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2.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(5): 1128-1139, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canagliflozin reduced renal and cardiovascular events in people with type 2 diabetes in the CREDENCE trial. We assessed efficacy and safety of canagliflozin by initial estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). METHODS: CREDENCE randomly assigned 4401 participants with an eGFR of 30 to <90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and substantial albuminuria to canagliflozin 100 mg or placebo. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to analyze effects on renal and cardiovascular efficacy and safety outcomes within screening eGFR subgroups (30 to <45, 45 to <60, and 60 to <90 ml/min per 1.73 m2) and linear mixed effects models to analyze the effects on eGFR slope. RESULTS: At screening, 1313 (30%), 1279 (29%), and 1809 (41%) participants had an eGFR of 30 to <45, 45 to <60, and 60 to <90 ml/min per 1.73 m2, respectively. The relative benefits of canagliflozin for renal and cardiovascular outcomes appeared consistent among eGFR subgroups (all P interaction >0.11). Subgroups with lower eGFRs, who were at greater risk, exhibited larger absolute benefits for renal outcomes. Canagliflozin's lack of effect on serious adverse events, amputations, and fractures appeared consistent among eGFR subgroups. In all subgroups, canagliflozin use led to an acute eGFR drop followed by relative stabilization of eGFR loss. Among those with an eGFR of 30 to <45 ml/min per 1.73 m2, canagliflozin led to an initial drop of 2.03 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Thereafter, decline in eGFR was slower in the canagliflozin versus placebo group (-1.72 versus -4.33 ml/min per 1.73 m2; between-group difference 2.61 ml/min per 1.73 m2). CONCLUSIONS: Canagliflozin safely reduced the risk of renal and cardiovascular events, with consistent results across eGFR subgroups, including the subgroup initiating treatment with an eGFR of 30 to <45 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Absolute benefits for renal outcomes were greatest in subgroups with lower eGFR. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NAME AND REGISTRATION NUMBER: Evaluation of the Effects of Canagliflozin on Renal and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Participants With Diabetic Nephropathy (CREDENCE), NCT02065791.

3.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 15(5): 625-632, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition (RAASi) is a cornerstone in the treatment of children with CKD, it is sometimes discontinued when kidney function declines. We studied the reasons of RAASi discontinuation and associations between RAASi discontinuation and important risk markers of CKD progression and on eGFR decline in the Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with CKD study. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: In this study, 69 children with CKD (67% male, mean age 13.7 years, mean eGFR 27 ml/min per 1.73 m2) who discontinued RAASi during prospective follow-up were included. Initial change in BP, albuminuria, and potassium after discontinuation were assessed (median time 6 months). Rate of eGFR decline (eGFR slope) during a median of 1.9 years before and 1.2 years after discontinuation were estimated using linear mixed effects modeling. RESULTS: Physician-reported reasons for RAASi discontinuation were increase in serum creatinine, hyperkalemia, and symptomatic hypotension. After discontinuation of RAASi, BP and albuminuria increased, whereas potassium decreased. eGFR declined more rapidly after discontinuation of RAASi (-3.9 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year; 95% confidence interval, -5.1 to -2.6) compared with the slope during RAASi treatment (-1.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year; 95% confidence interval, -2.4 to -0.6; P=0.005). In contrast, no change in eGFR slope was observed in a matched control cohort of patients in whom RAASi was continued. CONCLUSIONS: Discontinuation of RAASi in children with CKD is associated with an acceleration of kidney function decline, even in advanced CKD.

