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1.
Clin Chem ; 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gene panel testing by massive parallel sequencing has increased the diagnostic yield but also the number of variants of uncertain significance. Clinical interpretation of genomic data requires expertise for each gene and disease. Heterozygous ATM pathogenic variants increase the risk of cancer, particularly breast cancer. For this reason, ATM is included in most hereditary cancer panels. It is a large gene, showing a high number of variants, most of them of uncertain significance. Hence, we initiated a collaborative effort to improve and standardize variant classification for the ATM gene. METHODS: Six independent laboratories collected information from 766 ATM variant carriers harboring 283 different variants. Data were submitted in a consensus template form, variant nomenclature and clinical information were curated, and monthly team conferences were established to review and adapt American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) criteria to ATM, which were used to classify 50 representative variants. RESULTS: Amid 283 different variants, 99 appeared more than once, 35 had differences in classification among laboratories. Refinement of ACMG/AMP criteria to ATM involved specification for twenty-one criteria and adjustment of strength for fourteen others. Afterwards, 50 variants carried by 254 index cases were classified with the established framework resulting in a consensus classification for all of them and a reduction in the number of variants of uncertain significance from 58% to 42%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the relevance of data sharing and data curation by multidisciplinary experts to achieve improved variant classification that will eventually improve clinical management.

2.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 108, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The BRCA1 c.3331_3334delCAAG founder mutation has been reported in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families from multiple Hispanic groups. We aimed to evaluate BRCA1 c.3331_3334delCAAG haplotype diversity in cases of European, African, and Latin American ancestry. METHODS: BC mutation carrier cases from Colombia (n = 32), Spain (n = 13), Portugal (n = 2), Chile (n = 10), Africa (n = 1), and Brazil (n = 2) were genotyped with the genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays to evaluate haplotype diversity around BRCA1 c.3331_3334delCAAG. Additional Portuguese (n = 13) and Brazilian (n = 18) BC mutation carriers were genotyped for 15 informative SNPs surrounding BRCA1. Data were phased using SHAPEIT2, and identical by descent regions were determined using BEAGLE and GERMLINE. DMLE+ was used to date the mutation in Colombia and Iberia. RESULTS: The haplotype reconstruction revealed a shared 264.4-kb region among carriers from all six countries. The estimated mutation age was ~ 100 generations in Iberia and that it was introduced to South America early during the European colonization period. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that this mutation originated in Iberia and later introduced to Colombia and South America at the time of Spanish colonization during the early 1500s. We also found that the Colombian mutation carriers had higher European ancestry, at the BRCA1 gene harboring chromosome 17, than controls, which further supported the European origin of the mutation. Understanding founder mutations in diverse populations has implications in implementing cost-effective, ancestry-informed screening.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115781

RESUMO

Familial Colorectal Cancer Type X (FCCTX) comprises a heterogeneous group of families with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) and other related tumors, but with mismatch repair-proficient, microsatellite-stable (MSS) tumors. Unfortunately, the genetic basis underlying their cancer predisposition remains unknown. Although pathogenic germline variants in BRIP1 increase the risk of developing hereditary ovarian cancer, the involvement of BRIP1 in hereditary CRC is still not well known. Our aim was to identify new BRIP1 variants associated with inherited CRC. Affected and non-affected individuals from 18 FCCTX or high-risk MSS CRC families were evaluated by whole-exome sequencing, and another 62 CRC patients from FCCTX or high-risk MSS CRC families were screened by an NGS multigene panel. The families were recruited at the Genetic Counseling Unit of Hospital Clínico San Carlos of Madrid. A total of three different BRIP1 mutations in three unrelated families were identified. Among them, there were two frameshift variants [c.1702_1703del, p.(Asn568TrpfsTer9) and c.903del, p.(Leu301PhefsTer2)] that result in the truncation of the protein and are thus classified as pathogenic (class 5). The remaining was a missense variant [c.2220G>T, p.(Gln740His)] considered a variant of uncertain significance (class 3). The segregation and loss of heterozygosity studies provide evidence linking the two BRIP1 frameshift variants to CRC risk, with suggestive but not definitive evidence that the third variant may be benign. The results here presented suggest that germline BRIP1 pathogenic variants could be associated with hereditary CRC predisposition.

