carbon. Trophic position and dietary proxies were identified as important variables for explaining the variability of the studied compounds. Kohonen self-organizing maps (SOM) showed that in addition to trophic position and other physiological characteristics of fish, that the type of lakes and proximal sources of POPs were the most important predictors for distribution of organic contaminants in fish samples from LHR.

3.
Environ Sci Technol Lett ; 7(3): 198-205, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32953926

RESUMO

Up to 18000 ng of total chlorinated paraffins (CPs) was found in hand wipes of individual adult participants in a Norwegian cohort study (n = 60), with a geometric mean (SD) value of 870 (2700) ng. The CPs covered a wide range of alkane chain lengths from C7 to C48 with variable chlorine substitution. Complex mixtures of very-short-chain (vSCCPs, C<10), short-chain (SCCPs, C10-13), medium-chain (MCCPs, C14-17), and long-chain (LCCPs, C>17) CPs were found, contributing on average 0.3%, 20%, 58%, and 22%, respectively, of the total CPs. Significant positive correlations were found between CP levels and factors related to the indoor environment and product use, including living in a house/apartment built before the ban of SCCPs, having a sofa, the number of TVs in the home, and owning a car, which mirrors CP usage as flame retardants and/or plasticizers in consumer products. Compared to previous studies of other organic contaminants in hand wipe samples from the same cohort, CPs were the most abundant flame retardants. This is the first report of CPs in hand wipes, and dermal exposure based on these data suggested that hand contact could be an important human exposure pathway for LCCPs.

4.
Environ Int ; 144: 106037, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835922

RESUMO

While new chemicals have replaced major toxic legacy contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), knowledge of their current levels and biomagnification potential in Baltic Sea biota is lacking. Therefore, a suite of chemicals of emerging concern, including organophosphate esters (OPEs), short-chain, medium-chain and long-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs, MCCPs, LCCPs), halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), were analysed in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), viviparous eelpout (Zoarces viviparus), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), common eider (Somateria mollissima), common guillemot (Uria aalge) and white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) from the Baltic Proper, sampled between 2006 and 2016. Results were benchmarked with existing data for legacy contaminants. The mean concentrations for ΣOPEs ranged from 57 to 550 ng g-1 lipid weight (lw), for ΣCPs from 110 to 640 ng g-1 lw for ΣHFRs from 0.42 to 80 ng g-1 lw, and for ΣPFAS from 1.1 to 450 ng g-1 wet weight. Perfluoro-4-ethylcyclohexanesulfonate (PFECHS) was detected in most species. Levels of OPEs, CPs and HFRs were generally similar or higher than those of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and/or hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD). OPE, CP and HFR concentrations were also similar to PCBs and DDTs in blue mussel, viviparous eelpout and Atlantic herring. In marine mammals and birds, PCB and DDT concentrations remained orders of magnitude higher than those of OPEs, CPs, HFRs and PFAS. Predator-prey ratios for individual OPEs (0.28-3.9) and CPs (0.40-5.0) were similar or somewhat lower than those seen for BDE-47 (5.0-29) and HBCDD (2.4-13). Ratios for individual HFRs (0.010-37) and PFAS (0.15-47) were, however, of the same order of magnitude as seen for p,p'-DDE (4.7-66) and CB-153 (31-190), indicating biomagnification potential for many of the emerging contaminants. Lack of toxicity data, including for complex mixtures, makes it difficult to assess the risks emerging contaminants pose. Their occurence and biomagnification potential should trigger risk management measures, particularly for MCCPs, HFRs and PFAS.

