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1.
Molecules ; 25(1)2020 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31947934

RESUMO

We have previously demonstrated that singlet oxygen photosensitization abilities of Zn(II) phthalocyanines (Zn(II)Pcs) are enhanced through α-functionalization with bulky fluorinated substituents (i.e., bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl units) at facing positions of ABAB Zn(II)Pcs, where A and B refer to differently functionalized isoindoles. In this work, we have prepared the Zn(II)Pc ABAB 1 endowed with hydrophilic triethylene glycol monomethyl ether (i.e., at the A isoindoles) to provide solubility in aqueous media, together with its A3B and A4 counterparts, and compared their ability to behave as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy. All photophysical data, aggregation studies and preliminary in vitro biological assays in cell cultures of SCC-13 (squamous cell carcinoma) and HeLa (cervical cancer cells), have proved ABAB 1 as the best photosensitizer of the series.

2.
Eur J Med Chem ; 187: 111957, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864170

RESUMO

Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of new amphiphilic phthalocyanines (Pcs), the study of their singlet oxygen generation capabilities, and biological assays to determine their potential as photosensitizers for photodynamic inactivation of bacteria. In particular, Pcs with an ABAB geometry (where A and B refer to differently substituted isoindole constituents) have been synthesized. These molecules are endowed with bulky bis(trifluoromethylphenyl) groups in two facing isoindoles, which hinder aggregation and favour singlet oxygen generation, and pyridinium or alkylammonium moieties in the other two isoindoles. In particular, two water-soluble Pc derivatives (PS-1 and PS-2) have proved to be efficient in the photoinactivation of S. aureus and E. coli, selected as models of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Flúor/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Indóis/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Cátions/química , Cátions/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Flúor/química , Indóis/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/síntese química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
3.
Org Biomol Chem ; 17(32): 7448-7454, 2019 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355402

RESUMO

In-depth, systematic photophysical studies have been performed on a series of ABAB, A3B and A4 ZnPcs functionalized with a varying number of bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl units (i.e. at the B isoindoles) and other electron-withdrawing/electron-donating moieties (i.e. at the A isoindoles), to determine the influence of the susbtitution pattern on the aggregation features, fluorescence quantum yields and singlet oxygen (1O2) generation abilities of these molecules. As a general trend, the larger the number of bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl units (i.e.ABAB crosswise functionalized ZnPcs), the lower the fluorescence quantum yield and the higher the 1O2 photosensitization. On the other hand, the electronic character of the substituents at the A isoindoles do not seem to have a clear effect on the photophysical properties of these ABAB ZnPcs. Overall, 1O2 quantum yields determined by the direct observation of the 1O2 phosphorescence are very high, with values ranging from 1 to 0.74 in THF solutions.

4.
Chem Soc Rev ; 48(10): 2738-2766, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033978

RESUMO

Organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite absorbers in combination with electron and hole transporting selective contacts result in power conversion efficiencies of over 23% under AM 1.5 sun conditions. The advantage of perovskite solar cells is their simple fabrication through solution-processing methods either in n-i-p or p-i-n configurations. Using TiO2 or SnO2 as an electron transporting layer, a compositionally engineered perovskite as an absorber layer, and Spiro-OMeTAD as a HTM, several groups have reported over 20% efficiency. Though perovskite solar cells reached comparable efficiency to that of crystalline silicon ones, their stability remains a bottleneck for commercialization partly due to the use of doped Spiro-OMeTAD. Several organic and inorganic hole transporting materials have been explored to increase the stability and power conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells. IIn this review, we analyse the stability and efficiency of perovskite solar cells incorporating phthalocyanine and porphyrin macrocycles as hole- and electron transporting materials. The π-π stacking orientation of these macrocycles on the perovskite surface is important in facilitating a vertical charge transport, resulting in high power conversion efficiency.