4.
Genet Med ; 22(10): 1653-1666, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665703

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessed the associations between population-based polygenic risk scores (PRS) for breast (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with cancer risks for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers. METHODS: Retrospective cohort data on 18,935 BRCA1 and 12,339 BRCA2 female pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestry were available. Three versions of a 313 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BC PRS were evaluated based on whether they predict overall, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, or ER-positive BC, and two PRS for overall or high-grade serous EOC. Associations were validated in a prospective cohort. RESULTS: The ER-negative PRS showed the strongest association with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation = 1.29 [95% CI 1.25-1.33], P = 3×10-72). For BRCA2, the strongest association was with overall BC PRS (HR = 1.31 [95% CI 1.27-1.36], P = 7×10-50). HR estimates decreased significantly with age and there was evidence for differences in associations by predicted variant effects on protein expression. The HR estimates were smaller than general population estimates. The high-grade serous PRS yielded the strongest associations with EOC risk for BRCA1 (HR = 1.32 [95% CI 1.25-1.40], P = 3×10-22) and BRCA2 (HR = 1.44 [95% CI 1.30-1.60], P = 4×10-12) carriers. The associations in the prospective cohort were similar. CONCLUSION: Population-based PRS are strongly associated with BC and EOC risks for BRCA1/2 carriers and predict substantial absolute risk differences for women at PRS distribution extremes.

5.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(8): 1218-1230, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614418

RESUMO

Importance: The limited data on cancer phenotypes in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs) have hampered the development of evidence-based recommendations for early cancer detection and risk reduction in this population. Objective: To compare the cancer spectrum and frequencies between male BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 6902 men, including 3651 BRCA1 and 3251 BRCA2 PV carriers, older than 18 years recruited from cancer genetics clinics from 1966 to 2017 by 53 study groups in 33 countries worldwide collaborating through the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Clinical data and pathologic characteristics were collected. Main Outcomes and Measures: BRCA1/2 status was the outcome in a logistic regression, and cancer diagnoses were the independent predictors. All odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, country of origin, and calendar year of the first interview. Results: Among the 6902 men in the study (median [range] age, 51.6 [18-100] years), 1634 cancers were diagnosed in 1376 men (19.9%), the majority (922 of 1,376 [67%]) being BRCA2 PV carriers. Being affected by any cancer was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2, rather than a BRCA1, PV carrier (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.81-3.70; P < .001), as well as developing 2 (OR, 7.97; 95% CI, 5.47-11.60; P < .001) and 3 (OR, 19.60; 95% CI, 4.64-82.89; P < .001) primary tumors. A higher frequency of breast (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 4.06-7.37; P < .001) and prostate (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78; P = .008) cancers was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Among cancers other than breast and prostate, pancreatic cancer was associated with a higher probability (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.55-5.81; P = .001) and colorectal cancer with a lower probability (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29-0.78; P = .003) of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Conclusions and Relevance: Significant differences in the cancer spectrum were observed in male BRCA2, compared with BRCA1, PV carriers. These data may inform future recommendations for surveillance of BRCA1/2-associated cancers and guide future prospective studies for estimating cancer risks in men with BRCA1/2 PVs.

