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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375516

RESUMO

Purpose: Uniparental disomy (UPD) is a way cancer cells duplicate a mutated gene, causing loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) do not have microscopically detectable chromosome abnormalities, but can harbor UPDs. We examined the prognostic significance of UPDs and frequency of LOH in patients with CN-AML.Experimental Design: We examined the frequency and prognostic significance of UPDs in a set of 425 adult patients with de novo CN-AML who were previously sequenced for 81 genes typically mutated in cancer. Associations of UPDs with outcome were analyzed in the 315 patients with CN-AML younger than 60 years.Results: We detected 127 UPDs in 109 patients. Most UPDs were large and typically encompassed all or most of the affected chromosome arm. The most common UPDs occurred on chromosome arms 13q (7.5% of patients), 6p (2.8%), and 11p (2.8%). Many UPDs significantly cooccurred with mutations in genes they encompassed, including 13q UPD with FLT3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD; P < 0.001), and 11p UPD with WT1 mutations (P = 0.02). Among patients younger than 60 years, UPD of 11p was associated with longer overall survival (OS) and 13q UPD with shorter disease-free survival (DFS) and OS. In multivariable models that accounted for known prognostic markers, including FLT3-ITD and WT1 mutations, UPD of 13q maintained association with shorter DFS, and UPD of 11p maintained association with longer OS.Conclusions: LOH mediated by UPD is a recurrent feature of CN-AML. Detection of UPDs of 13q and 11p might be useful for genetic risk stratification of patients with CN-AML.

2.
Melanoma Res ; 29(5): 491-500, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116161

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog is a commonly mutated oncogene in melanoma, and therapeutic targeting of neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog has proven difficult. We characterized the expression and phenotypic functions of five recently discovered splice isoforms of neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog in melanoma. Canonical neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog (isoform-1) was expressed to the highest degree and its expression was significantly increased in melanoma metastases compared to primary lesions. Isoform-5 expression in metastases showed a significant, positive correlation with survival and tumours over-expressing isoform-5 had significantly decreased growth in a xenograft model. In contrast, over-expression of any isoform resulted in enhanced proliferation, and invasiveness was increased with over-expression of isoform-1 or isoform-2. Downstream signalling analysis indicated that the isoforms signalled differentially through the mitogen-activated protein kinase and PI3K pathways and A375 cells over-expressing isoform-2 or isoform-5 showed resistance to vemurafenib treatment in vitro. The neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog isoforms appear to play varying roles in melanoma phenotype and could potentially serve as biomarkers for therapeutic response and disease prognosis.

3.
Thyroid ; 29(7): 946-955, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957677

RESUMO

Background: Familial non-medullary thyroid cancer (NMTC) accounts for a relatively small proportion of thyroid cancer cases, but it displays strong genetic predisposition. So far, only a few NMTC susceptible genes and low-penetrance variants contributing to NMTC have been described. This study aimed to identify rare germline variants that may predispose individuals to NMTC by sequencing a cohort of 17 NMTC families. Methods: Whole-genome sequencing and genome-wide linkage analysis were performed in 17 NMTC families. MendelScan and BasePlayer were applied to screen germline variants followed by customized filtering. The remaining candidate variants were subsequently validated by Sanger sequencing. A panel of 277 known cancer predisposition genes was also screened in these families. Results: A total of 41 rare coding candidate variants in 40 genes identified by whole-genome sequencing are reported, including 24 missense, five frameshift, five splice change, and seven nonsense variants. Sanger sequencing confirmed all 41 rare variants and proved their co-segregation with NMTC in the extended pedigrees. In silico functional analysis of the candidate genes using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed that cancer was the top category of "Diseases and Disorders." Additionally, a targeted search displayed six variants in known cancer predisposition genes, including one frameshift variant and five missense variants. Conclusions: The data identify rare germline variants that may play important roles in NMTC predisposition. It is proposed that in future research including functional characterization, these variants and genes be considered primary candidates for thyroid cancer predisposition.

