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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrarenal venous flow (IRVF) measured by Doppler ultrasound has gained interest as a potential surrogate marker of renal congestion and adverse outcomes in heart failure. In this work, we aimed to determine if antigen carbohydrate 125 (CA125) and plasma amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are associated with congestive IRVF patterns (i.e., biphasic and monophasic) in acute heart failure (AHF). METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively enrolled a consecutive cohort of 70 patients hospitalized for AHF. Renal Doppler ultrasound was assessed within the first 24-h of hospital admission. The mean age of the sample was 73.5 ± 12.3 years; 47.1% were female, and 42.9% exhibited heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. The median (interquartile range) for NT-proBNP and CA125 were 6149 (3604-12 330) pg/mL and 64 (37-122) U/mL, respectively. The diagnostic performance of both exposures for identifying congestive IRVF patterns was tested using the receiving operating curve (ROC). The cut-off for CA125 of 63.5 U/mL showed a sensibility and specificity of 67% and 74% and an area under the ROC curve of 0.71. After multivariate adjustment, CA125 remained non-linearly and positively associated with congestive IRVF (P-value = 0.008) and emerged as the most important covariate explaining the variability of the model (R2: 47.5%). Under the same multivariate setting, NT-proBNP did not show to be associated with congestive IRVF patterns (P-value = 0.847). CONCLUSIONS: CA125 and not NT-proBNP is a useful marker for identifying patients with AHF and congestive IRVF patterns.

2.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745912

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) has been shown to be useful for risk stratification in patients admitted with acute heart failure (AHF). We sought to determine a CA125 cutpoint for identifying patients at low risk of 1-month death or the composite of death/HF readmission following admission for AHF. METHODS: The derivation cohort included 3231 consecutive patients with AHF. CA125 cutoff values with 90% negative predictive value (NPV) and sensitivity up to 85% were identified. The adequacy of these cutpoints and the risk of 1-month death/HF readmission was then tested using the Royston-Parmar method. The best cutpoint was selected and externally validated in a cohort of patients hospitalized from BIOSTAT-CHF (n=1583). RESULTS: In the derivation cohort, the median [IQR] CA125 was 57 [25.3-157] U/mL. The optimal cutoff value was <23 U/mL (21.5% of patients), with NPVs of 99.3% and 94.1% for death and the composite endpoint, respectively. On multivariate survival analyses, CA125 <23 U/mL was independently associated with a lower risk of death (HR, 0.20; 95%CI, 0.08-0.50; P <.001), and the combined endpoint (HR, 0.63; 95%CI, 950.45-0.90; P=.009). The ability of this cutpoint to discriminate patients at a low 1-month risk was confirmed in the validation cohort (NPVs of 98.6% and 96.6% for death and the composite endpoint). The predicted ability of this cutoff remained significant at 6 months of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In patients admitted with AHF, CA125 <23 U/mL identified a subgroup at low risk of short-term adverse events, a population that may not require intense postdischarge monitoring.