6.
Genet Med ; 22(8): 1427-1428, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576986

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

7.
Genet Med ; 22(8): 1355-1365, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398771

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Current interpretation guidelines for germline variants in high-risk cancer susceptibility genes consider predicted loss-of-function (LoF) variants, such as nonsense variants and variants in the canonical splice site sequences ofBRCA2, to be associated with high cancer risk. However, some variant alleles produce alternative transcripts that encode (partially) functional protein isoforms leading to possible incorrect risk estimations. For accurate classification of variants it is therefore essential that alternative transcripts are identified and functionally characterized. METHODS: We systematically evaluated a large panel of human BRCA2 variants for the production of alternative transcripts and assessed their capacity to exert BRCA2 protein functionality. Evaluated variants included all single-exon deletions, various multiple-exon deletions, intronic variants at the canonical splice donor and acceptor sequences, and variants that previously have been shown to affect messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing in carriers. RESULTS: Multiple alternative transcripts encoding (partially) functional protein isoforms were identified (e.g., ∆[E4-E7], ∆[E6-E7], ∆E[6q39_E8], ∆[E10], ∆[E12], ∆E[12-14]). Expression of these transcripts did attenuate the impact of predicted LoF variants such as the canonical splice site variants c.631+2T>G, c.517-2A>G, c.6842-2A>G, c.6937+1G>A, and nonsense variants c.491T>A, c.581G>A, and c.6901G>T. CONCLUSION: These results allow refinement of variant interpretation guidelines for BRCA2 by providing insight into the functional consequences of naturally occurring and variant-related alternative splicing events.

8.
Front Genet ; 10: 1139, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803232

RESUMO

Introduction: Case-control analyses have shown BARD1 variants to be associated with up to >2-fold increase in risk of breast cancer, and potentially greater risk of triple negative breast cancer. BARD1 is included in several gene sequencing panels currently marketed for the prediction of risk of cancer, however there are no gene-specific guidelines for the classification of BARD1 variants. We present the most comprehensive assessment of BARD1 messenger RNA splicing, and demonstrate the application of these data for the classification of truncating and splice site variants according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) guidelines. Methods: Nanopore sequencing, short-read RNA-seq (whole transcriptome and targeted), and capillary electrophoresis analysis were performed by four laboratories to investigate alternative BARD1 splicing in blood, breast, and fimbriae/ovary related specimens from non-cancer affected tissues. Splicing data were also collated from published studies of nine different tissues. The impact of the findings for PVS1 annotation was assessed for truncating and splice site variants. Results: We identified 62 naturally occurring alternative spliced BARD1 splicing events, including 19 novel events found by next generation sequencing and/or reverse transcription PCR analysis performed for this study. Quantitative analysis showed that naturally occurring splicing events causing loss of clinically relevant domains or nonsense mediated decay can constitute up to 11.9% of overlapping natural junctions, suggesting that aberrant splicing can be tolerated up to this level. Nanopore sequencing of whole BARD1 transcripts characterized 16 alternative isoforms from healthy controls, revealing that the most complex transcripts combined only two alternative splicing events. Bioinformatic analysis of ClinVar submitted variants at or near BARD1 splice sites suggest that all consensus splice site variants in BARD1 should be considered likely pathogenic, with the possible exception of variants at the donor site of exon 5. Conclusions: No BARD1 candidate rescue transcripts were identified in this study, indicating that all premature translation-termination codons variants can be annotated as PVS1. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that all donor and acceptor (IVS+/-1,2) variants can be considered PVS1 or PVS1_strong, with the exception of variants targeting the exon 5 donor site, that we recommend considering as PVS1_moderate.

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9814, 2019 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285513

RESUMO

Attenuated adenomatous polyposis (AAP) is a heterogeneous syndrome in terms of clinical manifestations, heritability and etiology of the disease. Genetic heterogeneity and low penetrance alleles are probably the best explanation for this variability. Certainly, it is known that APC and MUTYH are high penetrance predisposition genes for adenomatous polyposis, but they only account for 5-10% of AAP. Other new predisposition genes, such as POLE, POLD1, NTHL1, AXIN2 or MSH3, have been recently described and have been associated with AAP, but their relative contribution is still not well defined. In order to evaluate the genetic predisposition to AAP in a hospital based population, germline DNAs from 158 AAP subjects were screened for genetic variants in the coding regions and intron-exon boundaries of seven associated genes through a next-generation sequencing (NGS) custom gene panel. Splicing, segregation studies, somatic mutational screening and RNA quantitative expression assays were conducted for selected variants. In four of the probands the adenoma susceptibility could be explained by actionable mutations in APC or MUTYH, and one other patient was a double carrier of two truncating variants in both POLE and NTHL1. Furthermore, 16 additional patients harbored uncertain significance variants in the remaining tested genes. This report gives information about the contribution of the newly described adenomatous polyposis predisposition genes in a Spanish attenuated polyposis cohort. Our results highly support the convenience of NGS multigene panels for attenuated polyposis genetic screening and reveals POLE frameshift variants as a plausible susceptibility mechanism for AAP.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Penetrância , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Espanha
10.
Hum Mutat ; 40(9): 1557-1578, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131967