4.
J Med Genet ; 56(7): 462-470, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) with mismatch repair-deficient (dMMR) tumours without MLH1 methylation or germline MMR pathogenic variants (PV) were previously thought to have Lynch syndrome (LS). It is now appreciated that they can have double somatic (DS) MMR PVs. We explored the clinical characteristics between patients with DS tumours and LS in two population-based cohorts. METHODS: We included patients with CRC from Ohio 2013-2016 and Iceland 2000-2009. All had microsatellite instability testing and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC) of MMR proteins, and MLH1 methylation testing when indicated. Germline next-generation sequencing was performed for all with dMMR tumours; tumour sequencing followed for patients with unexplained dMMR. Clinical characteristics of DS patients and patients with LS were compared. RESULTS: Of the 232 and 51 patients with non-methylated dMMR tumours in the Ohio and Iceland cohorts, respectively, 57.8% (n=134) and 45.1% (n=23) had LS, 32.8% (n=76) and 31.4% (n=16) had DS PVs, 6% (n=14) and 9.8% (n=5) were unexplained and 4.3% (n=10) and 13.7% (n=7) had incorrect IHC. Age of diagnosis for DS patients was older than patients with LS (p=3.73×10-4) in the two cohorts. Patients with LS were more likely to meet Amsterdam II criteria (OR=15.81, p=8.47×10-6) and have multiple LS-associated tumours (OR=6.67, p=3.31×10-5). Absence of MLH1/PMS2 was predictive of DS PVs; isolated MSH6 and PMS2 absence was predictive of LS in both cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with LS are 15× more likely to meet Amsterdam II criteria and >5× more likely to have multiple cancers as compared with those with DS tumours. Furthermore, isolated loss of MSH6 or PMS2 protein predicts LS.

5.
Thyroid ; 29(4): 523-529, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inactivation of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and the resulting microsatellite instability (MSI) are frequently observed in endometrial, stomach, and colorectal cancers, as well as more rarely in other solid tumor types. The prevalence of MSI in thyroid cancer has not been explored in depth, although recent studies utilizing data from large cancer sequencing efforts such as The Cancer Genome Atlas indicate that MSI is absent or at least very rare in the most common and most well studied histologic subtype, papillary thyroid carcinoma. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MSI in thyroid cancer by using a large series comprising all major histological subtypes. METHODS: A total of 485 thyroid cancer patients were screened for MSI/MMR deficiency, including all major histologic subtypes (195 papillary thyroid carcinoma, 156 follicular thyroid carcinoma [FTC], 50 anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, 65 medullary thyroid carcinoma, and 17 poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas) by using a combination of polymerase chain reaction-based detection, immunohistochemistry, and next-generation sequencing. RESULTS: A total of four tumors were MSI-high and had loss of MMR protein expression, all of which were from FTC patients. Whole-exome sequencing was performed on two MSI-high FTCs and revealed a hemizygous loss of function mutation in MSH2 in one tumor. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these data, it is estimated that the overall prevalence of MSI in FTC is 2.5%, and MSI is either entirely absent or rare in other histology subtypes of thyroid carcinoma. These findings highlight the importance of testing for MSI in FTC.

7.
Thyroid ; 29(4): 530-539, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer patients with radioiodine-refractory (RAI-R) disease, resulting from insufficient RAI delivery and/or RAI resistance, have increased mortality and limited treatment options. To date, studies have largely focused on tumor mutations associated with different stages of disease, which could provide prognostic value for RAI-R disease. It was hypothesized that germline variants contributing to intrinsic differences in iodine metabolism, tumor microenvironment, and/or immune surveillance are associated with RAI-R disease. METHODS: Whole-genome genotyping data analysis was performed on 1145 Caucasian (CAU) patients, 244 of whom were RAI-R, and 55 African American (AA) patients, nine of whom were RAI-R. Germline-variant association studies were conducted using candidate genes involved in iodine metabolism or DNA-damage repair, as well as genome-wide association analysis. Initial data indicated several notable variants in a small number of patients (n = 7), who were later determined to be AA patients of >80% African ancestry (n = 37). This led to the study focusing on germline single nucleotide polymorphisms uniquely associated with RAI-R AA patients. Sanger sequencing was performed to validate risk alleles and identify the incidence of the common somatic mutations BRAFV600E, NRASQ61R, and HRASQ61R in AA patients whose primary tumor samples were available (28/55). RESULTS: TG, BRCA1, and NSMCE2 haplotypes were identified as being uniquely associated with RAI-R AA patients of >80% African ancestry. All patients with the TG haplotype (n = 4) had a biochemical incomplete response to RAI therapy. Patients with the NSMCE2 haplotype (n = 4) were diagnosed at a young age (13, 17, 17, and 26 years old) with distant metastatic disease at initial diagnosis. The BRCA1 haplotype co-occurred in three out of four patients with the NSMCE2 haplotype. The incidence of BRAFV600E appears lower in papillary thyroid carcinomas from AA patients of >80% African ancestry (3/14; 21%) than in AA patients of <80% African ancestry (6/9; 67%), albeit only just approaching statistical significance (p = 0.077). The tumors available from three RAI-R AA patients were negative for BRAFV600E, NRASQ61R, and HRASQ61R. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of candidate RAI-R risk haplotypes may allow early stratification of clinical manifestations of RAI-R disease followed by early intervention and personalized treatment strategies. Functional annotation of candidate RAI-R risk haplotypes may provide insights into the mechanisms underlying RAI-R disease.