6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(5): 2753-2762, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036653

RESUMO

Very-short, short-, medium-, and long-chain chlorinated paraffins (vSCCPs, SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs, respectively) were analyzed in different tissues of the terrestrial short-tailed mamushi (Gloydius brevicaudus) and the semi-aquatic red-backed rat snake (Elaphe rufodorsata) from the Yangtze River Delta, China. The total CP concentrations in liver, muscle, and adipose tissues in the two snake species were in the range of 2500-24 000, 4900-48 000, and 12-630 ng/g lw, respectively. Tissue burdens indicated that vSCCPs (C6-9) and SCCPs (C10-13) preferentially distributed to snake liver, while adipose was an important storage site and sink of MCCPs (C14-17) and LCCPs (C>18). On a lipid weight basis, vSCCPs and SCCPs were found in highest concentrations in red-backed rat snake liver and MCCPs and LCCPs in muscle, whereas for short-tailed mamushi, all CP groups were predominant in muscle, probably reflecting ecosystem/food web differences. Moreover, vSCCPs, SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs were found to be biomagnified from black-spotted frogs to red-backed rat snakes with mean (maximum) biomagnification factors of 2.2 (3.4), 1.9 (3.7), 1.8 (2.8), and 1.7 (4.5), respectively. This is the first field study of biomagnification potential involving vSCCPs and LCCPs and highlights the need to include all CPs in studies.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Parafina , Animais , Bioacumulação , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Serpentes , Distribuição Tecidual
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 713: 136353, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955071

RESUMO

Environmental contamination with metals and organic compounds is of increasing concern for ecosystem and human health. Still, our knowledge about spatial distribution, temporal changes and ecotoxicological fate of metals and organic contaminants in wildlife is limited. We studied concentrations of 69 elements and 50 organic compounds in 300 bank voles (Myodes glareolus), Europe's most common mammal, sampled in spring and autumn 2017-2018 in five monitoring areas, representing three biogeographic regions. In addition, we compared measured concentrations with previous results from bank voles sampled within the same areas in 1995-1997 and 2001. In general, our results show regional differences, but no consistent patterns among contaminants and study areas. The exception was for the lowest concentrations of organic contaminants (e.g. perfluorooctane sulfonate, PFOS), which were generally found in the northern Swedish mountain area. Concentrations of metals and organic contaminants in adults varied seasonally with most organic contaminants being higher in spring; likely induced by diet shifts but potentially also related to age differences. In addition, metal concentrations varied between organs (liver vs. kidney), age classes (juveniles vs. adults; generally higher in adults) as well as between males and females. Concentrations of chromium and nickel in kidney and liver in the northernmost mountain area were lower in 2017-2018 than in 1995-1997 and in three of four areas, lead concentrations were lower in 2017-2018 than in 2001. Current metal concentrations (except mercury) are not expected to negatively affect the voles. Concentrations of hexachlorobenzene displayed highest concentrations in 2001 in the mountains, while it was close to detection limit in 2017-2018. Likewise, PFOS concentrations decreased in the mountains and in south-central lowland forests between 2001 and 2017-2018. Our results suggest that season, age class and sex need to be considered when designing and interpreting results from monitoring programs targeting inorganic and organic contaminants in wildlife.


Assuntos
Arvicolinae , Ecossistema , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Masculino , Metais , Suécia
8.
Environ Res ; 178: 108731, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539819

RESUMO

Sixty-one serum samples from a Norwegian cohort were analyzed for 43 emerging and legacy halogenated flame retardants (HFRs). BDE-47, -153, -197 and -209 were detected in >56% of the samples with median concentrations of 0.23, 1.0, 0.64 and 1.5 ng/g lipid, respectively. BDE-49, -85, -99, -100, -154, -206, -207, -208 as well as HBB, syn- and anti-DDC-CO, OBTMPI, DBDPE, α-HBCDD and TBBPA were also detected in some serum samples (detection frequencies of 2-36%). Other tri-octaBDEs, TBP-AE, α- and ß-DBE-DBCH, BATE, pTBX, αß-TBCO, PBBz, TBCT, PBT, PBEB, DPTE, EH-TBB, BTBPE, BEH-TEBP, HCDBCO, ß- and γ-HBCDD were below the limits of detection (mLOD). Concentrations of individual BDE congeners detected in this study were within the range from previous European studies. Positive correlations were seen between concentrations of BDE-47 in dust and BDE-153 in serum, between BDE-153 in dust and BDE-153 in serum, and between BDE-153 masses in handwipes and BDE-47 concentrations in serum (Spearman's rank, 0.29 < r < 0.43). Associations between the number of phones/mobiles, numbers of electronic equipment per person in the home and the consumption of specific food categories (such as soups/spices/sauces and alcoholic beverages) with BDE-47 and -153 serum levels were confirmed by multivariate linear regression analyses. The measured median serum level of BDE-47 was slightly over-predicted by a factor of 5.5 whereas other BDE congeners were under-predicted by factors of 13-6000 when compared to serum concentrations predicted from external exposure media (inhalation, dermal uptake, dietary intake from duplicate diet and dust ingestion) using a simple one compartment pharmacokinetic (PK) model. BDE-153 was not detected and BDE-197 not analyzed in food so no dietary intake assessments for these could be made, which may partially explain the discrepancies between their measured and predicted serum concentrations. Overall, our results suggest that exposure via diet is the most important exposure pathway for BDE-47 and -209, with diet being responsible for more than 96% of the total daily intake of these two BDEs in the Norwegian cohort.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Poeira , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Noruega
9.
Environ Int ; 130: 104955, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260927