RESUMO

The multifactorial likelihood analysis method has demonstrated utility for quantitative assessment of variant pathogenicity for multiple cancer syndrome genes. Independent data types currently incorporated in the model for assessing BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants include clinically calibrated prior probability of pathogenicity based on variant location and bioinformatic prediction of variant effect, co-segregation, family cancer history profile, co-occurrence with a pathogenic variant in the same gene, breast tumor pathology, and case-control information. Research and clinical data for multifactorial likelihood analysis were collated for 1,395 BRCA1/2 predominantly intronic and missense variants, enabling classification based on posterior probability of pathogenicity for 734 variants: 447 variants were classified as (likely) benign, and 94 as (likely) pathogenic; and 248 classifications were new or considerably altered relative to ClinVar submissions. Classifications were compared with information not yet included in the likelihood model, and evidence strengths aligned to those recommended for ACMG/AMP classification codes. Altered mRNA splicing or function relative to known nonpathogenic variant controls were moderately to strongly predictive of variant pathogenicity. Variant absence in population datasets provided supporting evidence for variant pathogenicity. These findings have direct relevance for BRCA1 and BRCA2 variant evaluation, and justify the need for gene-specific calibration of evidence types used for variant classification.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Processamento Alternativo , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Neoplasias/genética
11.
J Med Genet ; 56(6): 347-357, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962250

RESUMO

The vocabulary currently used to describe genetic variants and their consequences reflects many years of studying and discovering monogenic disease with high penetrance. With the recent rapid expansion of genetic testing brought about by wide availability of high-throughput massively parallel sequencing platforms, accurate variant interpretation has become a major issue. The vocabulary used to describe single genetic variants in silico, in vitro, in vivo and as a contributor to human disease uses terms in common, but the meaning is not necessarily shared across all these contexts. In the setting of cancer genetic tests, the added dimension of using data from genetic sequencing of tumour DNA to direct treatment is an additional source of confusion to those who are not experienced in cancer genetics. The language used to describe variants identified in cancer susceptibility genetic testing typically still reflects an outdated paradigm of Mendelian inheritance with dichotomous outcomes. Cancer is a common disease with complex genetic architecture; an improved lexicon is required to better communicate among scientists, clinicians and patients, the risks and implications of genetic variants detected. This review arises from a recognition of, and discussion about, inconsistencies in vocabulary usage by members of the ENIGMA international multidisciplinary consortium focused on variant classification in breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility genes. It sets out the vocabulary commonly used in genetic variant interpretation and reporting, and suggests a framework for a common vocabulary that may facilitate understanding and clarity in clinical reporting of germline genetic tests for cancer susceptibility.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças/normas , Terminologia como Assunto , Vocabulário Controlado
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1741, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988301

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 170 breast cancer susceptibility loci. Here we hypothesize that some risk-associated variants might act in non-breast tissues, specifically adipose tissue and immune cells from blood and spleen. Using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) reported in these tissues, we identify 26 previously unreported, likely target genes of overall breast cancer risk variants, and 17 for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, several with a known immune function. We determine the directional effect of gene expression on disease risk measured based on single and multiple eQTL. In addition, using a gene-based test of association that considers eQTL from multiple tissues, we identify seven (and four) regions with variants associated with overall (and ER-negative) breast cancer risk, which were not reported in previous GWAS. Further investigation of the function of the implicated genes in breast and immune cells may provide insights into the etiology of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas
13.
Hum Mutat ; 40(5): 566-577, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817846