5.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(12): 4056-4060, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589190

RESUMO

We designed and synthesized a series of novel electron-accepting zinc(II)phthalocyanines (ZnPc) and probed them in p-type dye sensitized solar cells (p-DSSCs) by using CuO as photocathodes. By realizing the right balance between interfacial charge separation and charge recombination, optimized fill factors (FFs) of 0.43 were obtained. With a control over fill factors in p-DSSCs in hand we turned our attemtion to t-DSSCs, in which we combined for the first time CuO-based p-DSSCs with TiO2 -based n-DSSCs using ZnPc and N719. In the resulting t-DSSCs, the VOC of 0.86 V is the sum of those found in p- and n-DSSCs, while the FF remains around 0.63. It is only the smaller Jsc s in t-DSSCs that limits the efficiency to 0.69 %.

6.
Chempluschem ; 84(6): 673-679, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944006

RESUMO

We describe here the preparation of a series of trans-ABAB Zn(II) phthalocyanines (ZnPcs, which combine several interesting features. First, these compounds present high solubility and hindered aggregation, due to the functionalization of two facing isoindole constituents (B) of the ZnPc with bis(trifluoromethylphenyl) units. Second, the other two isoindoles (A) bear extra-annulated phthalimide units containing different substituents in the nitrogen positions, this feature results in a collinear arrangement of a variety of functional groups. Some of these collinearly functionalized ZnPcs are interesting building blocks for constructing either homo- or heteroarrays containing ZnPc units. Furthermore, the amphiphilic nature of some members of the series renders them interesting candidates for photosensitization of singlet oxygen. Photophysical studies on a model compound of the series have shown that these molecules are efficient singlet oxygen photosensitizers in both polar and apolar media, with 1 O2 quantum yields (φΔ ) as high as 0.74.

7.
Nanoscale ; 10(47): 22400-22408, 2018 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475370

RESUMO

We report herein on the design, the synthesis, and the characterization of a panchromatic, charge stabilizing electron donor-acceptor conjugate: (BBPA)3-ZnPor-ZnPc-SubPc 1. Each component, that is, bis(biphenyl)phenylamine (BBPA), Zn(ii) porphyrin (ZnPor), Zn(ii) phthalocyanine ZnPc, and subphthalocyanine (SubPc), has been carefully chosen and modified to enable a cascade of energy and charge transfer processes. On one hand, ZnPor, has been functionalized with three electron-donating BBPA as primary and secondary electron donors and to stabilize the final charge-separated state, and, on the other hand, a perfluorinated SubPc has been selected as ultimate electron acceptor. In addition, the ZnPc unit contains several trifluoromethylphenyl moieties to match its energy levels to those of the other components. In fact, irradiation of the heteroarray 1 triggers a cascade of light harvesting across the entire visible range, unidirectional energy transfer, exergonic charge separating, and short-range charge shifting to afford in 14% quantum yield a (BBPA)3˙+-ZnPor-ZnPc-SubPc˙- charge-separated state. The lifetime of the latter reaches well into the range of tens of nanoseconds.

8.
Chemistry ; 24(70): 18696-18704, 2018 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209837

RESUMO

Two zinc phthalocyanines (ZnPcs) have been equipped with Newkome-type dendritic branches of increasing size and number of terminal carboxylate functional groups. The negatively charged carboxylates render these polyelectrolytes soluble in polar media such as methanol or buffered water. Sonication of the ZnPcs with graphene allowed for pronounced non-covalent binding of the ZnPc moieties on the graphene surface. These hybrid systems were fully characterized via UV/Vis, AFM, TEM, Raman and transient absorption spectroscopy, yielding insights into the electron donating nature of the novel phthalocyanine structures.

9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(21): 2651-2654, 2018 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29473065

RESUMO

An unprecedented Fe2Pc3 metallo-organic helicate has been assembled using a bidentate phthalocyanine (Pc) ligand, 2-formylpyridine and Fe(OTf)2. This giant helicate has proved itself as a host for large redox-active guests such as fullerene and naphthalenediimide derivatives. Photoactivated electronic interactions between components occur in the host-guest complex.