3.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For patients with heart failure (HF), iron deficiency (ID) is a common therapeutic target. However, little is known about the utility of transferrin saturation (TSAT) or serum ferritin for risk stratification in decompensated HF (DHF) or the European Society of Cardiology's (ESC) current definition of ID (ferritin < 100 µg/L or TSAT < 20% if ferritin is 100-299 µg/L). We evaluated the association between these potential markers of ID and the risk of 30-day readmission for HF or death in patients with DHF. METHODS: We retrospectively included 1701 patients from a multicenter registry of DHF. Serum ferritin and TSAT were evaluated 24-72 h after hospital admission, and multivariable Cox regression was used to assess their association with the composite endpoint. RESULTS: Participants' median (quartiles) age was 76 (68-82) years, 43.8% were women, and 51.7% had a left ventricular ejection fraction > 50%. Medians for NT-proBNP, TSAT, and ferritin were 4067 pg/mL (1900-8764), 14.1% (9.0-20.3), and 103 ug/L (54-202), respectively. According to the current ESC definition, 1,246 (73.3%) patients had ID. By day 30, there were 177 (10.4%) events (95 deaths and 85 HF readmission). After multivariable adjustment, lower TSAT was associated with outcome (p = 0.009) but serum ferritin was not (HR 1.00; 95% confidence interval 0.99-1.00, p = 0.347). CONCLUSIONS: Lower TSAT, but not ferritin, was associated with a higher risk of short-term events in patients with DHF. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and the utility of serum ferritin as a marker of ID in DHF.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperkalemia is a common condition in patients with comorbidities such as chronic kidney disease (CKD) or congestive heart failure. Moreover, severe hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening condition that is associated with a higher risk of adverse clinical events such as ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Currently, data regarding the prognostic implications of chronic hyperkalemia are available; however, the information about the long-term clinical consequences after an episode of severe hyperkalemia remains scarce. The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between the trajectory of potassium measurements in patients with acute hyperkalemia and long-term all-cause mortality. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study that included patients with acute severe hyperkalemia (K > 6 mEq/L) without hemolysis in the emergency room of Dr. Peset University Hospital in Valencia, Spain searching the lab database from January 2016 to March 2017. The multivariable-adjusted association of serum potassium with mortality was assessed by using comprehensive state-of-the-art regression methods that can accommodate time-dependent exposure modelling. RESULTS: We found 172 episodes of acute hyperkalemia in 160 patients in the emergency room. The mean age of the sample was 77 ± 12 years and 60.5% were males. The most frequent comorbidities were CKD (71.2%), heart failure (35%) and diabetes mellitus (56.9%). Only 11.9% of the patients were on chronic dialysis. A quarter of the patients did not have previous CKD making hyperkalemia as an unpredictable life-threatening complication. During the acute episode, mean potassium and eGFR were 6.6 ± 0.6 (range: 6,1-9,2), and eGFR: 23 ± 16 (r : 2-84). After a median follow-up of 17.3 (IQR: 2.2-23.7) months, 68 patients died (42.5%). Recurrences of hyperkalemia (K > 5.5 mEq/L) were detected in 39.5%% of the patients who were monitored during follow-up. We found that previous potassium levels during an acute severe hyperkalemia episode were not predictors of mortality. Conversely, the post-discharge longitudinal trajectories of potassium were able to predict all-cause mortality (overall p-value = 0.0015). The effect of transitioning from hyperkalemia to normokalaemia (K > 5.5 to K ≤ 5.5 after the acute episode was significant and inversely associated with the risk of mortality. CONCLUSION: The potassium levels prior to a severe hyperkalemic event do not predict mortality. Conversely, following an episode of acute severe hyperkalemia, serial kinetic of potassium trajectories predicts the risk of death. Further evidence is needed to confirm these findings and clarify the optimal long-term management of these patients.

5.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(12): e011491, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297764

RESUMO

Background Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) permits robust risk stratification of discharged ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients, but its indiscriminate use in all cases is not feasible. We evaluated the utility of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by echocardiography for a selective use of CMR after ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Methods Echocardiography and CMR were performed in 1119 patients discharged for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction included in a multicenter registry. The prognostic power of CMR beyond echocardiography-LVEF was assessed using adjusted C statistic, net reclassification improvement index, and integrated discrimination improvement index. Results During a 4.8-year median follow-up, 136 (12%) first major adverse cardiac events (MACE) occurred (47 cardiovascular deaths and 89 readmissions for acute heart failure). In the entire group, CMR-LVEF (but not echocardiography-LVEF) independently predicted MACE occurrence. The MACE rate significantly increased only in patients with CMR-LVEF<40% (≥50%: 7%, 40%-49%: 9%, <40%: 27%, P<0.001). Most patients displayed echocardiography-LVEF≥50% (629, 56%), and they had a low MACE rate (57/629, 9%). In patients with echocardiography-LVEF<50% (n=490, 44%), the MACE rate was also low in those with CMR-LVEF≥40% (24/278, 9%) but significantly increased in patients with CMR-LVEF<40% (55/212, 26%; P<0.001). Compared with echocardiography-LVEF, CMR-LVEF significantly improved MACE prediction in the group of patients with echocardiography-LVEF<50% (C statistic, 0.80 versus 0.72; net reclassification improvement index, 0.73; integrated discrimination improvement index, 0.10) but not in those with echocardiography-LVEF≥50% (C statistic 0.66 versus 0.66; net reclassification improvement index, 0.17; integrated discrimination improvement index, 0.01). Conclusions A straightforward strategy based on a selective use of CMR for risk prediction in ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients with echocardiography-LVEF<50% can provide insights into patient care. The cost-effectiveness of this approach, as well as the direct implications in clinical management, should be further explored.

