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1.
Lancet Public Health ; 5(7): e386-e394, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rapid growth of the size of the older population is having a substantial effect on health and social care services in many societies across the world. Maintaining health and functioning in older age is a key public health issue but few studies have examined factors associated with inequalities in trajectories of health and functioning across countries. The aim of this study was to investigate trajectories of healthy ageing in older men and women (aged ≥45 years) and the effect of education and wealth on these trajectories. METHODS: This population-based study is based on eight longitudinal cohorts from Australia, the USA, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, and Europe harmonised by the EU Ageing Trajectories of Health: Longitudinal Opportunities and Synergies (ATHLOS) consortium. We selected these studies from the repository of 17 ageing studies in the ATHLOS consortium because they reported at least three waves of collected data. We used multilevel modelling to investigate the effect of education and wealth on trajectories of healthy ageing scores, which incorporated 41 items of physical and cognitive functioning with a range between 0 (poor) and 100 (good), after adjustment for age, sex, and cohort study. FINDINGS: We used data from 141 214 participants, with a mean age of 62·9 years (SD 10·1) and an age range of 45-106 years, of whom 76 484 (54·2%) were women. The earliest year of baseline data was 1992 and the most recent last follow-up year was 2015. Education and wealth affected baseline scores of healthy ageing but had little effect on the rate of decrease in healthy ageing score thereafter. Compared with those with primary education or less, participants with tertiary education had higher baseline scores (adjusted difference in score of 10·54 points, 95% CI 10·31-10·77). The adjusted difference in healthy ageing score between lowest and highest quintiles of wealth was 8·98 points (95% CI 8·74-9·22). Among the eight cohorts, the strongest inequality gradient for both education and wealth was found in the Health Retirement Study from the USA. INTERPRETATION: The apparent difference in baseline healthy ageing scores between those with high versus low education levels and wealth suggests that cumulative disadvantage due to low education and wealth might have largely deteriorated health conditions in early life stages, leading to persistent differences throughout older age, but no further increase in ageing disparity after age 70 years. Future research should adopt a lifecourse approach to investigate mechanisms of health inequalities across education and wealth in different societies. FUNDING: European Union Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501615

RESUMO

Ageing well involves individuals continuing participating in personal, social and civic affairs even in older age. From this standpoint, limitations in individual's functioning (beyond the mere absence of disease) may drastically impact on how well people becoming older. This study aimed to identify functional status profiles in a nationally representative sample of older adults, using latent class analysis methods. Moreover, it intended to study the how identified classes would be related to health-related outcomes later in life, as a way to provide some evidence on predictive validity. Data from a nationally representative sample of Spanish older adults (N = 2,118; 56.18% women; M = 71.50 years, SD = 7.76), were used. Profiles were identified according to a large set of functioning indicators from multiple domains using latent class analysis. Outcomes were studied over a 3-year follow-up, considering both the individual (quality of life, well-being and mortality) and institutional level (health service utilisation). As a result, seven profiles were identified: normative profile (showed by most participants), limited cognitive functioning class, limited global functioning class, limited mental and mobility functioning class, poor self-reported health class, limited sensory functioning class and limited objective functioning class. All the profiles with limitations across domains showed poor outcomes. Multidimensional limitations were related to the worst outcomes, especially when psychosomatic complaints and high feelings of loneliness were reported. To sum up, latent class analysis constitutes a suitable alternative to study population heterogeneity, providing relevant evidence to help making decision in public and community health.

3.
Health Educ Behav ; 47(1): 143-152, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597485

RESUMO

Drug manufacturers are expected to provide labeling information needed to yield safe and effective product use. However, it is not clear that consumers dose sunscreen, an over-the-counter drug, appropriately; in fact, existing evidence suggests underdosing as a common phenomenon. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dispensing device and labeling on self-administered doses of sunscreen in young adults. To investigate those effects, a 2 × 2 factorial laboratory experiment crossing dispensing device (two levels) with labeling treatment (two levels) was conducted. Participants applied sunscreen from each of the four treatments; dosing concentration, measured in mg/cm2, served as the response variable. Participants (n = 94) were recruited on the campuses of Michigan State University (East Lansing, MI) and California Polytechnic State University (San Luis Obispo, CA). Each participant applied sunscreen from each unique treatment to sites on their arms and legs (four applications). Postapplication, a survey was completed to characterize demographics, risk perception, and sunscreen use patterns. Results indicate participants applied approximately 30% less sunscreen from the pump bottles than the squeeze bottles (difference estimate of 0.3059 mg/cm2, standard error = 0.0607, p < .0001); there was no evidence of a difference based on label treatments. Post hoc recognition tests indicated only 55% of participants were able to recognize the two experimental labels they had viewed immediately following sunscreen application. Sunscreen application density was directly related to level of worry regarding skin cancer and frequency of sunscreen use (α = .05). Our results suggest the dispensing device used to deliver sunscreen impacts the dosage amount consumers apply.