RESUMO

Very short-chain chlorinated paraffins (vSCCPs, C6-9) occurred in 94% of wildlife samples from the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China, with CnClm comparable to that of a local CP product, CP-52. Therefore, we determined the content of vSCCPs in CP-52 using a mathematical deconvolution technique. Then with CP-52 and several other reference standards, vSCCPs together with short-, medium-, and long-chain CPs were quantified in 21 wildlife species from an artificial wetland ecosystem and a freshwater ecosystem in the YRD. Concentrations of vSCCPs ranged from 2.6 to 8400 ng/g lipid. These concentrations were 1.2-380 fold lower than SCCPs, but were significantly correlated with those of SCCPs. vSCCP concentrations were comparable to or higher than reported for brominated flame retardants in the same samples. Bioaccumulation tendency of vSCCPs was identified in two benthic species, indicating congener-specific accumulation of vSCCPs in the environment.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Parafina/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Biológico , Aves , China , Peixes , Água Doce , Invertebrados , Mustelidae , Répteis , Áreas Alagadas , Zigoto/química
10.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 21(7): 1115-1131, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237594

RESUMO

Little is known about brominated flame retardant (BFR) dynamics in birds, especially large molecules such as decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209). In particular, bioaccumulation from food and transfer dynamics to eggs are poorly understood. Therefore, an input-output mass balance study of tri-decaBDEs, DBDPE and HBCDD was performed in three female peregrine falcons from a captive breeding program by analyzing their naturally contaminated food (quail, chicken (cockerels)), plasma, feces and eggs. Predominant BFRs in cockerels and quail were BDE-209 and DBDPE, as well as HBCDD in quail. The predominant BFRs found in falcon plasma were BDE-209, -153 and -183, in eggs, HBCDD, BDE-209 and -153 and in feces, BDE-209. Mean absorption efficiencies (AE) for the tetra-octabrominated BDEs ranged from 84-100% and 70% for HBCDD. The AEs for BDE-206, -207, -208 and -209 varied due to the large variability seen for feces fluxes. All egg/plasma ratios for BDEs were similar and greater than one (range 1.1-2.7), including for BDE-209, indicating efficient transfer from females to the eggs. Excretion via egg-laying was approximately 6.0-29% of the initial, pre-breeding body burden of individual penta-decaBDE congeners, (15-45% for BDE-206). HBCDD was not detected in plasma but was found in eggs, also indicating efficient transfer and excretion via eggs. Input fluxes from food exceeded the output fluxes (feces, eggs) indicating considerable metabolism for tetra-octaBDEs, possibly also for the nona-decaBDEs and HBCDD. Bioaccumulation factors calculated from lipid weight concentrations in plasma and food (BAFp) were highest for BDE-208 (31), -153 (23), -209 (19) and -207 (16) and from eggs and food (BAFe), were highest for HBCDD (140), BDE-153 (41), -208 (42), BDE-207 (24) and BDE-209 (21). BAFe and BAFp values were below 10 for BDE-47, -99 and -100. For one falcon, egg results were available from three different years and estimated half-lives were 65 d (BDE-99), 624 d (BDE-153), 31 d (BDE-154), 349 d (BDE-183), 77 d (BDE-196) and 89 d (BDE-197).