RESUMO

There is still around 50% of the familial breast cancer (BC) cases with an undefined genetic cause, here we have used next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to identify new BC susceptibility genes. This approach has led to the identification of RECQL5, a member of RECQL-helicases family, as a new BC susceptibility candidate, which deserves further study. We have used a combination of whole exome sequencing in a family negative for mutations in BRCA1/2 throughout (BRCAX), in which we found a probably deleterious variant in RECQL5, and targeted NGS of the complete coding regions and exon-intron boundaries of the candidate gene in 699 BC Spanish BRCAX families and 665 controls. Functional characterization and in silico inference of pathogenicity were performed to evaluate the deleterious effect of detected variants. We found at least seven deleterious or likely deleterious variants among the cases and only one in controls. These results prompt us to propose RECQL5 as a gene that would be worth to analyze in larger studies to explore its possible implication in BC susceptibility.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença , RecQ Helicases/genética , RecQ Helicases/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Variação Genética , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Família Multigênica , Linhagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
14.
J Med Genet ; 56(7): 453-460, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PALB2 monoallelic loss-of-function germ-line variants confer a breast cancer risk comparable to the average BRCA2 pathogenic variant. Recommendations for risk reduction strategies in carriers are similar. Elaborating robust criteria to identify loss-of-function variants in PALB2-without incurring overprediction-is thus of paramount clinical relevance. Towards this aim, we have performed a comprehensive characterisation of alternative splicing in PALB2, analysing its relevance for the classification of truncating and splice site variants according to the 2015 American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics-Association for Molecular Pathology guidelines. METHODS: Alternative splicing was characterised in RNAs extracted from blood, breast and fimbriae/ovary-related human specimens (n=112). RNAseq, RT-PCR/CE and CloneSeq experiments were performed by five contributing laboratories. Centralised revision/curation was performed to assure high-quality annotations. Additional splicing analyses were performed in PALB2 c.212-1G>A, c.1684+1G>A, c.2748+2T>G, c.3113+5G>A, c.3350+1G>A, c.3350+4A>C and c.3350+5G>A carriers. The impact of the findings on PVS1 status was evaluated for truncating and splice site variant. RESULTS: We identified 88 naturally occurring alternative splicing events (81 newly described), including 4 in-frame events predicted relevant to evaluate PVS1 status of splice site variants. We did not identify tissue-specific alternate gene transcripts in breast or ovarian-related samples, supporting the clinical relevance of blood-based splicing studies. CONCLUSIONS: PVS1 is not necessarily warranted for splice site variants targeting four PALB2 acceptor sites (exons 2, 5, 7 and 10). As a result, rare variants at these splice sites cannot be assumed pathogenic/likely pathogenic without further evidences. Our study puts a warning in up to five PALB2 genetic variants that are currently reported as pathogenic/likely pathogenic in ClinVar.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Alelos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Mutação , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , Degradação do RNAm Mediada por Códon sem Sentido , Sítios de Splice de RNA
15.
Int J Cancer ; 145(2): 401-414, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623411

RESUMO

A subset of genetic variants found through screening of patients with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) and Lynch syndrome impact RNA splicing. Through target enrichment of the transcriptome, it is possible to perform deep-sequencing and to identify the different and even rare mRNA isoforms. A targeted RNA-seq approach was used to analyse the naturally-occurring splicing events for a panel of 8 breast and/or ovarian cancer susceptibility genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, RAD51C, RAD51D, PTEN, STK11, CDH1, TP53), 3 Lynch syndrome genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6) and the fanconi anaemia SLX4 gene, in which monoallelic mutations were found in non-BRCA families. For BRCA1, BRCA2, RAD51C and RAD51D the results were validated by capillary electrophoresis and were compared to a non-targeted RNA-seq approach. We also compared splicing events from lymphoblastoid cell-lines with those from breast and ovarian fimbriae tissues. The potential of targeted RNA-seq to detect pathogenic changes in RNA-splicing was validated by the inclusion of samples with previously well characterized BRCA1/2 genetic variants. In our study, we update the catalogue of normal splicing events for BRCA1/2, provide an extensive catalogue of normal RAD51C and RAD51D alternative splicing, and list splicing events found for eight other genes. Additionally, we show that our approach allowed the identification of aberrant splicing events due to the presence of BRCA1/2 genetic variants and distinguished between complete and partial splicing events. In conclusion, targeted-RNA-seq can be very useful to classify variants based on their putative pathogenic impact on splicing.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Processamento de RNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Eletroforese Capilar , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Mutação
16.
Front Genet ; 9: 366, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30233647