4.
Disabil Rehabil ; 42(1): 130-136, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30183423

RESUMO

Purpose: Improvements in overall functioning and well-being are important goals in the treatment of substance use disorders. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the usefulness of the PARADISE24 instrument for studying the scope and severity of psychosocial difficulties by comparing the results with other measures in the context of substance use disorders.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study included two independent inpatient samples. The first sample consisted of 80 interviews including the PARADISE24 and 10 other measures. The second sample consisted of the responses of 1082 inpatients to a self-administered PARADISE24 questionnaire.Results: Inpatients with substance use disorders had experienced a wide range of psychosocial difficulties and the two samples produced similar results. Highest scores were observed for emotional difficulties. The PARADISE24 showed convergent validity with measures of disability and depressive symptoms and discriminant validity with personality traits and environmental factors (i.e., social support and caretaker's empathy). Psychosocial difficulties were inversely associated with quality of life and self-assessed health.Conclusion: The PARADISE24 provides a wide range of useful information on psychosocial difficulties for clinical work and it can be used as a self-administered questionnaire in the evaluation and treatment of substance use disorders.Implications for rehabilitationIndividuals undergoing inpatient treatment for substance use disorders experience various and severe psychosocial difficulties.The PARADISE24 is an evidence-based instrument for assessing the scope and severity of 24 common psychosocial difficulties among neurological and psychiatric disorders.The PARADISE24 also offers a time-efficient method which can be used as a self-administered questionnaire in the context of substance use disorders.Comparison between the PARADISE24 and 10 commonly used measures showed that the PARADISE24 covered a wide variety of clinically relevant issues in one questionnaire.

5.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-8, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814442

RESUMO

Objectives: Socioeconomic status (SES) relates to life satisfaction in old age, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Health and subjective social status have shown to be related to both SES and life satisfaction. This study aims to test the mediating role of health and subjective social status in old age, and to analyze if these potential mediations vary among three European countries with different socioeconomic characteristics and welfare regimes.Method: The sample comprised 7,272 participants aged 50+ from COURAGE in Europe study, a household survey carried out in 2011-2012 on nationally representative samples from Finland, Poland, and Spain. A Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes approach based on multi-group Structural Equation Modeling was implemented to test mediating effects.Results: The structural invariance model showed an adequate fit (CFI = 0.971, RMSEA = 0.061). Health and subjective social status invariantly mediated the relationship between SES and life satisfaction across countries with different socioeconomic characteristics and welfare regimes. SES direct effects explained 0.83-0.85% of life satisfaction variance, whilst indirect effects explained 2.29-2.36% of life satisfaction variance via health, 3.30-3.42% via subjective social status, and 0.06% via both mediating variables.Conclusion: Policies aimed at increasing the SES of the older adults may entail multiple benefits, resulting in better subjective social status, health, and life satisfaction outcomes, thus fostering healthy aging of the population.

6.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(6): 1906-1913, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether worldwide increases in life expectancy are accompanied by a better health status is still a debate. People age differently, and there is a need to disentangle whether healthy-ageing pathways can be shaped by cohort effects. This study aims to analyse trends in health status in two large nationally representative samples of older adults from England and the USA. METHODS: The sample comprised 55 684 participants from the first seven waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), and the first 11 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). A common latent health score based on Bayesian multilevel item response theory was used. Two Bayesian mixed-effects multilevel models were used to assess cohort effects on health in ELSA and HRS separately, controlling for the effect of household wealth and educational attainment. RESULTS: Similar ageing trends were found in ELSA (ß = -0.311; p < 0.001) and HRS (ß = -0.393; p < 0.001). The level of education moderated the life-course effect on health in both ELSA (ß = -0.082; p < 0.05) and HRS (ß = -0.084; p < 0.05). A birth-year effect was found for those belonging to the highest quintiles of household wealth in both ELSA (ß = 0.125; p < 0.001) and HRS (ß = 0.170; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Health inequalities have increased in recent cohorts, with the wealthiest participants presenting a better health status in both the USA and English populations. Actions to promote health in the ageing population should consider the increasing inequality scenario, not only by applying highly effective interventions, but also by making them accessible to all members of society.