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Falconiformes/metabolismo , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Ração Animal , Animais , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Falconiformes/sangue , Fezes/química , Feminino , Cadeia Alimentar , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/sangue , Limite de Detecção , Óvulo/química , Suécia
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(7): 3526-3537, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848596

RESUMO

Short-, medium-, and long-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs) have a wide range of physical-chemical properties, indicating their varying bioaccumulation tendencies in marine and terrestrial ecosystems. However, there are few empirical data to reveal such bioaccumulation tendencies. In this study, we analyzed SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in samples from 18 species at both low and high trophic levels of marine and terrestrial ecosystems from the Scandinavian region collected during the past decade. These included fish, seabirds, marine mammals, and terrestrial birds and mammals. SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs were present in all the species, with concentrations ranging from 26-1500, 30-1600, 6.0-1200 ng/g lipid, respectively. Although MCCPs and SCCPs predominated in most species, many terrestrial species had generally higher concentrations of LCCPs than marine species. Terrestrial raptors in particular accumulated higher concentrations of LCCPs, including C24/25-which are predominant among very-long-chain components. LCCP concentrations were highest and predominated (55% of total CPs) in peregrine falcons in this study, which is the first report where concentrations of LCCPs surpass those of SCCPs and MCCPs in wildlife. The results also indicate biomagnification of SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in both marine and terrestrial food chains, but in-depth studies of specific food webs are needed.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Parafina , Animais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(4): 2124-2133, 2019 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681843

RESUMO

A wide range of organohalogenated flame retardants (HFRs) and organophosphate esters (OPEs) were measured in air and floor dust from 10 offices in Stockholm, Sweden. Concentrations of ∑18 emerging HFRs, ∑21 legacy HFRs and ∑11 OPEs from the offices were found to be 420, 510, and 1600000 ng/g, respectively, in floor dust and 400, 15, and 160 000 pg/m3 respectively in active air samples. All targeted compounds were detected in dust except 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo- p-xylene (pTBX) indicating widespread application of a broad range of FRs in the Swedish offices while only 54% of targeted compounds were detected in indoor air. Estimated ∑OPE exposure in Swedish offices is 3-4 orders of magnitude higher than for ∑emerging HFRs and ∑legacy HFRs via all three different exposure routes in our study. Adult's estimated intakes of emerging and legacy HFRs and OPEs from office air and dust during working hours (30% of a day) are some orders of magnitude lower than the corresponding reference doses (RfD). However, in worst case exposure scenarios (maximum concentrations and high dust intake), the intake of tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) was one-third of its RfD, which may be of potential concern if exposure is as high in other microenvironments.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Retardadores de Chama , Adulto , Poeira , Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ésteres , Humanos , Organofosfatos , Suécia
13.
Environ Res ; 171: 204-212, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665122

RESUMO

Plasticizers are a category of chemicals extensively used in consumer products and, consequently, their presence is ubiquitous in the indoor environment. In the present study, an analytical method has been developed for the quantification of plasticizers (7 legacy phthalate esters (LPEs) and 14 alternative plasticizers (APs)) in indoor floor dust based on ultrasonic and vortex extraction, Florisil fractionation and GC-(EI)-MS analysis. Dust samples (n = 54) were collected from homes, offices, and daycare centers from different EU countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, Ireland and Sweden). Method LOQs ranged from 0.2 to 5 µg/g. Tri-n-hexyl trimellitate (THTM) was not detected in any sample, whereas dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diphenyl phthalate and acetyl triethyl citrate (ATEC) were detected only in 6, 2 and 1 out of 54 samples, respectively. The highest concentrations of plasticizers were measured in Swedish offices, at a mean concentration of total plasticizers of 1800 µg/g, followed by Swedish daycare centers at 1200 and 670 µg/g for winter and spring sampling, respectively. Generally, the contribution of APs was slightly higher than for LPEs for all indoor environments (mean contribution 60% and 40%, respectively based on contributions per indoor environment). For the APs, main contributors were DINP in Belgian homes (28%), Swedish offices (60%), Swedish daycare centers (48%), and Dutch offices (31%) and DEHT in Belgian (28%), Irish (40%) and Dutch homes (37%) of total APs. The predominant LPE was bis-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP) with a mean contribution varying from 60% to 85% of total LPEs. Human exposure was evaluated for dust ingestion and dermal absorption using hazard quotients (HQs) of plasticizers (ratio between average daily doses and the reference dose). None of the HQs of plasticizers exceeded 1, meaning that the risk for adverse human health effects from these plasticizers via dust ingestion and dermal absorption is unlikely.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Plastificantes/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Bélgica , Humanos , Irlanda , Países Baixos , Ácidos Ftálicos , Suécia
14.
Environ Pollut ; 240: 514-522, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29758525