6.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) and B-type natriuretic peptides are surrogate markers of congestion in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). The aim of the study was to assess the association between CA125 and NT-proBNP and congestion parameters in patients with AHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Prospective multicentre observational study that included 191 patients hospitalised for AHF. We recorded the presence of pleural effusion, peripheral oedema and inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter during the first 24-48 hours after admission and evaluated their independent association with CA125 concentrations and the amino-terminal fraction of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). The mean age was 73.4 ± 12 years, 79 (41.4%) were women, and 127 (66.5%) had left ventricular ejection fraction ≥ 50%. The median of CA125, NT-proBNP and IVC diameter was 58 (22.7-129) U/mL, 3,985 (1,905-9,775) pg/mL and 21 (17-25) mm, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that CA125 was positively and independently associated with the presence of peripheral oedema, pleural effusion and elevated IVC levels. NT-proBNP was associated with pleural effusion and IVC diameter but not with oedema. The addition of CA125 increased the discriminatory capacity of the baseline model to identify peripheral oedema and pleural effusion, but not NT-proBNP. The most important predictor of ICV dilation was CA125 (R2 = 48.3%). CONCLUSION: In patients with AHF, serum CA125 levels are associated more significantly than NT-proBNP with a state of congestion.

7.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964683

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety profile in terms of changes in renal function after co-treatment with sacubitril/valsartan and empagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: This multicentre observational analysis included 108 patients with T2D and HFrEF treated with both agents: baseline sacubitril/valsartan (Group A; n = 43), baseline empagliflozin (Group B; n = 42), or both agents initiated simultaneously (Group C; n = 23). The primary endpoint was estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) dynamics across treatment groups. A binary characterization of worsening renal function (WRF)/improved renal function (IRF) was included in the primary endpoint. WRF and IRF were defined as an increase/decrease in serum creatinine ≥ 0.3 mg/dL or GFR ≥ 20%. Changes in quantitative variables were evaluated using joint modelling of survival and longitudinal data (JM). Rates and their treatment differences were determined by Poisson regression. The mean left ventricle ejection fraction and eGFR were 32 ± 6% and 70 ± 28 mL/min/1.73 m2 , respectively. At a median follow-up of 1.01 years (inter-quartile range 0.71-1.50), 377 outpatient visits were recorded. Although there were differences in GFR trajectories over time within each treatment, they did not achieve statistical significance (omnibus P = 0.154). However, when these differences were contrasted among groups, there was a significant decrease in GFR in Group A as compared with Group B (P = 0.002). The contrast between Groups C and B was not significant (P = 0.430). These differences were also reflected when the rates for WRF and IRF were contrasted among treatments. CONCLUSIONS: The co-administration of sacubitril/valsartan and empagliflozin in patients with HFrEF and concomitant T2D appears to be safe in terms of renal function.

8.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790113

RESUMO

AIMS: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is common in patients with heart failure (HF) and is related with worse outcomes. Insulin treatment is associated with sodium and water retention, weight gain, and hypoglycaemia-all pathophysiological mechanisms related to HF decompensation. This study aimed to evaluate the association between insulin treatment and the risk of 1 year readmission for HF in patients discharged for acute HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively included 2895 consecutive patients discharged after an episode of acute HF in a single tertiary hospital. Multivariable Cox regression, adapted for competing events, was used to assess the association between insulin treatment and 1 year readmission for HF in patients discharged after acute HF. Participants' mean age was 73.4 ± 11.2 years, 50.8% were women, 44.7% had T2DM [including 527 (18.2%) on insulin therapy], and 52.7% had preserved ejection fraction. At 1 year follow-up, 518 (17.9%) patients had died and 693 (23.9%) were readmitted for HF. The crude risk of readmission for HF was higher in patients on insulin, with no differences in 1 year mortality. After multivariable adjustment, patients on insulin were at significantly higher risk of 1 year readmission for HF than patients with diabetes who were not on insulin (hazard ratio 1.28; 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.59, P = 0.022) and patients without diabetes (hazard ratio 1.26; 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.55, P = 0.035). CONCLUSION: Following acute HF, patients with T2DM on insulin therapy are at increased risk of readmission for HF. Further studies unravelling the mechanisms behind this association are warranted.