7.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 110: 104443, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610452

RESUMO

Late-life depression is a highly prevalent mental health condition with devastating consequences even from its earliest stages. Alterations in physiological functions, such as inflammatory and metabolic, have been described in patients with depression. However, little is known on the association between depression symptom course and metabolic and inflammation dysregulation. This study aimed to depict the course of depression symptoms while ageing, taking into consideration inter-individual heterogeneity. Moreover, it intended to study the associations between inflammatory and metabolic risk profiles and symptom trajectories. To do so, data from 13,203 adults aged 50-90 years (52.75% women; mean age at baseline = 65.07, SD = 10.00) were used. Blood sample and blood pressure measures were taken from 1536 participants (56.58% women; mean age at baseline = 61.73 years, sd = 7.64). Depression symptoms were assessed every two years across a 10-year follow-up. Trajectories were identified by means of latent class mixed modelling. Inflammation and metabolic risk profile scores were obtained from plasma and diagnostic-based indicators in the follow-up, using a robust latent-factor approach. Multigroup modelling was used to study the associations between the profiles and symptom trajectories. As a result, three heterogeneous trajectories of symptoms were identified (low-symptom, moderate-symptom and high-symptom trajectory). Participants depicting a high-symptom trajectory showed the greatest inflammation profile score and high metabolic risk. Moderate-symptom trajectory was also related to high inflammation and metabolic risk. To sum up, at-risk trajectories of symptoms were associated with high inflammation and risk of metabolic diseases. This study provides valuable evidence to advance personalised medicine and mental health precision, considering person-specific profiles and physiological concomitants.

8.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 19(11): 1112-1117, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571357

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the study was to determine the rate of inadequate empirical antimicrobial treatment in older nursing home residents with bacteremic urinary tract infection and its influence on prognosis. METHODS: We carried out a multicentric prospective observational study in five Spanish hospitals. Patients aged >65 years with pyelonephritis or urinary sepsis with bacteremia were included. Clinical characteristics, the percentage of inadequate empirical antibiotic treatment, length of hospital stay and mortality were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 181 patients, 54.7% women, were included in the study, and 35.9% of the patients came from nursing homes. These patients had higher percentages of ultimately or rapidly fatal disease (92.3% vs 53.4%; P < 0.001), were older (83.15 ± 6.97 years vs 79.34 ± 7.25 years; P = 0.001) and had higher Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (28.38 ± 8.57 vs 19.83 ± 5.88). The percentage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases was higher in patients from nursing homes (30.6% vs 16.3%; P = 0.045), as was the percentage of inadequate empirical antibiotic treatment (40% vs 20.7%; P = 0.005). Length of hospital stay was longer (10.82 ± 3.62 days vs 9.04 ± 4.88 days; P < 0.001). However, 30-day mortality was not related to nursing home by multivariate analysis (OR 1.905, 95% CI 0.563-6.446; P = 0.300). CONCLUSIONS: Nursing home patients with bacteremic urinary tract infections had a higher rate of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteriacea and inadequate empirical antimicrobial treatment. Clinicians should consider these findings and avoid inappropriate antimicrobial agents for empirical treatment. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2019; 19: 1112-1117.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrição Inadequada/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bacteriemia/complicações , Feminino , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Humanos , Masculino , Casas de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha , Infecções Urinárias/complicações
9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11041, 2019 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363117