8.
Nat Genet ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510241

RESUMO

To further dissect the genetic architecture of colorectal cancer (CRC), we performed whole-genome sequencing of 1,439 cases and 720 controls, imputed discovered sequence variants and Haplotype Reference Consortium panel variants into genome-wide association study data, and tested for association in 34,869 cases and 29,051 controls. Findings were followed up in an additional 23,262 cases and 38,296 controls. We discovered a strongly protective 0.3% frequency variant signal at CHD1. In a combined meta-analysis of 125,478 individuals, we identified 40 new independent signals at P < 5 × 10-8, bringing the number of known independent signals for CRC to ~100. New signals implicate lower-frequency variants, Krüppel-like factors, Hedgehog signaling, Hippo-YAP signaling, long noncoding RNAs and somatic drivers, and support a role for immune function. Heritability analyses suggest that CRC risk is highly polygenic, and larger, more comprehensive studies enabling rare variant analysis will improve understanding of biology underlying this risk and influence personalized screening strategies and drug development.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350351

RESUMO

The first two genome wide association studies (GWAS) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) detected five variants associated with PTC. Two of them (rs944289 and rs116909374) are located at 14q13 making that locus an important target of research into the genetic predisposition to PTC. We aimed at uncovering other variants at 14q13 associated with PTC independently from the GWAS variants. We performed next generation sequencing of the 14q13 region and analyzed the allele frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in n = 90 PTC cases vs. n = 379 EUR controls from the 1,000 Genome Project. The variants associated with PTC were validated in an Ohio cohort of n = 1,216 PTC cases and n = 1,416 controls. Next, we analyzed the association between SNPs and expression of nearby genes and clinical parameters. We showed that rs368187 was associated with PTC (OR = 1.31, p = 2.20 × 10-6 ). Rs1632250, Rs1863347 and rs1755787 showed association with classical PTC (cPTC) (n = 891; OR = 1.24, 2.22 × 10-3 , OR = 1.31, p = 2.15 × 10-4 and OR = 1.24, p = 2.06 × 10-3 , respectively) while variant rs28397092 showed association with follicular variant (n = 243; OR = 1.51, p = 1.36 × 10-3 ). Rs1863347 was associated with suppression of PTCSC3 in unaffected thyroid tissue (p = 0.026). Rs1632250, rs1863347 and rs1755787 showed association with multifocality (OR = 1.85, p = 0.001, OR = 1.98, p = 0.001 and OR = 1.76, p = 0.003 respectively) and N stage (OR = 1.79, p = 0.014, OR = 1.73, p = 0.023 and OR = 1.81, p = 0.013, respectively) in microPTC (n = 328) while rs368187 was associated with M stage (OR = 0.56, p = 0.034) in cPTC. Our results disclose multiple variants associated with PTC and clinical features in the 14q13 superlocus. We suggest that translational genotype/phenotype studies should take into account not only somatic mutations but also germline variants.

11.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(29): 2961-2968, 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30161022