9.
Cardiorenal Med ; 10(5): 362-372, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In acute heart failure (AHF), early assessment of spot urinary sodium (UNa) has emerged as a useful biomarker for risk stratification and monitoring. The objective of this study was to investigate (a) whether early spot UNa predicts 24-h diuretic efficiency and (b) the clinical factors associated with early spot UNa in patients with AHF and concomitant renal dysfunction (RD). METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of the IMPROVE-HF trial, in which 160 patients with AHF and RD (estimated glomerular filtrate rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73 m2) were included. Diuretic efficiency was calculated as the net fluid output produced per 40 mg of furosemide equivalents in 24 h. The association between early spot UNa and diuretic efficiency and clinical variables associated with UNa were evaluated using multivariate linear regression analysis. The contribution of the exposures in the predictability of the models was assessed with the coefficient of determination (R2). RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 78 ± 8 years. The median (interquartile range) diuretic efficiency, early spot UNa, aminoterminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and eGFR were 747 (490-1,167) mL, 90 mmol/L (65-111), 7,765 pg/mL (3,526-15,369), and 33.7 ± 11.3 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. In a multivariate setting, lower UNa was significantly and nonlinearly associated with lower diuretic efficiency (p = 0.001), explaining the 44.4% of the model predictability. Natremia and surrogates of congestion emerged as the main factors related to UNa. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AHF and RD at presentation, early spot UNa was inversely related to 24-h diuretic efficiency.

10.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624444

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Urinary sodium (UNa+) has emerged as a useful biomarker of poor clinical outcomes in acute heart failure (AHF). Here, we sought to evaluate: a) the usefulness of a single early determination of UNa+ for predicting adverse outcomes in patients with AHF and renal dysfunction, and b) whether the change in UNa+ at 24hours (ΔUNa24h) adds any additional prognostic information over baseline values. METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of a multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trial (IMPROVE-HF) (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02643147) that randomized 160 patients with AHF and renal dysfunction on admission to a) the standard diuretic strategy, or b) a carbohydrate antigen 125-guided diuretic strategy. The primary end point was all-cause mortality and total all-cause readmissions. RESULTS: The mean age was 78±8 years, and the mean glomerular filtration rate was 34.0±8.5mL/min/1.73 m2. The median UNa+ was 90 (65-111) mmol/L. At a median follow-up of 1.73 years [interquartile range, 0.48-2.35], 83 deaths (51.9%) were registered, as well as 263 all-cause readmissions in 110 patients. UNa+ was independently associated with mortality (HR, 0.75; 95%CI, 0.65-0.87; P <.001) and all-cause readmissions (HR, 0.92; 95%CI, 0.88-0.96; P <.001). The prognostic usefulness of the ΔUNa24h varied according to UNa+ at admission (P for interaction <.05). The ΔUNa24h was inversely associated with both end points only in the group with UNa+ ≤ 50 mmol/L. Conversely, no effect was found in the group with UNa+> 50 mmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AHF and renal dysfunction, a single early determination of UNa+ ≤ 50 mmol/L identifies patients with a higher risk of all-cause mortality and readmission. The ΔUNa24h adds prognostic information over baseline values only when UNa+ at admission is ≤ 50 mmol/L.

11.
Eur J Intern Med ; 81: 78-82, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553586

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is scarce information about the clinical profile and prognosis of acute heart failure (AHF) at the extreme ranges of age. We aimed to evaluate the 1-year death (all-cause mortality and HF-death) and HF-rehospitalizations of patients ≥85 years admitted for AHF. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated a cohort of 3054 patients admitted with AHF from 2007 to 2018 in a third-level center. Age was categorized per 10-year categories (<65 years; 65-74 years, 75-84 years, and ≥85 years). The risk of mortality and HF-rehospitalizations across age categories was evaluated with Cox regression analysis and Cox regression adapted for competing events as appropriate. RESULTS: The mean age was 73.6 ± 11.2 years, 48.9% were female, and 52.8% had preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFpEF). A total of 414 (13.6%) patients were ≥85 years. Among this group of age, female sex and HFpEF phenotype were more frequent. At 1-year follow-up 667 all-cause deaths (22,1%), 311 HF-deaths (10.1%) and 693 HF-hospitalizations (22,7%) were recorded. After multivariable adjustment, and compared to patients <65 years, a stepwise increased risk of all-cause mortality and HF-death was found for each decade increase in age, especially for patients ≥85 years (HR=3.47; 95% CI: 2.49 - 4.84, p<0.001, HR=3.31; 95% CI: 1.95 - 5.63; p<0.001, respectively). This subgroup of patients also showed an increased risk of HF-rehospitalization (HR=1.58; 95% CI: 1.16 - 2.16, p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Super elderly patients admitted with AHF showed a dramatically increased risk of 1-year death. This subset of patients also shown an increased risk of 1-year HF-readmission.