RESUMO

Projections show that the number of people above 60 years old will triple by 2050 in Mexico. Nevertheless, ageing is characterised by great variability in the health status. In this study, we aimed to identify trajectories of health and their associations with lifestyle factors in a national representative cohort study of older Mexicans. We used secondary data of 14,143 adults from the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS). A metric of health, based on the conceptual framework of functional ability, was mapped onto four waves (2001, 2003, 2012, 2015) and created by applying Bayesian multilevel Item Response Theory (IRT). Conditional Growth Mixture Modelling (GMM) was used to identify latent classes of individuals with similar trajectories and examine the impact of physical activity, smoking and alcohol on those. Conditional on sociodemographic and lifestyle behaviour four latent classes were suggested: high-stable, moderate-stable, low-stable and decliners. Participants who did not engage in physical activity, were current or previous smokers and did not consume alcohol at baseline were more likely to be in the trajectory with the highest deterioration (i.e. decliners). This study confirms ageing heterogeneity and the positive influence of a healthy lifestyle. These results provide the ground for new policies.

10.
MycoKeys ; 48: 115-124, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930654

RESUMO

Stephanosporamayana is presented as a new species from the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. This species is distinguished by the yellowish pileus, basidiospores with a small corona (4-6 × 1-2.5 µm), and variable size (8.0-17.0 × 6.0-11.0), thin pileus (21-40 µm) and the ecological association to lowland forest with Haematoxylumcampechianum, Gymnopodiumfloribundum, Coccolobadiversifolia, Metopiumbrownei and Pinuscaribaea. It differs from the American species of Stephanospora, like S.michoacanensis and S.chilensis, by its larger basidiospores. Descriptions, photographs and discussions are presented.

11.
Addict Behav ; 95: 125-128, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904776

RESUMO

AIM: Improvement of overall functioning is an important goal in the treatment of substance use disorders, and thus tools for monitoring change are needed. The current study aimed to evaluate the longitudinal metric invariance and sensitivity to change for the PARADISE24fin questionnaire. METHODS: A total of 1153 patients with substance use disorders completed the PARADISE24fin in two measurement occasions along their treatment. Patients were categorized into three groups according to their treatment status at the second occasion (end of the treatment, on-treatment follow-up, and re-start treatment). The latent structure of the PARADISE24fin questionnaire was analyzed in the two measurement occasions with confirmatory factor analyses. Evidence of the PARADISE24fin sensitivity to change was studied comparing mean change scores for the three treatment status groups. RESULTS: The PARADISE24fin showed a strong longitudinal metric invariance across the two occasions in the three treatment status groups. The PARADISE24fin scores decreased during treatment, especially among the group of patients that had completed their treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The PARADISE24fin is a reliable questionnaire to measure changes in psychosocial difficulties in substance use disorders overtime.

13.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 74(8): 1308-1316, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521005

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although visual and hearing impairments have been found to be associated with cognitive decline in the old age, the mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. This study aimed at assessing the predictive role of visual and hearing difficulties on subsequent cognitive functioning. METHOD: From the cohort of the first (2002) and fifth waves (2010) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), 3,508 individuals aged 60 and older were included in the study. Five self-reported visual and hearing functioning items were used to assess sensory functioning at baseline. Cognition was assessed 8 years later by means of four measured tests covering immediate and delayed recall, verbal fluency, and processing speed. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes approach was used to assess the longitudinal associations of visual and hearing functioning with cognitive difficulties. A multigroup longitudinal measurement invariance was used to estimate latent change in cognitive difficulties across groups of participants presenting either visual, hearing, or dual sensory impairment (i.e., those reporting difficulties in both visual and hearing functioning items). RESULTS: Visual (ß = 0.140, p < .001) and hearing (ß = 0.115, p < .001) difficulties predicted cognitive difficulties 8 years later. The latent increase in cognitive difficulties was steeper in people with visual impairment (d = 0.52, p < .001), hearing impairment (d = 0.50, p < .001), and dual-sensory impairment (d = 0.68, p < .001) than those non-impaired (d = 0.12, p < .001). DISCUSSION: Visual and hearing difficulties were identified as predictors of subsequent cognitive decline in the old age. Interventions to prevent visual and hearing difficulties may have a substantial impact to slow down subsequent age-related cognitive decline.