10.
ChemistryOpen ; 6(1): 121-127, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28168157

RESUMO

Unique donor-π-acceptor phthalocyanines have been synthesized through the asymmetric functionalization of an ABAB phthalocyanine, crosswise functionalized with two iodine atoms through Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions with adequate electron-donor and electron-acceptor moieties. These push-pull molecules have been optically and electrochemically characterized, and their ability to perform as chromophores for dye-sensitized solar cells has been tested.

11.
Nanoscale ; 8(41): 17963-17975, 2016 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27731456

RESUMO

We introduce a novel and comprehensive approach for the evaluation and interpretation of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in p-type DSSCs. In detail, we correlate both the device performance and EIS figures-of-merit of a series of devices in which, the calcination temperature, film thickness, and electrolyte concentration have been systematically modified. This new approach enables the separation of the different processes across the dye/semiconductor/electrolyte interface, namely the unfavorable charge recombination and the favorable electron injection/regeneration processes. In addition, studies on non-sensitized CuO and NiO electrodes provide insights into their affinity towards a reaction with the electrolyte - CuO is far less reactive towards the polyiodide species. Overall, this work underlines the superior features of CuO with respect to NiO for p-DSSCs and demonstrates a comprehensive optimization of the CuO-based DSSCs with respect to the device architecture by the aid of EIS analysis.

12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 54(26): 7688-92, 2015 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26081421

RESUMO

A route is reported for the synthesis of two electron-accepting phthalocyanines featuring linkers with different lengths as sensitizers for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Importantly, our devices based on novel nanorod-like CuO photocathodes showed high efficiencies of up to 0.191 %: the highest value reported to date for CuO-based DSSCs.


Assuntos
Cobre/química , Espectroscopia Dielétrica/métodos , Indóis/química , Elétrons , Nanotubos , Energia Solar
13.
Acc Chem Res ; 48(4): 900-10, 2015 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25837299

RESUMO

Phthalocyanines (Pcs) are macrocyclic and aromatic compounds that present unique electronic features such as high molar absorption coefficients, rich redox chemistry, and photoinduced energy/electron transfer abilities that can be modulated as a function of the electronic character of their counterparts in donor-acceptor (D-A) ensembles. In this context, carbon nanostructures such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and, more recently, graphene are among the most suitable Pc "companions". Pc-C60 ensembles have been for a long time the main actors in this field, due to the commercial availability of C60 and the well-established synthetic methods for its functionalization. As a result, many Pc-C60 architectures have been prepared, featuring different connectivities (covalent or supramolecular), intermolecular interactions (self-organized or molecularly dispersed species), and Pc HOMO/LUMO levels. All these elements provide a versatile toolbox for tuning the photophysical properties in terms of the type of process (photoinduced energy/electron transfer), the nature of the interactions between the electroactive units (through bond or space), and the kinetics of the formation/decay of the photogenerated species. Some recent trends in this field include the preparation of stimuli-responsive multicomponent systems with tunable photophysical properties and highly ordered nanoarchitectures and surface-supported systems showing high charge mobilities. A breakthrough in the Pc-nanocarbon field was the appearance of CNTs and graphene, which opened a new avenue for the preparation of intriguing photoresponsive hybrid ensembles showing light-stimulated charge separation. The scarce solubility of these 1-D and 2-D nanocarbons, together with their lower reactivity with respect to C60 stemming from their less strained sp(2) carbon networks, has not meant an unsurmountable limitation for the preparation of variety of Pc-based hybrids. These systems, which show improved solubility and dispersibility features, bring together the unique electronic transport properties of CNTs and graphene with the excellent light-harvesting and tunable redox properties of Pcs. A singular and distinctive feature of these Pc-CNT/graphene (single- or few-layers) hybrid materials is the control of the direction of the photoinduced charge transfer as a result of the band-like electronic structure of these carbon nanoforms and the adjustable electronic levels of Pcs. Moreover, these conjugates present intensified light-harvesting capabilities resulting from the grafting of several chromophores on the same nanocarbon platform. In this Account, recent progress in the construction of covalent and supramolecular Pc-nanocarbon ensembles is summarized, with a particular emphasis on their photoinduced behavior. We believe that the high degree of control achieved in the preparation of Pc-carbon nanostructures, together with the increasing knowledge of the factors governing their photophysics, will allow for the design of next-generation light-fueled electroactive systems. Possible implementation of these Pc-nanocarbons in high performance devices is envisioned, finally turning into reality much of the expectations generated by these materials.