12.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; 9(5): 437-447, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasma amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and antigen carbohydrate 125 levels are positively associated with a higher risk of adverse clinical outcomes in acute heart failure. As a proxy of congestion, antigen carbohydrate 125 has also been proposed as a right-sided heart failure marker. Thus, we aimed to determine in this population the main factors - including echocardiographic right-sided heart failure parameters - associated with antigen carbohydrate 125 and amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively included 2949 patients admitted with acute heart failure. Amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and antigen carbohydrate 125 were used as dependent variables in a multivariable linear regression analysis. The mean age of the sample was 73.9±11.1 years; 48.9% were female, 35.8% showed ischaemic aetiology, and 51.6% exhibited heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. The median (interquartile range) for amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and antigen carbohydrate 125 were 4840 (2111-9204) pg/ml and 58 (26-129) U/ml, respectively. In a multivariable setting, and ranked in order of importance (R2), estimated glomerular filtration rate (43.7%), left ventricle ejection fraction (15.1%), age (12.4%) and high-sensitivity troponin T (10.9%) emerged as the most important factors associated with amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. The five main factors associated with antigen carbohydrate 125 were, in order of importance: the presence of pleural effusion (36.8%), tricuspid regurgitation severity (25.1%), age (11.9%), amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (6.5%) and peripheral oedema (4.3%). CONCLUSION: In patients with acute heart failure the main factors associated with amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide were renal dysfunction, left ventricle ejection fraction and age. For antigen carbohydrate 125, clinical parameters of congestion and the severity of tricuspid regurgitation were the most important predictors. These results endorse the value of antigen carbohydrate 125 as a useful marker of right-sided heart failure.

13.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(3): 1007-1014, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212327

RESUMO

AIMS: Heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) has been proposed as a distinct HF phenotype, but whether patients on this category fare worse, similarly, or better than those with HF with reduced EF (HFrEF) or preserved EF (HFpEF) in terms of rehospitalization risks over time remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively included 2961 consecutive patients admitted for acute HF (AHF) in our institution. Of them, 158 patients died during the index admission, leaving the sample size to be 2803 patients. Patients were categorized according to their EF: HFrEF if EF ≤ 40% (n = 908, 32.4%); HFmrEF if EF = 41-49% (n = 449, 16.0%); and HFpEF if EF ≥ 50% (n = 1446, 51.6%). Covariate-adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were used to evaluate the association between EF status and recurrent all-cause and HF-related admissions. At a median follow-up of 2.6 years (inter-quartile range: 1.0-5.3), 1663 (59.3%) patients died, and 6035 all-cause readmissions were registered in 2026 patients (72.3%), 2163 of them HF related. Rates of all-cause readmission per 100 patients-years of follow-up were 150.1, 176.9, and 163.6 in HFrEF, HFmrEF, and HFpEF, respectively (P = 0.097). After multivariable adjustment, when compared with that of patients with HFrEF and HFpEF, HFmrEF status was not significantly associated with a different risk of all-cause readmissions (IRR = 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-1.27; P = 0.926; and IRR = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.74-1.18; P = 0.621, respectively) or HF-related readmissions (IRR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.77-1.46; P = 0.725; and IRR = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.82-1.50; P = 0.511, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Following an admission for AHF, patients with HFmrEF had a similar rehospitalization burden and a similar risk of recurrent all-cause and HF-related admissions than had patients with HFrEF or HFpEF. Regarding morbidity risk, HFmrEF seems not to be a distinct HF phenotype.