14.
J Affect Disord ; 246: 329-337, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at depicting the course of depression symptoms over the old age, with a special interest in a) uncovering its relationships with sociodemographic and health-related factors; b) analysing its predictive role on healthy-ageing outcomes later in life. METHODS: The sample comprised 8317 older adults (46.02% men) from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Robust structural equation modelling was used to identify symptom trajectories and their relationships with time-varying factors. Trajectory class and covariates were used to predict outcomes (quality of life, satisfaction with life, and daily living functioning) in a 2-year follow-up. RESULTS: Three trajectory classes (so-called, normative, subclinical, chronic symptom trajectories) were identified for both sexes. Rising hearing difficulties and history of psychiatric problems were consistently associated with the chronic symptom trajectory. Lower education level, history of psychiatric problems, and increasing visual difficulties were connected with the subclinical trajectories. Finally, participants with either a subclinical or a chronic symptom trajectory showed worse outcomes than the remaining participants in the follow-up. CONCLUSION: This study highlighted the presence of varying courses of depression symptoms (each showing some distinctive features from other another) over the old age, pointing to some relevant implications for clinical assessment and treatment prescription.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Baixa Visão
15.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0204036, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30260969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cellulitis is a frequent cause of hospital admission of adult patients. Increasing prevalence of multiresistant microorganisms, comorbidities, predisposing factors and medical and surgical therapies might affect cellulitis response and recurrence rate. METHODS: Prospective and observational study of 606 adult patients with cellulitis admitted to several Spanish hospitals. Comorbidities, microbiological, clinical, diagnostic, treatment (surgical and antibiotic) data were analyzed according to the cellulitis response. Good response implied cure. Poor response implied failure to cure or initial cure but relapse within 30 days of hospital discharge. RESULTS: Mean age was 63.3 years and 51.8% were men. Poor responses were significantly associated with age, previous episodes of cellulitis, prior wounds and skin lesions, venous insufficiency, lymphedema, immunosuppression and lower limbs involvement. No differences in ESR or CRP blood levels, leukocyte counts, pus or blood cultures positivity or microbiological or imaging aspects were observed in those with good or poor responses. Regarding antimicrobials, no differences in previous exposition before hospital admission, treatment with single or more than one antibiotic, antibiotic switch, days on antimicrobials or surgical treatment were observed regarding good or poor cellulitis response. Prior episodes of cellulitis (P = 0.0001), venous insufficiency (P = 0.004), immunosuppression (P = 0.03), and development of sepsis (P = 0.05) were associated with poor treatment responses, and non-surgical trauma (P = 0.015) with good responses, in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Prior episodes of cellulitis, non-surgical trauma, venous insufficiency, sepsis and immunosuppression were independently associated with treatment response to cellulitis, but not the causative microorganism, the number of antimicrobials administered or its duration.


Assuntos
Celulite (Flegmão)/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Celulite (Flegmão)/etiologia , Celulite (Flegmão)/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 187: 66-71, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29627408

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Psychosocial difficulties (PSDs) are common in people with substance use disorders (SUDs). The PARADISE24 has been shown to be an adequate tool for measuring PSDs in inpatients with SUDs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the PARADISE24 in a sample of patients with SUDs. METHODS: 2637 participants with SUDs completed the PARADISE24 questionnaire during their treatment. The latent structure of the PARADISE24 questionnaire was analyzed in the outpatient sample by means of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA and CFA). Metric invariance was then assessed in relation to the inpatient sample using multiple group CFA. Finally, evidences of known-groups validity were checked to test the ability of the questionnaire to differentiate between socio-demographic and clinical groups. RESULTS: The one-factor model presented an adequate fit in both the EFA (CFI = 0.98; TLI = 0.98; RMSEA = 0.07) and the CFA (CFI = 0.98; TLI = 0.98; RMSEA = 0.07) solutions. The reliability of the scale was found to be high (α = 0.93). Strict metric invariance between inpatients and outpatients was achieved (RMSEA = 0.063; TLI = 0.983; CFI = 0.981). The PARADISE24 was able to discriminate between the inpatients and outpatients at both latent (d = 0.98) and observed levels (d = 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: The PARADISE24 is a unidimensional tool that is reliable for assessing and comparing PSDs in both outpatients and inpatients with SUDs. Further research is required for evaluating the ability of the PARADISE24 to quantify longitudinal changes in PSDs.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0191066, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29364923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacteremia is common in severe urinary infections, but its influence on the outcomes is not well established. The aim of this study was to assess the association of bacteremia with outcomes in elderly patients admitted to hospital with pyelonephritis or urinary sepsis. METHODS: This prospective muticenter observational study was conducted at 5 Spanish hospitals. All patients aged >65 years with pyelonephritis or urinary sepsis admitted to the departments of internal medicine and with urine and blood cultures obtained at admission to hospital were eligible. Transfer to ICU, length of hospital stay, hospital mortality and all cause 30-day mortality in bacteremic and non-bacteremic groups were compared. Risk factors for all cause 30-day mortality was also estimated. RESULTS: Of the 424 patients included in the study 181 (42.7%) had bacteremia. Neither transfer to ICU (4.4% vs. 2.9%, p = 0.400), nor length of hospital stay (9.7±4.6 days vs. 9.0±7.3 days, p = 0.252), nor hospital mortality (3.3% vs. 6.2%, p = 0.187), nor all cause 30-day mortality (9.4% vs. 13.2%, p = 0.223) were different between bacteremic and non-bacteremic groups. By multivariate analysis, risk factors for all cause 30-day mortality were age (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.10), McCabe index ≥2 (OR 10.47, 95% CI 2.96-37.04) and septic shock (OR 8.56, 95% CI 2.86-25.61); whereas, bacteremia was inversely associated with all cause 30-day mortality (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.15-0.71). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, bacteremia was not associated with a worse prognosis in elderly patients with pyelonephritis or urinary sepsis.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/complicações , Bacteriemia/fisiopatologia , Pielonefrite/complicações , Sepse/complicações , Infecções Urinárias/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 73(11): 1512-1518, 2018 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29346518