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lynch syndrome due to pathogenic variants in the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 is predominantly associated with colorectal and endometrial cancer, although extracolonic cancers have been described within the Lynch tumor spectrum. However, the age-specific cumulative risk (penetrance) of these cancers is still poorly defined for PMS2-associated Lynch syndrome. Using a large data set from a worldwide collaboration, our aim was to determine accurate penetrance measures of cancers for carriers of heterozygous pathogenic PMS2 variants. METHODS: A modified segregation analysis was conducted that incorporated both genotyped and nongenotyped relatives, with conditioning for ascertainment to estimates corrected for bias. Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% CIs were estimated for each cancer site for mutation carriers compared with the general population, followed by estimation of penetrance. RESULTS: In total, 284 families consisting of 4,878 first- and second-degree family members were included in the analysis. PMS2 mutation carriers were at increased risk for colorectal cancer (cumulative risk to age 80 years of 13% [95% CI, 7.9% to 22%] for males and 12% [95% CI, 6.7% to 21%] for females) and endometrial cancer (13% [95% CI, 7.0%-24%]), compared with the general population (6.6%, 4.7%, and 2.4%, respectively). There was no clear evidence of an increased risk of ovarian, gastric, hepatobiliary, bladder, renal, brain, breast, prostate, or small bowel cancer. CONCLUSION: Heterozygous PMS2 mutation carriers were at small increased risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer but not for any other Lynch syndrome-associated cancer. This finding justifies that PMS2-specific screening protocols could be restricted to colonoscopies. The role of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for PMS2 mutation carriers needs further discussion.

12.
Leukemia ; 2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29872168

RESUMO

Targeted mutation assessment of 81 genes in 1021 adults with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) identified recurrent mutations in the neurofibromin 1 (NF1) gene in 52 (5.1%) patients, including 36 (5.2%) younger and 16 (4.8%) older patients, which suggests NF1 belongs to the 20 most frequently mutated genes in adult AML. NF1 mutations were found throughout the gene, and comprised missense, frameshift, and nonsense mutations. One mutation hotspot, at amino acid threonine 676 (Thr676), was found in 27% of AML patients with NF1 mutations. NF1-mutated patients belonged more often to the adverse European LeukemiaNet (ELN) risk category than NF1 wild-type patients. Among patients aged <60 years, the presence of NF1 Thr676 mutations was associated with lower complete remission (CR) rates (P = 0.04) and shorter overall survival (OS; P = 0.01), as was the presence of any NF1 mutation in patients in the adverse ELN risk category (CR, P = 0.05; OS, P < 0.001). CR rates were also lower in NF1-mutated patients aged ≥60 years compared with NF1 wild-type patients (P = 0.001). In summary, our findings provide novel insights into the frequency of NF1 mutations in AML, and are suggestive of an adverse prognostic impact in patients treated with standard chemotherapy.

13.
Thyroid ; 28(6): 748-754, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29768105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The BRAFV600E mutation is the most common driver in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) tumors. In recent years, gene fusions have also been recognized as important drivers of cancer in PTC. Previous studies have suggested that thyroid tumors with fusion genes frequently display an aggressive course. These observations prompted further exploration of gene fusions in PTC tumors. The aim was to search for previously unrecognized gene fusions using thyroid tissue samples from PTC patients. METHODS: Gene fusions were analyzed in RNA sequencing data obtained from 12 PTC tumors and paired unaffected thyroid tissue samples. Candidate fusions were further filtered and validated using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Sanger sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. An Ohio cohort of 148 PTC tumor samples was screened for a LMO7-BRAF fusion and the BRAFV600E mutation. Functional assays were performed to assess the LMO7-BRAF fusion. RESULTS: Two coding fusions (CCDC6-RET and LMO7-BRAF) were found in one tumor sample each. The novel LMO7-BRAF fusion was validated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The LMO7-BRAF fusion was a recurrent somatic alteration with a frequency of 2.0% (3/148) in PTC tumors, while the BRAFV600E point mutation was found in 63.5% (94/148) of tumors. Enforced expression of LMO7-BRAF fusion protein stimulated endogenous ERK1/2 phosphorylation and promoted anchorage independent cell growth to an extent similar to BRAFV600E. CONCLUSIONS: A novel fusion gene, LMO7-BRAF, was identified in PTC tumors. The results indicate that the LMO7-BRAF fusion behaves as an oncogenic alteration. This observation expands the spectrum of fusion genes involving kinases in thyroid cancer.