4.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(Supplement_2): ii38-ii42, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162661

RESUMO

The current guideline treatment for patients with diabetes and nephropathy to lower the high risk of renal and cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality is based on results of clinical studies that have tested new drugs in large groups of patients with diabetes and high renal/CV risk. Although this has delivered breakthrough therapies like angiotensin receptor blockers, the residual renal/CV risk remains extremely high. Many subsequent trials have tried to further reduce this residual renal/CV risk, without much success. Post hoc analyses have indicated that these failures are, at least partly, due to a large variability in response between and within the patients. The current 'group approach' to designing and evaluating new drugs, as well as group-oriented drug registration and guideline recommendations, does not take this individual response variation into account. Like with antibiotics and cancer treatment, a more individual approach is warranted to effectively optimize individual results. New tools to better evaluate the individual risk change have been developed for improved clinical trial design and to avoid trial failures. One of these tools, the composite multiple parameter response efficacy score , is based on monitoring changes in all available risk factors and integrating them into a prediction of ultimate renal and CV risk reduction. This score has also been modelled into a clinical decision support system for use in monitoring and changing the therapy in individual patients to protect them from renal/CV events. In conclusion, future treatment of renal/CV risk in diabetes should transition from an era of 'one size fits all' into the new era of 'a fit for each size'.

6.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 75(1): 84-104, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473020

RESUMO

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) are currently willing to consider a 30% to 40% glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decline as a surrogate end point for kidney failure for clinical trials of kidney disease progression under appropriate conditions. However, these end points may not be practical for early stages of kidney disease. In March 2018, the National Kidney Foundation sponsored a scientific workshop in collaboration with the FDA and EMA to evaluate changes in albuminuria or GFR as candidate surrogate end points. Three parallel efforts were presented: meta-analyses of observational studies (cohorts), meta-analyses of clinical trials, and simulations of trial design. In cohorts, after accounting for measurement error, relationships between change in urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) or estimated GFR (eGFR) slope and the clinical outcome of kidney disease progression were strong and consistent. In trials, the posterior median R2 of treatment effects on the candidate surrogates with the clinical outcome was 0.47 (95% Bayesian credible interval [BCI], 0.02-0.96) for early change in UACR and 0.72 (95% BCI, 0.05-0.99) when restricted to baseline UACR>30mg/g, and 0.97 (95% BCI, 0.78-1.00) for total eGFR slope at 3 years and 0.96 (95% BCI, 0.63-1.00) for chronic eGFR slope (ie, the slope excluding the first 3 months from baseline, when there might be acute changes in eGFR). The magnitude of the relationships of changes in the candidate surrogates with risk for clinical outcome was consistent across cohorts and trials: a UACR reduction of 30% or eGFR slope reduction by 0.5 to 1.0mL/min/1.73m2 per year were associated with an HR of ∼0.7 for the clinical outcome in cohorts and trials. In simulations, using GFR slope as an end point substantially reduced the required sample size and duration of follow-up compared with the clinical end point when baseline eGFR was high, treatment effects were uniform, and there was no acute effect of the treatment. We conclude that both early change in albuminuria and GFR slope fulfill criteria for surrogacy for use as end points in clinical trials for chronic kidney disease progression under certain conditions, with stronger support for change in GFR than albuminuria. Implementation requires understanding conditions under which each surrogate is likely to perform well and restricting its use to those settings.

7.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(1): 57-66, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676303

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore potential mediators of the effects of canagliflozin on heart failure in the CANVAS Program (CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study; NCT01032629 and CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study-Renal; NCT01989754). BACKGROUND: Canagliflozin reduced the risk of heart failure among patients with type 2 diabetes in the CANVAS Program. The mechanism of protection is uncertain. METHODS: The percentages of mediating effects of 19 biomarkers were determined by comparing the hazard ratios for the effect of randomized treatment from an unadjusted model and from a model adjusting for the biomarker of interest. Multivariable analyses were used to assess the joint effects of biomarkers that mediated most strongly in univariable analyses. RESULTS: Early changes after randomization in levels of 3 biomarkers (urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, serum bicarbonate, and serum urate) were identified as mediating the effect of canagliflozin on heart failure. Average post-randomization levels of 14 biomarkers (systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, weight, body mass index, gamma glutamyltransferase, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, serum albumin, erythrocyte concentration, serum bicarbonate, and serum urate) were identified as significant mediators. Individually, the 3 biomarkers with the largest mediating effect were erythrocyte concentration (45%), hemoglobin concentration (43%), and serum urate (40%). In a parsimonious multivariable model, erythrocyte concentration, serum urate, and urinary albumin:creatinine ratio were the 3 biomarkers that maximized cumulative mediation (102%). CONCLUSIONS: A diverse set of potential mediators of the effect of canagliflozin on heart failure were identified. Some mediating effects were anticipated, whereas others were not. The mediators that were identified support existing and novel hypothesized mechanisms for the prevention of heart failure with sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors.