RESUMO

In silico tools for splicing defect prediction have a key role to assess the impact of variants of uncertain significance. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of a set of commonly used splicing in silico tools comparing the predictions against RNA in vitro results. This was done for natural splice sites of clinically relevant genes in hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC) and Lynch syndrome. A study divided into two stages was used to evaluate SSF-like, MaxEntScan, NNSplice, HSF, SPANR, and dbscSNV tools. A discovery dataset of 99 variants with unequivocal results of RNA in vitro studies, located in the 10 exonic and 20 intronic nucleotides adjacent to exon-intron boundaries of BRCA1, BRCA2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, ATM, BRIP1, CDH1, PALB2, PTEN, RAD51D, STK11, and TP53, was collected from four Spanish cancer genetic laboratories. The best stand-alone predictors or combinations were validated with a set of 346 variants in the same genes with clear splicing outcomes reported in the literature. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, negative predictive value (NPV) and Mathews Coefficient Correlation (MCC) scores were used to measure the performance. The discovery stage showed that HSF and SSF-like were the most accurate for variants at the donor and acceptor region, respectively. The further combination analysis revealed that HSF, HSF+SSF-like or HSF+SSF-like+MES achieved a high performance for predicting the disruption of donor sites, and SSF-like or a sequential combination of MES and SSF-like for predicting disruption of acceptor sites. The performance confirmation of these last results with the validation dataset, indicated that the highest sensitivity, accuracy, and NPV (99.44%, 99.44%, and 96.88, respectively) were attained with HSF+SSF-like or HSF+SSF-like+MES for donor sites and SSF-like (92.63%, 92.65%, and 84.44, respectively) for acceptor sites. We provide recommendations for combining algorithms to conduct in silico splicing analysis that achieved a high performance. The high NPV obtained allows to select the variants in which the study by in vitro RNA analysis is mandatory against those with a negligible probability of being spliceogenic. Our study also shows that the performance of each specific predictor varies depending on whether the natural splicing sites are donors or acceptors.

17.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203885, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30256826

RESUMO

Half of the high-risk colorectal cancer families that fulfill the clinical criteria for Lynch syndrome lack germline mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes and remain unexplained. Genetic testing for hereditary cancers is rapidly evolving due to the introduction of multigene panels, which may identify more mutations than the old screening methods. The aim of this study is the use of a Next Generation Sequencing panel in order to find the genes involved in the cancer predisposition of these families. For this study, 98 patients from these unexplained families were tested with a multigene panel targeting 94 genes involved in cancer predisposition. The mutations found were validated by Sanger sequencing and the segregation was studied when possible. We identified 19 likely pathogenic variants in 18 patients. Out of these, 8 were found in MMR genes (5 in MLH1, 1 in MSH6 and 2 in PMS2). In addition, 11 mutations were detected in other genes, including high penetrance genes (APC, SMAD4 and TP53) and moderate penetrance genes (BRIP1, CHEK2, MUTYH, HNF1A and XPC). Mutations c.1194G>A in SMAD4, c.714_720dup in PMS2, c.2050T>G in MLH1 and c.1635_1636del in MSH6 were novel. In conclusion, the detection of new pathogenic mutations in high and moderate penetrance genes could contribute to the explanation of the heritability of colorectal cancer, changing the individual clinical management. Multigene panel testing is a more effective method to identify germline variants in cancer patients compared to single-gene approaches and should be therefore included in clinical laboratories.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Mutação , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Penetrância
18.
Hum Mutat ; 39(9): 1155-1160, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29969168