14.
Chem Sci ; 6(5): 3018-3025, 2015 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29142685

RESUMO

An extensive database of spectroscopic properties of molecules from ab initio calculations is used to design molecular complexes for use in tandem solar cells that convert two photons into a single electron-hole pair, thereby increasing the output voltage while covering a wider spectral range. Three different architectures are considered: the first two involve a complex consisting of two dye molecules with appropriately matched frontier orbitals, connected by a molecular diode. Optimized combinations of dye molecules are determined by taking advantage of our computational database of the structural and energetic properties of several thousand porphyrin dyes. The third design is a molecular analogy of the intermediate band solar cell, and involves a single dye molecule with strong intersystem crossing to ensure a long lifetime of the intermediate state. Based on the calculated energy levels and molecular orbitals, energy diagrams are presented for the individual steps in the operation of such tandem solar cells. We find that theoretical open circuit voltages of up to 1.8 V can be achieved using these tandem designs. Questions about the practical implementation of prototypical devices, such as the synthesis of the tandem molecules and potential loss mechanisms, are addressed.

15.
Org Lett ; 16(18): 4706-9, 2014 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25181582

RESUMO

ABAB-type Zn(II) phthalocyanines, crosswise-functionalized with two and four iodine atoms, respectively, have been efficiently prepared using statistical condensation procedures. Key to the selective preparation of the opposite ABAB isomers versus the adjacent AABB ones is the use of bulky 3,6-(3',5'-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)phthalonitrile with hampered self-condensation capabilities.

16.
Chemphyschem ; 15(6): 1033-6, 2014 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24590767

RESUMO

A new phthalocyanine (Pc) bearing bulky peripheral substituents and a carboxylic anchoring group directly attached to the macrocycle has been prepared and used as a sensitizer in DSSCs, reaching 5.57% power conversion efficiency. In addition, an enhanced performance for the TT40 dye, previously reported by us, was achieved in optimized devices, obtaining a new record efficiency with Pc-sensitized cells.

17.
Dalton Trans ; 43(20): 7473-9, 2014 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24622601

RESUMO

The preparation of new Pc-SWCNT hybrid materials is described. The synthesis of both Pd(ii)Pc-SWCNT and Ru(ii)bis(pyridine)Pc-SWCNT was carried out by esterification reaction between modified SWCNTs and the corresponding unsymmetric Pcs and , both endowed with three solubilizing tert-butyl groups and a hydroxymethyl function. Compound was prepared following the straightforward, statistical condensation of the corresponding phthalonitriles. However the preparation of Ru(ii)bis(pyridine)Pc required a multistep procedure relying on consecutive cyclotetramerization, protection, metallation and deprotection reactions. Modified SWCNT was prepared, as previously described, by the Prato reaction between HiPCo nanotubes, N-methylglycine and 4-formylbenzoic acid. The COOH-containing material was successfully reacted with Pd(ii)Pc to give Pd(ii)Pc-SWCNT , which was fully characterized by different techniques. However, the incorporation of Ru(ii)bis(pyridine)Pc did not take place when applying the above-mentioned conditions. The preparation of SWCNT endowed with 4-carboxyphenyl moieties was found to be essential to covalently link Ru(bis(pyridine))Pc to the nanotube material by ester bond formation. Although spectroscopic characterization supports the covalent binding of Pc molecules to the modified SWCNT sidewalls, direct evidence of the presence of Ru(ii) in the hybrid material could not be obtained.