9.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729107

RESUMO

AIMS: Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce several cardiovascular risk factors, including plasma glucose, blood pressure, albuminuria and body weight. Long-term treatment lowers risks of cardiovascular and renal events. The objective of this post hoc analysis was to determine the effects of canagliflozin treatment versus placebo on clinical outcomes in relation to body mass index (BMI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CANVAS Program randomized 10 142 participants with type 2 diabetes to canagliflozin or placebo. These analyses tested the consistency of canagliflozin treatment effects across BMI levels for cardiovascular, renal, safety and body weight outcomes in three groups defined by baseline BMI: <25, 25-<30 and ≥30 kg/m2 . RESULTS: In total, 10 128 participants with baseline BMI measurements were included. There were 966 participants with BMI <25 kg/m2 , 3153 with BMI 25-<30 kg/m2 and 6009 with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 . Mean percent body weight reduction with canagliflozin compared with placebo was greater at 12 months [-2.77% (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.95, -2.59)] than at 3 months [-1.72% (95% CI: -1.83, -1.62)]. The hazard ratios (HRs) for canagliflozin compared with placebo control for the composite outcome of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or non-fatal stroke were 1.03 (95% CI: 0.66, 1.59) in participants with BMI <25 kg/m2 , 0.97 (0.76, 1.23) with BMI 25-<30 kg/m2 and 0.79 (0.67, 0.93) with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (P for heterogeneity = 0.55). The effects of canagliflozin on each component of the composite were also similar across BMI subgroups, as were effects on heart failure and renal outcomes (P for heterogeneity ≥0.19). The effects on safety outcomes were also broadly similar. CONCLUSIONS: Canagliflozin improved cardiovascular and renal outcomes consistently across patients with a broad range of BMI levels.

10.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(11): 2229-2242, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: If SGLT2 inhibitors protect the kidneys by reducing albuminuria as hypothesized, people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with higher albuminuria should benefit more. METHODS: We conducted a post-hoc analysis of data from the CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS) Program, which randomized 10,142 participants with T2DM and high cardiovascular risk to canagliflozin or placebo. We assessed effects of canagliflozin on renal, cardiovascular, and safety outcomes by baseline albuminuria. The trial included 2266 participants (22.3%) with moderately increased albuminuria (urinary albumin/creatinine ratio [UACR] 30-300 mg/g) and 760 (7.5%) with severely increased albuminuria (UACR >300 mg/g) at baseline. RESULTS: Canagliflozin lowered albuminuria with greater proportional reductions in those with moderately and severely increased albuminuria (P heterogeneity<0.001). After week 13, canagliflozin slowed the annual loss of kidney function across albuminuria subgroups, with greater absolute reductions in participants with severely increased albuminuria (placebo-subtracted difference 3.01 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year; P heterogeneity<0.001). Heterogeneity for the renal composite outcome of 40% reduction in eGFR, ESKD, or renal-related death was driven by lesser effects in participants with moderately increased albuminuria (P heterogeneity=0.03), but no effect modification was observed when albuminuria was fitted as a continuous variable (P heterogeneity=0.94). Cardiovascular and safety outcomes were mostly consistent across albuminuria levels including increased risks for amputation across albuminuria subgroups (P heterogeneity=0.66). Greater absolute risk reductions in the renal composite outcome were observed in participants with severely increased albuminuria (P heterogeneity=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: The proportional effects of canagliflozin on renal and cardiovascular outcomes are mostly consistent across patients with different levels of albuminuria, but absolute benefits are greatest among those with severely increased albuminuria.

