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1.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 208: 114450, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798391

RESUMO

Carboxylic acid containing compounds (R-COOH) are involved in a large number of biological processes and they are relevant for several pathological processes such as neurodegeneration or cancer. Comprehensive methodologies for the quantitative determination of R-COOH in biological samples are required. In this study we have developed a LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of 20 endogenous R-COOH belonging to different pathways such as kynurenine metabolism, serotoninergic pathway, glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, dopaminergic pathway, short chain fatty acids and glycine metabolism. The approach included derivatization with o-benzylhydroxylamine (reaction time 1 h), liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate and LC-MS/MS detection (run time 10 min). The method was optimized and validated in 5 different matrices (urine, plasma, saliva, brain and liver) following two different approaches: (i) using surrogate matrices and (ii) using actual human samples by standard additions. A suitable linearity was obtained in the endogenous range of the analytes. Adequate intra and inter-assay accuracies (80-120%) and intra- and inter-assay precisions (<20%) were achieved for almost all analytes in all studied matrices. The method was applied in several scenarios to confirm (i) human urinary changes produced in glycolysis after exercise, (ii) metabolic changes produced in rat brain and plasma by methamphetamine administration and (iii) metabolic alterations in human plasma caused by vitamin B6 deficiency. Additionally, the application of the method allowed for establishing previously unreported alterations in R-COOH metabolites under these conditions. Due to the comprehensive analyte and matrix coverage and the wide applicability of the developed methodology, it can be considered as a suitable tool for the study of R-COOH status in health and disease by targeted metabolomics.

2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 754347, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777250

RESUMO

Introduction: Type 2 diabetes has been linked to greater cognitive decline, but other glycemic parameters such as prediabetes, diabetes control and treatment, and HOMA-IR and HbA1c diabetes-related biomarkers have shown inconsistent results. Furthermore, there is limited research assessing these relationships in short-term studies. Thus, we aimed to examine 2-year associations between baseline diabetes/glycemic status and changes in cognitive function in older participants at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods: We conducted a 2-year prospective cohort study (n=6,874) within the framework of the PREDIMED-Plus study. The participants (with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome; mean age 64.9 years; 48.5% women) completed a battery of 8 cognitive tests, and a global cognitive function Z-score (GCF) was estimated. At baseline, participants were categorized by diabetes status (no-diabetes, prediabetes, and <5 or ≥5-year diabetes duration), and also by diabetes control. Furthermore, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured, and antidiabetic medications were recorded. Linear and logistic regression models, adjusted by potential confounders, were fitted to assess associations between glycemic status and changes in cognitive function. Results: Prediabetes status was unrelated to cognitive decline. However, compared to participants without diabetes, those with ≥5-year diabetes duration had greater reductions in GCF (ß=-0.11 (95%CI -0.16;-0.06)], as well as in processing speed and executive function measurements. Inverse associations were observed between baseline HOMA-IR and changes in GCF [ß=-0.0094 (95%CI -0.0164;-0.0023)], but also between HbA1c levels and changes in GCF [ß=-0.0085 (95%CI -0.0115, -0.0055)], the Mini-Mental State Examination, and other executive function tests. Poor diabetes control was inversely associated with phonologic fluency. The use of insulin treatment was inversely related to cognitive function as measured by the GCF [ß=-0.31 (95%CI -0.44, -0.18)], and other cognitive tests. Conclusions: Insulin resistance, diabetes status, longer diabetes duration, poor glycemic control, and insulin treatment were associated with worsening cognitive function changes in the short term in a population at high cardiovascular risk. Clinical Trial Registration: http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN89898870, identifier ISRCTN: 89898870.

3.
J Endocr Soc ; 5(12): bvab156, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34765854

RESUMO

Objective: Administration of human growth hormone (hGH) is prohibited in competitive sport and its detection in an athlete's sample triggers an adverse analytical finding. However, the biological processes that are modulated by recombinant hGH are not well characterized and associated blood serum proteins may constitute new biomarkers for hGH misuse. Methods: Thirty-five recreational athletes were enrolled in a study to investigate the time- and dose-dependent response of serum protein levels to recombinant hGH administration. Participants were randomly assigned to 4 groups, receiving 1 of 3 different doses of recombinant hGH or a placebo. Bio samples were collected at 22 time points over a period of 13 weeks, starting 4 weeks before treatment, during 3 weeks of treatment, and at 6 weeks' follow-up. A total of 749 serum samples were analyzed for 1305 protein markers using the SOMAscan proteomics platform. Results: We identified 66 proteins that significantly associated with recombinant hGH administration and dosage, including well known hGH targets, such as IGF1, but also previously unknown hGH-related proteins (eg, protease inhibitors, WFIKKN1, and chemokines, CCL2). Network analysis revealed changes in specific biological pathways, mainly related to the immune system and glucose metabolism. Conclusion: Our analysis suggests that hGH administration affects biological processes more strongly than previously acknowledged. Some of the proteins were dysregulated even after hGH treatment and could potentially be developed into biomarkers for hGH misuse. Moreover, our findings suggest new roles for hGH-associated proteins in the etiology of hGH-related diseases and may indicate new risks that may be associated with hGH misuse.