18.
J Am Chem Soc ; 136(12): 4593-8, 2014 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24568604

RESUMO

We describe herein the first example of highly exfoliated graphene covalently linked to electron accepting phthalocyanines. The functionalization of the nanocarbon surface with alkylsulfonyl phthalocyanines was attained by means of a "click" chemistry protocol. The new ensemble was fully characterized (thermogravimetric analysis, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman, as well as ground-state absorption) and was studied in terms of electron donor-acceptor interactions in the ground and in the excited state. In particular, a series of steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopy experiments demonstrated photoinduced electron transfer from the graphene to the electron-accepting phthalocyanines. This is the first example of an electron donor-acceptor nanoconjugate, that is, few-layer graphene/phthalocyanine, pinpointing the uncommon electron donating character of graphene.

19.
Chem Soc Rev ; 42(20): 8049-105, 2013 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23832123

RESUMO

The remarkable properties of both phthalocyanines and porphyrins as individual building blocks have motivated the synthesis and study of homo- and heterobinuclear conjugates as light-harvesting systems. These planar chromophores share important electronic features such as high molar absorption coefficients, rich redox chemistry and interesting photoinduced energy and/or electron transfer abilities. In addition, some of these properties can be tuned by the introduction of different peripheral substituents and metal centres. In this review, we present relevant synthetic strategies for the preparation of covalent and supramolecular, homo- and heterobinuclear systems based on phthalocyanine and porphyrin chromophores, leading to a variety of architectures. In such systems, the degree of electronic interaction between the components is highly dependent on the electronic features of the two macrocycles, their linkage, and the molecular topology of the ensemble. In addition, incorporation of electroactive units into these binuclear systems has been pursued, affording multicomponent, donor-acceptor conjugates. In-depth photophysical characterization of the ground- and excited-state features of many of these homo- and heterobinuclear phthalocyanine and/or porphyrin ensembles has also been presented. Particular attention has been paid to understand the fundamental dynamics of the energy transfer and charge separation processes of these systems. This review intends to offer a general overview of the preparation of this class of compounds and the study of their photophysical properties which clearly show their potentiality as model compounds of light-harvesting complexes.


Assuntos
Indóis/química , Porfirinas/química , Indóis/síntese química , Modelos Moleculares , Processos Fotoquímicos , Porfirinas/síntese química
20.
Chemistry ; 19(4): 1457-65, 2013 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23197446

RESUMO

A series of homoleptic ([Tb(III)(Pc)(2) ]) and heteroleptic ([Tb(III)(Pc)(Pc')]) Tb(III) bis(phthalocyaninate) complexes that contain different peripheral substitution patterns (i.e., tert-butyl or tert-butylphenoxy groups) have been synthesized in their neutral radical forms and then reduced into their corresponding anionic forms as stable tetramethylammonium/tetrabutylammonium salts. All of these compounds were spectroscopically characterized and their magnetic susceptibility properties were investigated. As a general trend, the radical forms exhibited larger energy barriers for spin reversal than their corresponding reduced compounds. Remarkably, heteroleptic complexes that contain electron-donor moieties on one of the two Pc ligands show higher effective barriers and blocking temperatures than their homoleptic derivatives. This result is assigned to the elongation of the N-Tb distances in the substituted macrocycle, which brings the terbium(III) ion closer to the unsubstituted Pc, thus enhancing the ligand-field effect. In particular, heteroleptic [Tb(III) (Pc)(Pc')] complex 4, which contains one octa(tert-butylphenoxy)-substituted Pc ring and one bare Pc ring, exhibits the highest effective barrier and blocking temperature for a single-molecule magnet reported to date.

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