11.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(12): 2635-2642, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414562

RESUMO

AIM: The PLANET trials showed that atorvastatin 80 mg but not rosuvastatin at either 10 or 40 mg reduced urinary protein to creatinine ratio (UPCR) at similar effects on LDL-cholesterol. However, individual changes in both UPCR and LDL-cholesterol during treatment with these statins varied widely between patients. This inter-individual variability could not be explained by patients' physical or biochemical characteristics. We assessed whether the plasma concentrations of both statins were associated with LDL-cholesterol and UPCR response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PLANET trials randomized patients with a UPCR of 500-5000 mg/g and fasting LDL-cholesterol >2.33 mmol/L to a 52-week treatment with atorvastatin 80 mg, rosuvastatin 10 mg or 40 mg. For the current analysis, patients with available samples at week 52 and treatment compliance >80% by pill count were included (N = 295). The main outcome measurements were percentage change in UPCR and absolute change in LDL-cholesterol (delta LDL) from baseline to week 52. RESULTS: Median (interquartile range) plasma concentration at week 52 for atorvastatin 80 mg was 3.9 ng/mL (IQR: 2.1 to 8.7), for rosuvastatin 10 mg 1.0 ng/mL (IQR: 0.7 to 2.0) and for rosuvastatin 40 mg 3.5 ng/mL (IQR: 2.0 to 6.8). Higher plasma concentration of statin was associated with larger LDL-cholesterol reductions at week 52 [rosuvastatin r = -0.40 (P < .001); atorvastatin r = -0.28 (P = .006)]. The plasma concentration of both statins did not correlate with UPCR change [rosuvastatin r = 0.07 (P = .30); atorvastatin r = 0.16 (P = .13)]. CONCLUSIONS: Individual variation in plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin was associated with LDL-cholesterol changes in patients. The individual variation in UPCR change was not associated with the plasma concentration of both statins.

12.
Diabetologia ; 62(10): 1854-1867, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399845

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: An increased risk of fracture with canagliflozin vs placebo was reported from the CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS) Program, with heterogeneity of findings identified between the two trials that comprise the CANVAS Program, CANVAS and CANVAS-R. The objective of these analyses was to identify reasons for the possibly different effects on fracture observed between CANVAS and CANVAS-R. METHODS: This study was an analysis of two highly similar trials, CANVAS and CANVAS-R, conducted in 10,142 individuals with type 2 diabetes and history or high risk of cardiovascular disease who received canagliflozin (pooled 100/300 mg once daily) or placebo. Outcomes assessed in this analysis were effects on adjudicated fractures overall and by type, location, association with a fall, dose and follow-up time. RESULTS: A total of 496 participants recorded ≥1 fracture event during follow-up (15.40 vs 11.93 per 1000 patient-years with canagliflozin vs placebo; HR 1.26 [95% CI 1.04, 1.52]). There was significant heterogeneity in the effects on fracture (p = 0.005) between CANVAS (n = 4330: HR 1.55 [95% CI 1.21, 1.97]) and CANVAS-R (n = 5812: HR 0.86 [95% CI 0.62, 1.19]). The between-study heterogeneity in fracture risk was not clearly explained by differences in baseline characteristics, interactions of randomised treatment with participant characteristics, dose effects, duration of follow-up, metabolic effects, adverse events related to falls or adverse events possibly causing falls. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: There was no evidence to explain clearly the fracture risk observed in the CANVAS Program or the heterogeneity in fracture risk between the two studies. The recently reported null result for fracture in the Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE) trial suggests that the observed association in CANVAS is likely to be a chance finding, although an unidentified fall-related mechanism remains a possibility. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01032629, NCT01989754.

13.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(11): 2368-2383, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297976

RESUMO

Renal hyperfiltration, defined as an increased glomerular filtration rate above normal values, is associated with early phases of kidney disease in the setting of various conditions such as obesity and diabetes. Although it is recognized that glomerular hyperfiltration, that is, increased filtration per nephron unit (usually studied at low glomerular filtration levels and often referred to as single nephron hyperfiltration), is a risk factor for the progression of chronic kidney disease, the implications of having renal hyperfiltration for cardiovascular disease and mortality risk are incompletely understood. Recent evidence from diverse populations, including healthy individuals and patients with diabetes or established cardiovascular disease, suggests that renal hyperfiltration is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. In this review, we critically summarize the existing studies, discuss possible mechanisms, and describe the remaining gaps in our knowledge regarding the association of renal hyperfiltration with cardiovascular disease and mortality risk.