RESUMO

Background: Aging is a multidimensional process with a remarkable interindividual variability. This study is focused on identifying groups of population with similar aging patterns, and to define the health trajectories of these groups. Sociodemographic and health determinants of these trajectories are also identified. Methods: Data from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) were used. A set of self-reported health items and measured tests were used to generate a latent health metric by means of a Bayesian multilevel IRT model, assessing the ability of the metric to predict mortality. Then, a Growth Mixture Model (GMM) was conducted in each study to identify latent classes and assess health trajectories. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were obtained for each class and a multinomial logistic regression was used to identify determinants of these trajectories. Results: The health score generated showed an adequate ability to predict mortality over 10 years in ELSA (AUC = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.72, 0.75) and HRS (AUC = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.75). By means of GMM, four latent classes were identified in ELSA and five in HRS. Chronic conditions, no qualification and low level of household wealth were associated to the classes which showed a higher mortality in both studies. Conclusion: The method based on the creation of a common metric of health and the use of GMM to identify similar patterns of aging, allows for the comparison of trajectories of health across longitudinal surveys. Multimorbidity, educational level, and household wealth could be considered as determinants associated to these trajectories.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Saudável , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica/mortalidade , Escolaridade , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Renda , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Mortalidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Skeletal Radiol ; 47(4): 519-532, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29177701

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present work is aimed at analysing ultrasound findings in patients with distal biceps brachii tendon (DBBT) injuries to assess the sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting the different forms of injury, and to compare ultrasound results with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surgical results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 120 patients with traumatic DBBT injuries examined between 2011 and 2015 were analysed. We compared ultrasound results with MRI results when surgery was not indicated and with MRI and surgical results when surgery was indicated. RESULTS: For major DBBT injuries (complete tears and high-grade partial tears), the concordance study between exploration methods and surgical results found that ultrasound presented a slight statistically significant advantage over MRI (ultrasound: κ = 0.95-very good-95% CI 0.88 to 1.01, MRI: κ = 0.63-good-95% CI 0.42 to 0.84, kappa difference p < 0.01). Minor injuries, in which most tendon fibres remain intact (tendinopathies, elongations and low-grade partial tears), are the most difficult to interpret, as ultrasound and MRI reports disagreed in 12 out of 39 cases and no surgical confirmation could be obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Based on present results and previous MRI classifications, we establish a traumatic DBBT injury ultrasound classification. The sensitivity and ultrasound-surgery correlation results in the diagnosis of major DBBT injuries obtained in the present study support the recommendation that ultrasound can be used as a first-line imaging modality to evaluate DBBT injuries.