RESUMO

We investigated the concentrations and temporal variability of organophospate esters (OPEs), halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in indoor and outdoor urban air in Stockholm, Sweden over one year (2014-2015) period. The median concentrations of the three target chemical groups (OPEs, HFRs, PBDEs) were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher in indoor air than outdoor urban air. OPEs were the most abundant target FRs with median concentrations in indoor (Σ10OPE = 340 000 pg/m3) and outdoor urban (Σ10OPEs = 3100 pg/m3) air, being 3 orders of magnitude greater than for HFRs in indoor (Σ15HFRs = 120 pg/m3) and outdoor urban (Σ15HFRs = 1.6 pg/m3) air. In indoor air, PBDE concentrations (Σ17PBDEs = 33 pg/m3) were lower than for the HFRs, but in outdoor urban air, concentrations (Σ17PBDEs = 1.1 pg/m3) were similar to HFRs. The most abundant OPEs in both the indoor and outdoor urban air were tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBOEP), tris(chloroisopropyl)phosphate (TCIPP), tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP), tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TnBP), triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) and tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)phosphate (TDCIPP). TCIPP in indoor air was found in the highest concentrations and showed the greatest temporal variability, which ranged from 85 000 to 1 900 000 pg/m3 during the one-year sampling period. We speculate that activities in the building, e.g. floor cleaning, polishing, construction, introduction of new electronics and changes in ventilation rate could explain its variation. Some OPEs (TnBP, TCEP, TCIPP, TDCIPP and TPhP), HFRs/PBDEs (pentabromotoluene, 2, 3-dibromopropyl 2, 4, 6-tribromophenyl ether, hexabromobenzene, BDE-28, -47, and -99) in outdoor urban air showed seasonality, with increased concentrations during the warm period (p < 0.05, Pearson's r ranged from -0.45 to -0.91). The observed seasonality for OPEs was probably due to changes in primary emission, and those for the HFRs and PBDEs was likely due to re-volatilization from contaminated surfaces.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Organofosfatos/análise , Poeira/análise , Ésteres , Halogenação , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , Bifenil Polibromatos/análise , Suécia
15.
Environ Int ; 115: 285-294, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29621716

RESUMO

There are few studies estimating dermal exposure to halogenated flame retardants in adults. To fill this gap, sixty-one hand wipe samples were collected from a Norwegian adult cohort using gauze pads immersed in isopropanol. BDE-47, BDE-209, bis(2­ethyl­hexyl)­3,4,5,6­tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP) and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) were the most frequently detected chemicals. The highest median mass in hand wipes was that of sumEHFR (570 ng), followed by sumHBCDD (180 ng) and sumPBDE (2.9 ng). The high EHFR level was mainly driven by tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) which accounted for 77% of the total mass. Positive and significant correlations were observed between FR levels in hand wipes and settled dust (0.26 < r < 0.56, p < 0.05), as well as between FR levels in hand wipes and the number of electronic consumer products at home (0.27 < r < 0.40, p < 0.05). Significant bivariate associations with number of laptops/tablets and phones/mobiles were further confirmed by multivariate linear regression analyses. Dermal exposure was estimated using the levels measured in handwipes. The estimated median dermal exposure was 2600, 840 and 6.2 pg/kg bw/d for sumEHFR, sumHBCDD and sumPBDE, respectively. Further, we compared these results with the dermal exposure as estimated indirectly by utilizing previously reported FR levels in settled dust collected from the residences of the same studied cohort. With the indirect approach, higher dermal exposures to sumPBDE but lower exposures to sumEHFR and sumHBCDD were observed compared to the direct dermal exposure estimated via hand wipes. Comparable exposure estimates between hand wipes and the indirect method were obtained for α­, ß­tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (DBE-DBCH), DBDPE, BDE-28, -35, -49, -99, -153, 154, and -183. For other individual HFRs, the exposure estimates obtained from the two approaches were significantly different (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.05). Both methods gave similar dermal exposure estimates for many individual FRs. However, it is important to be aware of the value and limitations of each method when using them to estimate human exposure.