RESUMO

Many BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) genetic variants have been studied at mRNA level and linked to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer due to splicing alteration. In silico tools are reliable when assessing variants located in consensus splice sites, but we may identify variants in complex genomic contexts for which bioinformatics is not precise enough. In this study, we characterize BRCA2 c.7976 + 5G > T variant located in intron 17 which has an atypical donor site (GC). This variant was identified in three unrelated Spanish families and we have detected exon 17 skipping as the predominant transcript occurring in carriers. We have also detected several isoforms (Δ16-18, Δ17,18, Δ18, and ▼17q224 ) at different expression levels among carriers and controls. This study remarks the challenge of interpreting genetic variants when multiple alternative isoforms are present, and that caution must be taken when using in silico tools to identify potential spliceogenic variants located in GC-AG introns.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Mutação/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Simulação por Computador , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/patologia , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517176

RESUMO

Purpose: To describe a snapshot of international genetic testing practices, specifically regarding the use of multigene panels, for hereditary breast/ovarian cancers. We conducted a survey through the Evidence-Based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles (ENIGMA) consortium, covering questions about 16 non-BRCA1/2 genes. Methods: Data were collected via in-person and paper/electronic surveys. ENIGMA members from around the world were invited to participate. Additional information was collected via country networks in the United Kingdom and in Italy. Results: Responses from 61 cancer genetics practices across 20 countries showed that 16 genes were tested by > 50% of the centers, but only six (PALB2, TP53, PTEN, CHEK2, ATM, and BRIP1) were tested regularly. US centers tested the genes most often, whereas United Kingdom and Italian centers with no direct ENIGMA affiliation at the time of the survey were the least likely to regularly test them. Most centers tested the 16 genes through multigene panels; some centers tested TP53, PTEN, and other cancer syndrome-associated genes individually. Most centers reported (likely) pathogenic variants to patients and would test family members for such variants. Gene-specific guidelines for breast and ovarian cancer risk management were limited and differed among countries, especially with regard to starting age and type of imaging and risk-reducing surgery recommendations. Conclusion: Currently, a small number of genes beyond BRCA1/2 are routinely analyzed worldwide, and management guidelines are limited and largely based on expert opinion. To attain clinical implementation of multigene panel testing through evidence-based management practices, it is paramount that clinicians (and patients) participate in international initiatives that share panel testing data, interpret sequence variants, and collect prospective data to underpin risk estimates and evaluate the outcome of risk intervention strategies.

20.
Hum Mutat ; 39(4): 515-526, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29280214

RESUMO

For 21 putative BRCA1 and BRCA2 splice site variants, the concordance between mRNA analysis and predictions by in silico programs was evaluated. Aberrant splicing was confirmed for 12 alterations. In silico prediction tools were helpful to determine for which variants cDNA analysis is warranted, however, predictions for variants in the Cartegni consensus region but outside the canonical sites, were less reliable. Learning algorithms like Adaboost and Random Forest outperformed the classical tools. Further validations are warranted prior to implementation of these novel tools in clinical settings. Additionally, we report here for the first time activated cryptic donor sites in the large exon 11 of BRCA2 by evaluating the effect at the cDNA level of a novel tandem duplication (5' breakpoint in intron 4; 3' breakpoint in exon 11) and of a variant disrupting the splice donor site of exon 11 (c.6841+1G > C). Additional sites were predicted, but not activated. These sites warrant further research to increase our knowledge on cis and trans acting factors involved in the conservation of correct transcription of this large exon. This may contribute to adequate design of ASOs (antisense oligonucleotides), an emerging therapy to render cancer cells sensitive to PARP inhibitor and platinum therapies.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Sítios de Splice de RNA , Simulação por Computador , DNA Complementar , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Mutação , RNA Mensageiro/genética
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