Assuntos
Cotovelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos dos Tendões/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Traumatismos dos Tendões/cirurgia
20.
Farm. hosp ; 40(6): 569-578, nov.-dic. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-158022

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivo: Conocer y analizar la experiencia autorreferida del tratamiento de los pacientes VHC que iniciaron tratamiento con agentes antivirales directos (AAD), a tiempo real, de forma proactiva e integrada en el proceso asistencial de atención farmacéutica. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional y transversal desarrollado entre abril (inicio del Plan Estratégico Nacional) y diciembre de 2015 en la Consulta Externa del Servicio de Farmacia. Se utilizó como herramienta un cuestionario prospectivo cumplimentado por los pacientes donde se recogieron variables relacionadas con la calidad de vida vinculadas con la salud (CVRS), adherencia, efectos adversos (EA), satisfacción con el tratamiento, y valoración y utilidad del programa formativo implementado por el Servicio de Farmacia. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de todas las variables incluidas en el estudio y se analizó la influencia de las diferentes variables en el grado de adherencia y CVRS. El análisis de las diferencias entre los dos grupos se realizó mediante el test de chi cuadrado y el cálculo de las OR con un modelo de regresión logística simple. Se utilizó el programa SPSS® versión 20, y se estableció una significación estadística para valores de p < 0,05. Resultados: Se recogieron155 encuestas de las 226 enviadas, tasa de respuesta del 68,6%.En referencia a la CVRS (valoración del estado físico y emocional), un 38,7% de los pacientes refieren que su estado físico y emocional es mucho mejor desde el inicio del tratamiento. La presencia de EA y una peor información global de su enfermedad se asoció con un peor estado físico y emocional (p < 0,05). La adherencia reportada fue del 84,5% y el tratamiento fue valorado como muy bueno o bueno por el 87% de los pacientes. Un 52,9% de los pacientes no tuvieron efectos adversos relacionados con la medicación y el proceso formativo realizado por el farmacéutico especialista en la primera consulta fue valorado por el 96,7% de los pacientes como muy bueno o bueno. Conclusiones: La experiencia autorreferida obtenida a través de un contacto directo y permanente con los pacientes permite obtener información sobre aspectos importantes del tratamiento. Creemos que estas herramientas deben incorporarse a los procedimientos de atención farmacéutica como una forma de mantener la continuidad. Además, inducen al paciente a una autoevaluación de diversos aspectos de su propio tratamiento, que pueden ayudar a conseguir una mayor implicación en el mismo y contribuir a conseguir el máximo resultado en salud posible de la farmacoterapia (AU)


Background and objective: To learn about and analyze the self-reported treatment experience of HCV patients who started treatment with direct acting antivirals agents (DAA), at a real-time, proactive and integrated into the pharmaceutical care healthcare process, using a prospective questionnaire completed by patients as clinical tool. Material and methods: Observational and cross-sectional study conducted between April (start of the National Strategic Plan) and December 2015 in the Outpatient Pharmacy Service. The questionnaire includes variables related to health related quality of life (HRQOL), adherence, adverse effects (AEs), satisfaction, and usefulness of the Pharmacy Service implemented training program. A descriptive analysis of all variables included in the study was conducted and the influence of different variables analyzed in the degree of adherence and HRQOL. The analysis of the differences was performed using chi-square test and simple logistic regression model for calculation of OR. We use SPSS version 20 program and statistical significance for values of p < 0.05 was considered. Results: 155 of the 226 surveys returned, with a response rate of 68.6%. Referring to the HRQOL (evaluation of physical and emotional state), 38.7% of patients reports that their physical and emotional state is much better from the start of treatment. The presence of EA and worse global information of their disease was associated with worse physical and emotional state (p < 0.05). Reported adherence was 84.5% and the treatment was evaluated as very good or good by 87% of patients. 52.9% had no adverse effects related to the medication and the training process performed by the specialist pharmacist at the first visit 96.7% of patients assessed as very good or good. Conclusions: Self-reported experience acquired through direct and constant contact with patients provides information on important aspects of treatment. We believe that these tools should be incorporated into pharmaceutical care procedures as a way to maintain continuity in patients direct contact. They also induce patients to a self-assessment of various aspects of their own treatment, which can help achieve greater involvement in it and can contribute to achieve the maximum health outcome in pharmacotherapy (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Assistência Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Autorrelato , Qualidade de Vida , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
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