14.
Leukemia ; 32(6): 1338-1348, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29563537

RESUMO

Thus far, only 5-15% of AML patients aged ≥60 years are cured with chemotherapy. Identification of patients who are less (more) likely to respond to standard chemotherapy might enable early risk stratification toward alternative treatment regimens. We used a next-generation sequencing panel of 80 cancer- and/or leukemia-associated genes to profile molecularly 423 older patients with de novo AML. Using variables identified in multivariable models and co-occurring mutations in NPM1-mutated AML, we classified the patients into good-, intermediate-, and poor-risk groups for complete remission (CR) attainment, disease-free (DFS), and overall survival (OS). Whereas 81% of good-risk patients (comprising NPM1-mutated patients harboring mutations in chromatin remodeling, cohesin complex, methylation-related, spliceosome, and/or RAS pathway genes, FLT3-TKD, and/or patients without FLT3-ITD) achieved a CR, only 32% of poor-risk patients (with U2AF1, WT1 mutations and/or complex karyotype) did. Intermediate-risk patients had a 50% CR rate. Similarly, using NPM1 co-mutation patterns and SF1 mutation status, we identified patients with favorable DFS and OS 3-year rates of 46% and 45%, respectively. Patients with adverse genetic features had DFS and OS rates of only 2% and 4%. We show that application of our proposed criteria may refine the 2017 European LeukemiaNet classification for older patients treated with chemotherapy.

15.
JAMA Oncol ; 4(6): 806-813, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29596542

RESUMO

Importance: Universal tumor screening for Lynch syndrome (LS) in colorectal cancer (CRC) is recommended and involves up to 6 sequential tests. Somatic gene testing is performed on stage IV CRCs for treatment determination. The diagnostic workup for patients with CRC could be simplified and improved using a single up-front tumor next-generation sequencing test if it has higher sensitivity and specificity than the current screening protocol. Objective: To determine whether up-front tumor sequencing (TS) could replace the current multiple sequential test approach for universal tumor screening for LS. Design, Setting, and Participants: Tumor DNA from 419 consecutive CRC cases undergoing standard universal tumor screening and germline genetic testing when indicated as part of the multicenter, population-based Ohio Colorectal Cancer Prevention Initiative from October 2015 through February 2016 (the prospective cohort) and 46 patients with CRC known to have LS due to a germline mutation in a mismatch repair gene from January 2013 through September 2015 (the validation cohort) underwent blinded TS. Main Outcomes and Measures: Sensitivity of TS compared with microsatellite instability (MSI) testing and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for the detection of LS. Results: In the 465 patients, mean age at diagnosis was 59.9 years (range, 20-96 years), and 241 (51.8%) were female. Tumor sequencing identified all 46 known LS cases from the validation cohort and an additional 12 LS cases from the 419-member prospective cohort. Testing with MSI or IHC, followed by BRAF p.V600E testing missed 5 and 6 cases of LS, respectively. Tumor sequencing alone had better sensitivity (100%; 95% CI, 93.8%-100%) than IHC plus BRAF (89.7%; 95% CI, 78.8%-96.1%; P = .04) and MSI plus BRAF (91.4%; 95% CI, 81.0%-97.1%; P = .07). Tumor sequencing had equal specificity (95.3%; 95% CI, 92.6%-97.2%) to IHC plus BRAF (94.6%; 95% CI, 91.9%-96.6%; P > .99) and MSI plus BRAF (94.8%; 95% CI, 92.2%-96.8%; P = .88). Tumor sequencing identified 284 cases with KRAS, NRAS, or BRAF mutations that could affect therapy for stage IV CRC, avoiding another test. Finally, TS identified 8 patients with germline DPYD mutations that confer toxicity to fluorouracil chemotherapy, which could also be useful for treatment selection. Conclusions and Relevance: Up-front TS in CRC is simpler and has superior sensitivity to current multitest approaches to LS screening, while simultaneously providing critical information for treatment selection.

16.
Genet Med ; 20(9): 927-935, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29300379

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify and characterize the functional variants, regulatory gene networks, and potential binding targets of SMAD3 in the 15q22 thyroid cancer risk locus. METHODS: We performed linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype analyses to fine map the 15q22 locus. Luciferase reporter assays were applied to evaluate the regulatory effects of the candidate variants. Knockdown by small interfering RNA, microarray analysis, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays were performed to reveal the regulatory gene network and identify its binding targets. RESULTS: We report a 25.6-kb haplotype within SMAD3 containing numerous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in high LD. SNPs rs17293632 and rs4562997 were identified as functional variants of SMAD3 by luciferase assays within the LD region. These variants regulate SMAD3 transcription in an allele-specific manner through enhancer elements in introns of SMAD3. Knockdown of SMAD3 in thyroid cancer cell lines revealed its regulatory gene network including two upregulated genes, SPRY4 and SPRY4-IT1. Sequence analysis and ChIP assays validated the actual binding of SMAD3 protein to multiple SMAD binding element sites in the region upstream of SPRY4. CONCLUSION: Our data provide a functional annotation of the 15q22 thyroid cancer risk locus.