14.
Int J Cardiol ; 308: 54-59, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In acute heart failure (AHF) with right ventricular dysfunction, the roles of amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) are poorly understood, and functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) severity is thought to indicate a poor prognosis. We examined the prognostic abilities of NT-proBNP and CA125 according to TR status among patients with AHF. METHODS: TR severity was assessed during index hospitalization (108 ± 24 h after admission) and classified as none/trivial, mild, moderate, or severe. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was performed to assess how pre-discharge CA125 and NT-proBNP were associated with long-term all-cause mortality relative to TR severity. RESULTS: We prospectively included 2961 patients discharged following hospitalization for AHF (mean age 74 ± 11 years; 49.0% women; 51.8% with left ventricular ejection fraction >50%). Median NT-proBNP was 4823 ng/L (IQR: 2086-9183) and CA125 was 58.1 U/mL (IQR: 25-129). Severe TR was present in 300 patients (10.1%), and 1821 patients (61.5%) died (mean follow-up, 3.3 ± 3.2 years). Multivariate analysis revealed a differential prognostic effect across TR status for both biomarkers (p-value for both interactions<0.05). NT-proBNP was significantly linearly associated with mortality in non-severe TR (p < 0.001), but not in severe TR (p = 0.308). Higher CA125 values were significantly associated with mortality risk in all patients (HR: 1.09; 95% CI:1.03-1.14; p = 0.001), with a greater effect in those with severe TR (HR: 1.28; 98% CI:1.11-1.48; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AHF and severe TR, CA125 outperforms NT-proBNP in predicting long-term mortality. In AHF with right ventricular involvement, CA125 may be the preferred biomarker for risk stratification.

15.
J Clin Med ; 9(3)2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197527

RESUMO

Right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) parameters are increasingly important features in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We sought to evaluate the prognostic impact of a progressive RVD staging system by combining the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) to pulmonary artery systolic pressure (TAPSE/PASP) ratio with functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) severity. We prospectively included 1355 consecutive HFpEF patients discharged for acute heart failure (HF). Of them, in 471 (34.7%) patients, PASP could not be accurately measured, leaving the final sample size to be 884 patients. Patients were categorized as Stage 1: TAPSE/PASP ≥ 0.36 without significant TR; stage 2: TAPSE/PASP ≥ 0.36 with significant TR; stage 3: TAPSE/PASP < 0.36 without significant TR; and stage 4: TAPSE/PASP < 0.36 with significant TR. By the 1 year follow-up, 207 (23.4%) patients had died. We found a significant and graded association between RVD stages and mortality rates (15.8%, 25%, 31.2%, and 45.4% from stage 1 to stage 4, respectively; log-rank test, p < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, and compared to stage 1, stages 3 and 4 were independently associated with mortality risk (HR: 1.8219; 95% CI 1.308-2.538; p < 0.001 and HR = 2.2632; 95% CI 1.540-3.325; p < 0.001, respectively). A RVD staging system, integrating TAPSE/PASP and TR, provides a comprehensive and widely available tool for risk stratification in HFpEF.

16.
Clin Cardiol ; 43(5): 423-429, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is complex and multifactorial. Chronotropic incompetence (ChI) has emerged as a crucial pathophysiological mechanism. Beta-blockers, drugs with negative chronotropic effects, are commonly used in HFpEF, although current evidence does not support its routine use in these patients. HYPOTHESIS: We postulate beta-blockers may have deleterious effects in HFpEF and ChI. This work aims to evaluate the short-term effect of beta-blockers withdrawal on functional capacity assessed by the maximal oxygen uptake (peakVO2) in patients with HFpEF and ChI. METHODS: This is a prospective, crossover, randomized (1:1) and multicenter study. After randomization, the clinical and cardiac rhythm will be continuously registered for 30 days. PeakVO2 is assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) at 15 and 30 days in both groups. Secondary endpoints include quality of life, cognitive, and safety assessment. Patients with stable HFpEF, functional class New York Heart Association (NYHA) II-III, chronic treatment with beta-blockers, and ChI will be enrolled. A sample size estimation [alfa: 0.05, power: 90%, a 20% loss rate, and delta change of mean peakVO2: +1.2 mL/kg/min (SD ± 2.0)] of 52 patients is necessary to test our hypothesis. RESULTS: Patients started enrolling in October 2018. As January 14th, 2020, 28 patients have been enrolled. It is projected to enroll the last patient at the end of July 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Optimizing therapy that improves functional capacity remains an unmeet priority in HFpEF. Deprescribing beta-blockers in patients with HFpEF and ChI seems a plausible intervention to improve functional capacity. This trial is an attempt towards precision medicine in this complex syndrome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03871803.