Assuntos
Poeira/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 52(8): 4878-4888, 2018 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29569442

RESUMO

Children spend a considerable part of their day in preschool, where they may be exposed to hazardous chemicals in indoor dust. In this study, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and organophosphate esters (OPEs) were analyzed in preschool dust ( n = 100) and children's hand wipe samples ( n = 100), and diphenyl phosphate (DPHP) was analyzed in urine ( n = 113). Here we assessed children's exposure via dust, identified predictors for chemicals in dust, and studied correlations between different exposure measures. The most abundant BFRs in dust were decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) found at median levels of 270 and 110 ng/g dust, respectively. Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) was the most abundant OPE, found at a median level of 79 000 ng/g dust. For all OPEs and some BFRs, there were significant correlations between the levels in dust and hand wipes. In addition, triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) in preschool dust was significantly correlated with the corresponding metabolite DPHP in children's urine. The levels of pentaBDEs in dust were higher in older preschools compared with newer, whereas levels of DBDPE were higher in newer preschools. Children's estimated intakes of individual BFRs and OPEs via preschool dust were below available health-based reference values. However, there are uncertainties about the potential health effects of some emerging BFRs and OPEs.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Retardadores de Chama , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Poeira , Exposição Ambiental , Ésteres , Humanos , Organofosfatos
17.
Environ Int ; 112: 115-126, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29272775

RESUMO

Phthalate esters are substances mainly used as plasticizers in various applications. Some have been restricted and phased out due to their adverse health effects and ubiquitous presence, leading to the introduction of alternative plasticizers, such as DINCH. Using a comprehensive dataset from a Norwegian study population, human exposure to DMP, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzP, DEHP, DINP, DIDP, DPHP and DINCH was assessed by measuring their presence in external exposure media, allowing an estimation of the total intake, as well as the relative importance of different uptake pathways. Intake via different uptake routes, in particular inhalation, dermal absorption, and oral uptake was estimated and total intake based on all uptake pathways was compared to the calculated intake from biomonitoring data. Hand wipe results were used to determine dermal uptake and compared to other exposure sources such as air, dust and personal care products. Results showed that the calculated total intakes were similar, but slightly higher than those based on biomonitoring methods by 1.1 to 3 times (median), indicating a good understanding of important uptake pathways. The relative importance of different uptake pathways was comparable to other studies, where inhalation was important for lower molecular weight phthalates, and negligible for the higher molecular weight phthalates and DINCH. Dietary intake was the predominant exposure route for all analyzed substances. Dermal uptake based on hand wipes was much lower (median up to 2000 times) than the total dermal uptake via air, dust and personal care products. Still, dermal uptake is not a well-studied exposure pathway and several research gaps (e.g. absorption fractions) remain. Based on calculated intakes, the exposure for the Norwegian participants to the phthalates and DINCH was lower than health based limit values. Nevertheless, exposure to alternative plasticizers, such as DPHP and DINCH, is expected to increase in the future and continuous monitoring is required.