17.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(4): 1369-1379, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29121253

RESUMO

Context: Previous genome-wide association studies have shown that single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2439302 in chromosome 8p12 is significantly associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) risk and dysregulated NRG1 expression. The underlying mechanisms remain to be discovered. Objective: To evaluate the expression of NRG1 isoforms, candidate functional variants, and potential genes downstream of NRG1 in thyroid tissue. Methods: Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was applied for gene expression analysis. SNaPshot assay, haplotype, and computer analyses were performed to evaluate candidate functional variants. Other functional assays [chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, luciferase assay, small interfering RNA knockdown, and RNA sequencing] were performed. Results: Three NRG1 isoforms (NM_004495, NM_013958, and NM_001160008) tested were highly expressed in thyroid tissue. The expression levels of the three isoforms were significantly correlated with the genotypes of rs2439302. A DNA block of ~32 kb containing the risk G allele of rs2439302 was revealed, harboring multiple candidate functional variants. ChIP assay for active chromatin markers indicated at least nine regions in the DNA block showing strong H3Kme1 and H3K27Ac signals in thyroid tissue. Luciferase reporter assays revealed differential allelic activities associated with seven SNPs. Knocking down NRG1 in primary thyroid cells revealed downstream or interacting genes related to NRG1. Conclusions: Our data suggest a role for transcriptional regulation of NRG1 in the predisposition to PTC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Papilar/genética , Neuregulina-1/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Adulto , Carcinoma Papilar/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neuregulina-1/biossíntese , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Isoformas de Proteínas/biossíntese , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
18.
Fam Cancer ; 17(3): 431-434, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29027612

RESUMO

Familial non-medullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC) is clinically defined as two or more first-degree relatives with NMTC and appears to follow an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. Approximately 5-7% of NMTC is hereditary and affects multiple generations with a young age of onset. The primary aim of this study was to determine the age-specific penetrance of NMTC in individuals from a large family with FNMTC with a previously identified private mutation at 4q32, with a secondary aim to determine the penetrance for benign thyroid disease in this family. We present a large family with NMTC in which we had previously described a culpable mutation. Participants provided their personal medical history and family history. The germline 4q32 A > C mutation was detected in 34 of 68 tested individuals. Age-specific penetrance of thyroid cancer and benign thyroid disease was determined using the inverted Kaplan-Meier method of segregation analysis. Individuals who tested positive for the 4q32 mutation have a 68.9% (95% CI 46.5-88.7) risk of developing thyroid cancer by age 70 and a 65.3% (95% CI 46.0-83.8) risk of developing benign thyroid disease by age 70. The 4q32 A > C mutation significantly increases the risk to develop thyroid cancer but not benign thyroid disease in members of this family. The female:male sex ratio of 1.33 that we observed in affected mutation carriers differs greatly from the ratio of approximately 3:1 observed in PTC, supporting a central role of the mutation. Early thyroid surveillance with annual ultrasound is recommended to individuals testing positive for this private familial mutation.

19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 114(36): 9629-9634, 2017 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28827320

RESUMO

Activating mutations in BRAF are found in 50% of melanomas and although treatment with BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) is effective, resistance often develops. We now show that recently discovered NRAS isoform 2 is up-regulated in the setting of BRAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma, in both cell lines and patient tumor tissues. When isoform 2 was overexpressed in BRAF mutant melanoma cell lines, melanoma cell proliferation and in vivo tumor growth were significantly increased in the presence of BRAFi treatment. shRNA-mediated knockdown of isoform 2 in BRAFi resistant cells restored sensitivity to BRAFi compared with controls. Signaling analysis indicated decreased mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway signaling and increased phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway signaling in isoform 2 overexpressing cells compared with isoform 1 overexpressing cells. Immunoprecipitation of isoform 2 validated a binding affinity of this isoform to both PI3K and BRAF/RAF1. The addition of an AKT inhibitor to BRAFi treatment resulted in a partial restoration of BRAFi sensitivity in cells expressing high levels of isoform 2. NRAS isoform 2 may contribute to resistance to BRAFi by facilitating PI3K pathway activation.


Assuntos
GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Melanoma/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Mutação , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Neoplásico/genética , RNA Neoplásico/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Regulação para Cima , Vemurafenib
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