17.
Coron Artery Dis ; 31(4): 378-384, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In established ischemic heart disease, the relationship between lipoprotein(a) and new cardiovascular events showed contradictory results. Our aim was to assess the relationship between lipoprotein(a) and very long-term recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) after an index episode of ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHODS: We included 435 consecutive STEMI patients discharged from October 2000 to June 2003 in a single teaching center. The relationship between lipoprotein(a) at discharge and recurrent MI was evaluated through negative binomial regression and Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: The mean age was 65 years (55-74 years), 25.5% were women, 34.7% were diabetic, and 66% had a MI of anterior location. Fibrinolysis, rescue, or primary angioplasty was performed in 215 (49.4%), 19 (4.4%), and 18 (4.1%) patients, respectively. The median lipoprotein(a) was 30.4 mg/dL (12-59.4 mg/dL). After a median follow-up of 9.6 years (4.1-15 years), 180 (41.4%) deaths and 187 MI in 133 (30.6%) patients were recorded. After a multivariate adjustment, the risk gradient of lipoprotein(a) showed a neutral effect along most of the continuum and only extreme higher values identified those at higher risk of recurrent MI (P = 0.020). Those with lipoprotein(a) values >95th percentile (≥135 mg/dL) showed a higher risk of recurrent MI (incidence rate ratio, 2.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.37-4.02; P = 0.002). Lipoprotein(a) was not related to the risk of mortality (P = 0.245). CONCLUSIONS: After an episode of STEMI, only extreme high values of lipoprotein(a) were associated with an increased risk of long-term recurrent MI.

19.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 73(6): 463-470, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629690

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is a common comorbidity in patients with heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Previous studies have shown that diabetic women are at higher risk of developing HF than men. However, the long-term prognosis of diabetic HFpEF patients by sex has not been extensively explored. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the differential impact of DM2 on all-cause mortality in men vs women with HFpEF after admission for acute HF. METHODS: We prospectively included 1019 consecutive HFpEF patients discharged after admission for acute HF in a single tertiary referral hospital. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the interaction between sex and DM2 regarding the risk of long-term all-cause mortality. Risk estimates were calculated as hazard ratios (HR). RESULTS: The mean age of the cohort was 75.6±9.5 years and 609 (59.8%) were women. The proportion of DM2 was similar between sexes (45.1% vs 49.1, P=.211). At a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 3.6 (1-4-6.8) years, 646 (63.4%) patients died. After adjustment for risk factors, comorbidities, biomarkers, echo parameters and treatment at discharge, multivariate analysis showed a differential prognostic effect of DM2 (P value for interaction=.007). DM2 was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality in women (HR, 1.77; 95%CI, 1.41-2.21; P <.001) but not in men (HR, 1.23; 95%CI, 0.94-1.61; P=.127). CONCLUSIONS: After an episode of acute HF in HFpEF patients, DM2 confers a higher risk of mortality in women. Further studies evaluating the impact of DM2 in women with HFpEF are warranted.

20.
Am J Med ; 133(3): 370-380.e4, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal diuretic treatment strategy for patients with acute heart failure and renal dysfunction remains unclear. Plasma carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) is a surrogate of fluid overload and a potentially valuable tool for guiding decongestion therapy. The aim of this study was to determine if a CA125-guided diuretic strategy is superior to usual care in terms of short-term renal function in patients with acute heart failure and renal dysfunction at presentation. METHODS: This multicenter, open-label study randomized 160 patients with acute heart failure and renal dysfunction into 2 groups (1:1). Loop diuretics doses were established according to CA125 levels in the CA125-guided group (n = 79) and in clinical evaluation in the usual-care group (n = 81). Changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 72 and 24 hours were the co-primary endpoints, respectively. RESULTS: The mean age was 78 ± 8 years, the median amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide was 7765 pg/mL, and the mean eGFR was 33.7 ± 11.3 mL/min/1.73m2. Over 72 hours, the CA125-guided group received higher furosemide equivalent dose compared to usual care (P = 0.011), which translated into higher urine volume (P = 0.042). Moreover, patients in the active arm with CA125 >35 U/mL received the highest furosemide equivalent dose (P <0.001) and had higher diuresis (P = 0.013). At 72 hours, eGFR (mL/min/1.73m2) significantly improved in the CA125-guided group (37.5 vs 34.8, P = 0.036), with no significant changes at 24 hours (35.8 vs 39.5, P = 0.391). CONCLUSION: A CA125-guided diuretic strategy significantly improved eGFR and other renal function parameters at 72 hours in patients with acute heart failure and renal dysfunction.


Assuntos
Antígeno Ca-125/sangue , Furosemida/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Membrana/sangue , Insuficiência Renal/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio e Potássio/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/urina , Humanos , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Medicina de Precisão , Insuficiência Renal/complicações , Insuficiência Renal/urina , Urina
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