Assuntos
Derme/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Plastificantes/análise , Derme/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Noruega , Ácidos Ftálicos/farmacocinética , Plastificantes/farmacocinética , Absorção Cutânea
18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(24): 14199-14208, 2017 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29155575

RESUMO

Temporal trends of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) were analyzed in three sediment cores collected near different potential CP sources along the Swedish Baltic Sea coast. C8-C36 CPs were found in sediment dating back to the 1930s. The maximum CP concentrations found in proximity to a metropolitan sewage treatment plant, a wood-related industrial area, and a steel factory were 48, 160, and 1400 ng/g d.w., respectively, in sediment sections dated from the early 1990s or the 2000s. The temporal trends agree with statistics on CP importation in Sweden or local industrial activities. MCCPs (C14-C17 CPs) and LCCPs (C≥18 CPs) predominated in most sediments with average percentage compositions of 47 ± 20% and 37 ± 20%, respectively. Concentrations of SCCPs in the three cores showed a decreasing trend in recent years. The temporal trends of MCCPs indicated that these are currently the predominant CPs in use. This study showed for the first time that LCCPs from C18 to C36, as well as C8-C17 CPs, are persistent in sediments over the last 50-80 years, indicating that CPs are persistent chemicals regardless of alkane-chain lengths.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Sedimentos Geológicos , Parafina , Suécia
19.
Environ Int ; 109: 73-80, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28941391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlorinated paraffins (CPs, polychlorinated n-alkanes) are versatile, high-production-volume chemicals. A previous study indicated that hand blenders leak CPs into prepared food. OBJECTIVES: (1) to estimate exposure to CPs from hand blender use compared to background CP exposure from diet; (2) to assess the risk from human dietary exposure to CPs from hand blender use; (3) to investigate how hand blenders leak out CPs. METHODS: CPs were analyzed in food market baskets, in cooking oil/water samples (1g oil/100mL water) mixed using 16 different hand blenders, and in dismantled components of the hand blenders. RESULTS: Dietary intake of CPs from food market baskets was calculated to be 4.6µg/day per capita for Swedish adults. Total CP amounts in oil/water leakage samples ranged from <0.09 to 120µg using the hand blenders once. CP leakage showed no decreasing levels after 20 times of hand blender usage. CP profiles in the leakage samples matched those of self-lubricating bearings and/or polymer components disassembled from the hand blenders. CONCLUSIONS: Usage of 75% of the hand blenders tested will lead to increased human exposure to CPs. The intake of CPs for Swedish adults by using hand blenders once a day can raise their daily dietary intake by a factor of up to 26. The 95th percentile intake of CPs via using the hand blenders once a day exceeded the TDI for Swedish infants with a body weight <7.2kg. CP leakage came from blender components which contain CPs. The leakage may last several hundred times of hand blender use.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Parafina/análise , Adulto , Culinária , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Lactente , Suécia
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 51(18): 10633-10641, 2017 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28813149

RESUMO

Accurate quantification of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) poses an exceptional challenge to analytical chemists. SCCPs are complex mixtures of chlorinated alkanes with variable chain length and chlorination level; congeners with a fixed chain length (n) and number of chlorines (m) are referred to as a "congener group" CnClm. Recently, we resolved individual CnClm by mathematically deconvolving soft ionization high-resolution mass spectra of SCCP mixtures. Here we extend the method to quantifying CnClm by introducing CnClm specific response factors (RFs) that are calculated from 17 SCCP chain-length standards with a single carbon chain length and variable chlorination level. The signal pattern of each standard is measured on APCI-QTOF-MS. RFs of each CnClm are obtained by pairwise optimization of the normal distribution's fit to the signal patterns of the 17 chain-length standards. The method was verified by quantifying SCCP technical mixtures and spiked environmental samples with accuracies of 82-123% and 76-109%, respectively. The absolute differences between calculated and manufacturer-reported chlorination degrees were -0.9 to 1.0%Cl for SCCP mixtures of 49-71%Cl. The quantification method has been replicated with ECNI magnetic sector MS and ECNI-Q-Orbitrap-MS. CnClm concentrations determined with the three instruments were highly correlated (R2 > 0.90) with each other.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Parafina/análise , Meio Ambiente , Halogenação , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Parafina/química
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