14.
Circulation ; 140(9): 739-750, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canagliflozin reduces the risk of kidney failure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, but effects on specific cardiovascular outcomes are uncertain, as are effects in people without previous cardiovascular disease (primary prevention). METHODS: In CREDENCE (Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes With Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation), 4401 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease were randomly assigned to canagliflozin or placebo on a background of optimized standard of care. RESULTS: Primary prevention participants (n=2181, 49.6%) were younger (61 versus 65 years), were more often female (37% versus 31%), and had shorter duration of diabetes mellitus (15 years versus 16 years) compared with secondary prevention participants (n=2220, 50.4%). Canagliflozin reduced the risk of major cardiovascular events overall (hazard ratio [HR], 0.80 [95% CI, 0.67-0.95]; P=0.01), with consistent reductions in both the primary (HR, 0.68 [95% CI, 0.49-0.94]) and secondary (HR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.69-1.06]) prevention groups (P for interaction=0.25). Effects were also similar for the components of the composite including cardiovascular death (HR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.61-1.00]), nonfatal myocardial infarction (HR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.59-1.10]), and nonfatal stroke (HR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.56-1.15]). The risk of the primary composite renal outcome and the composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure were also consistently reduced in both the primary and secondary prevention groups (P for interaction >0.5 for each outcome). CONCLUSIONS: Canagliflozin significantly reduced major cardiovascular events and kidney failure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, including in participants who did not have previous cardiovascular disease. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02065791.

15.
Lancet ; 393(10184): 1937-1947, 2019 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short-term treatment for people with type 2 diabetes using a low dose of the selective endothelin A receptor antagonist atrasentan reduces albuminuria without causing significant sodium retention. We report the long-term effects of treatment with atrasentan on major renal outcomes. METHODS: We did this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial at 689 sites in 41 countries. We enrolled adults aged 18-85 years with type 2 diabetes, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 25-75 mL/min per 1·73 m2 of body surface area, and a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) of 300-5000 mg/g who had received maximum labelled or tolerated renin-angiotensin system inhibition for at least 4 weeks. Participants were given atrasentan 0·75 mg orally daily during an enrichment period before random group assignment. Those with a UACR decrease of at least 30% with no substantial fluid retention during the enrichment period (responders) were included in the double-blind treatment period. Responders were randomly assigned to receive either atrasentan 0·75 mg orally daily or placebo. All patients and investigators were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was a composite of doubling of serum creatinine (sustained for ≥30 days) or end-stage kidney disease (eGFR <15 mL/min per 1·73 m2 sustained for ≥90 days, chronic dialysis for ≥90 days, kidney transplantation, or death from kidney failure) in the intention-to-treat population of all responders. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of their assigned study treatment. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01858532. FINDINGS: Between May 17, 2013, and July 13, 2017, 11 087 patients were screened; 5117 entered the enrichment period, and 4711 completed the enrichment period. Of these, 2648 patients were responders and were randomly assigned to the atrasentan group (n=1325) or placebo group (n=1323). Median follow-up was 2·2 years (IQR 1·4-2·9). 79 (6·0%) of 1325 patients in the atrasentan group and 105 (7·9%) of 1323 in the placebo group had a primary composite renal endpoint event (hazard ratio [HR] 0·65 [95% CI 0·49-0·88]; p=0·0047). Fluid retention and anaemia adverse events, which have been previously attributed to endothelin receptor antagonists, were more frequent in the atrasentan group than in the placebo group. Hospital admission for heart failure occurred in 47 (3·5%) of 1325 patients in the atrasentan group and 34 (2·6%) of 1323 patients in the placebo group (HR 1·33 [95% CI 0·85-2·07]; p=0·208). 58 (4·4%) patients in the atrasentan group and 52 (3·9%) in the placebo group died (HR 1·09 [95% CI 0·75-1·59]; p=0·65). INTERPRETATION: Atrasentan reduced the risk of renal events in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease who were selected to optimise efficacy and safety. These data support a potential role for selective endothelin receptor antagonists in protecting renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk of developing end-stage kidney disease. FUNDING: AbbVie.


Assuntos
Atrasentana/administração & dosagem , Creatinina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Antagonistas do Receptor de Endotelina A/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atrasentana/uso terapêutico , Creatinina/urina , Nefropatias Diabéticas/sangue , Nefropatias Diabéticas/urina , Método Duplo-Cego , Antagonistas do Receptor de Endotelina A/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina , Albumina Sérica Humana/urina , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
N Engl J Med ; 380(24): 2295-2306, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of kidney failure worldwide, but few effective long-term treatments are available. In cardiovascular trials of inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), exploratory results have suggested that such drugs may improve renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized trial, we assigned patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuric chronic kidney disease to receive canagliflozin, an oral SGLT2 inhibitor, at a dose of 100 mg daily or placebo. All the patients had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 30 to <90 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area and albuminuria (ratio of albumin [mg] to creatinine [g], >300 to 5000) and were treated with renin-angiotensin system blockade. The primary outcome was a composite of end-stage kidney disease (dialysis, transplantation, or a sustained estimated GFR of <15 ml per minute per 1.73 m2), a doubling of the serum creatinine level, or death from renal or cardiovascular causes. Prespecified secondary outcomes were tested hierarchically. RESULTS: The trial was stopped early after a planned interim analysis on the recommendation of the data and safety monitoring committee. At that time, 4401 patients had undergone randomization, with a median follow-up of 2.62 years. The relative risk of the primary outcome was 30% lower in the canagliflozin group than in the placebo group, with event rates of 43.2 and 61.2 per 1000 patient-years, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59 to 0.82; P = 0.00001). The relative risk of the renal-specific composite of end-stage kidney disease, a doubling of the creatinine level, or death from renal causes was lower by 34% (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.81; P<0.001), and the relative risk of end-stage kidney disease was lower by 32% (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.86; P = 0.002). The canagliflozin group also had a lower risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.95; P = 0.01) and hospitalization for heart failure (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.80; P<0.001). There were no significant differences in rates of amputation or fracture. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes and kidney disease, the risk of kidney failure and cardiovascular events was lower in the canagliflozin group than in the placebo group at a median follow-up of 2.62 years. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; CREDENCE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02065791.).


Assuntos
Canagliflozina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Falência Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Canagliflozina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Creatinina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos
17.
Diabetologia ; 62(6): 926-938, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868176

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The primary analysis of the Canagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS) Program showed canagliflozin to have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular and renal outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk, but also an unexpected increased risk of major or minor lower extremity amputation. These secondary analyses explore this finding in more detail. METHODS: The effect of canagliflozin on amputation risk in the CANVAS Program was calculated for amputations of different types and proximate aetiologies and different canagliflozin doses. Univariate and multivariate associations of baseline characteristics with amputation risk were determined and proportional and absolute effects of canagliflozin were compared across subgroups. RESULTS: There were 187 (1.8%) participants with atraumatic lower extremity amputations (minor 71%, major 29%); as previously published, rates were 6.30 vs 3.37 per 1000 participant-years with canagliflozin vs placebo (HR 1.97 [95% CI 1.41, 2.75]). Risk was similar for ischaemic and infective aetiologies and for 100 mg and 300 mg doses. Overall amputation risk was strongly associated with baseline history of prior amputation (major or minor) (HR 21.31 [95% CI 15.40, 29.49]) and other established risk factors. No interactions between randomised treatment and participant characteristics explained the effect of canagliflozin on amputation risk. For every clinical subgroup studied, numbers of amputation events projected were smaller than numbers of major adverse cardiovascular events averted. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The CANVAS Program demonstrated that canagliflozin increased the risk of amputation (mainly minor) in this study population. Anticipated risk factors for amputation were identified, such as prior history of amputation, peripheral vascular disease and neuropathy, but no specific aetiological mechanism or at-risk subgroup for canagliflozin was identified.


Assuntos
Canagliflozina/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Idoso , Amputação , Canagliflozina/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada
19.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 16(1): 47-56, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30238781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetes mellitus-associated chronic kidney disease varies considerably between countries. Next to differences in genetic as well as life style risk factors, varying practices in medical care delivery might cause this diversity. METHOD: The PROVALID study recruited 4000 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at the primary level of healthcare in five European countries (Austria, Hungary, The Netherlands, Poland and Scotland). Baseline data were used to describe patient characteristics and compare the adherence to ADA (American Diabetes Association) and KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) guidelines with respect to metabolic and blood pressure control, use of renin-angiotensin system-blocking agents, statins and acetylsalicylic acid between the countries. RESULTS: About 34.8% of the population had evidence of diabetes mellitus-associated chronic kidney disease. The median HbA1c level of the cohort was 6.8% (ranging from 6.5 in Poland to 7.0% in Scotland). Mean blood pressure was 136/79 (±17/10) and significantly higher in subjects with elevated albuminuria. These individuals also were more often treated with renin-angiotensin system-blocking agents (74.1% vs 84.6%), whereas the use of statins was driven by cardiovascular comorbidity. Acetylsalicylic acid was used in only 28.9% subjects. Despite similar cardiovascular comorbidities and renal function, the use of renin-angiotensin system-blocking agents varied significantly between the countries from 66.7% to 87.4%. An even higher variability was observed for patients >40 years of age using statins (39.8%-82.7%) and administration of acetylsalicylic acid in patients older than 50 years (5.2%-43.8%). CONCLUSION: Our study shows that medical practice in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with and without renal disease is different in European countries. Longitudinal follow-up will reveal if this diversity affects clinical endpoints.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/tendências , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 34(10): 1699-1706, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statins have shown multiple effects on different renal risk factors such as lowering of total cholesterol (TC) and lowering of urine protein:creatinine ratio (UPCR). We assessed whether these effects of statins vary between individuals, the extent of discordance of treatment effects on both TC and UPCR within an individual, and the association of responses in TC and UPCR with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline. METHODS: The PLANET I and II (Renal effects of Rosuvastatin and Atorvastatin in Patients Who Have Progressive Renal Disease) trials examined effects of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin on proteinuria and renal function in patients with proteinuria. We post hoc analysed 471 therapy-adherent proteinuric patients from the two trials and assessed the individual variability in UPCR and TC response from 0 to 14 weeks and whether these responses were predictive of eGFR decline during the subsequent 9 months of follow-up. RESULTS: UPCR and TC response varied between individuals: mean UPCR response was -1.3% (5th-95th percentile -59.9 to 141.8) and mean TC response was -93.9 mg/dL (-169.1 to -26.9). Out of 471 patients, 123 (26.1%) showed a response in UPCR but not in TC, and 96 (20.4%) showed a response in TC but not in UPCR. eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) did not decrease significantly from baseline in both UPCR responders [0.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.6 to 0.9; P = 0.54] and TC responders (0.3; 95% CI -1.8 to 1.1; P = 0.64), whereas UPCR and TC non-responders showed a significant decline in eGFR from baseline (1.8; 95% CI 0.6-3.0; P = 0.004 and 1.7; 95% CI 0.5-2.9; P = 0.007, respectively). A lack of response in both parameters resulted in the fastest rate of eGFR decline (2.1; 95% CI 0.5-3.7; P = 0.01). These findings were not different for rosuvastatin or atorvastatin. CONCLUSIONS: Statin-induced changes in cholesterol and proteinuria vary between individuals and do not run in parallel within an individual. The initial fall in cholesterol and proteinuria is independently associated with a reduction in eGFR decline. This highlights the importance of monitoring both cholesterol and proteinuria after initiating statin therapy.

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