4.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829550

RESUMO

Ceramides are a class of sphingolipids which have recently been shown to be better cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk predictors than traditional CVD risk biomarkers. Tyrosol (TYR) is a dietary phenolic compound known to possess cardioprotective effects per se or through its in vivo active metabolite hydroxytyrosol. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the co-administration of white wine (WW) and TYR on circulating levels of ceramides and other lipids in humans at high CVD risk. Volunteers underwent a randomized controlled crossover clinical trial (4-week duration per intervention) with three different interventions: control, WW, and WW enriched with a capsule of TYR (WW + TYR). Endothelial function cardiovascular biomarkers and plasma lipidomic profile were assessed before and after each intervention. It was found that the WW + TYR intervention resulted in lower levels of three ceramide ratios, associated with an improvement of endothelial function (Cer C16:0/Cer C24:0, Cer C18:0/Cer C24:0, and Cer C24:1/Cer C24:0), when compared to the control intervention. Moreover, WW + TYR was able to minimize the alterations in plasma diacylglycerols concentrations observed following WW. Overall, the results obtained show that the antioxidant TYR administered with WW exerts beneficial effects at the cardiovascular level, in part by modulating blood lipid profile.

5.
Front Nutr ; 8: 742586, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676236

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: Both adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and the use of metformin could benefit the cognitive performance of individuals with type 2 diabetes, but evidence is still controversial. We examined the association between metformin use and cognition in older adults with type 2 diabetes following a MedDiet intervention. Methods: Prospective cohort study framed in the PREDIMED-Plus-Cognition sub-study. The PREDIMED-Plus clinical trial aims to compare the cardiovascular effect of two MedDiet interventions, with and without energy restriction, in individuals with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome. The present sub-study included 487 cognitively normal subjects (50.5% women, mean ± SD age of 65.2 ± 4.7 years), 30.4% of them (N = 148) with type 2 diabetes. A comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests was administered at baseline and after 1 and 3 years. Individuals with type 2 diabetes that exhibited a good glycemic control trajectory, either using or not using metformin, were compared to one another and to individuals without diabetes using mixed-effects models with inverse probability of treatment weights. Results: Most subjects with type 2 diabetes (83.1%) presented a good and stable glycemic control trajectory. Before engaging in the MedDiet intervention, subjects using metformin scored higher in executive functions (Cohen's d = 0.51), memory (Cohen's d = 0.38) and global cognition (Cohen's d = 0.48) than those not using metformin. However, these differences were not sustained during the 3 years of follow-up, as individuals not using metformin experienced greater improvements in memory (ß = 0.38 vs. ß = 0.10, P = 0.036), executive functions (ß = 0.36 vs. ß = 0.02, P = 0.005) and global cognition (ß = 0.29 vs. ß = -0.02, P = 0.001) that combined with a higher MedDiet adherence (12.6 vs. 11.5 points, P = 0.031). Finally, subjects without diabetes presented greater improvements in memory than subjects with diabetes irrespective of their exposure to metformin (ß = 0.55 vs. ß = 0.10, P < 0.001). However, subjects with diabetes not using metformin, compared to subjects without diabetes, presented greater improvements in executive functions (ß = 0.33 vs. ß = 0.08, P = 0.032) and displayed a higher MedDiet adherence (12.6 points vs. 11.6 points, P = 0.046). Conclusions: Although both metformin and MedDiet interventions are good candidates for future cognitive decline preventive studies, a higher adherence to the MedDiet could even outweigh the potential neuroprotective effects of metformin in subjects with diabetes.

6.
J Vis Exp ; (175)2021 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633362

RESUMO

Mobile device-assisted dietary ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) have emerged as a new tool allowing the evaluation of dietary intake in real time, in a real-world setting and in a continuous manner. They have the potential to minimize recall bias, participant, and investigator burden, and decrease economic and time investment while maximizing ecological validity. We developed a set of EMAs aimed at evaluating continuous adherence to the MedDiet. Four multiple-choice EMAs are sent daily in a randomized manner from a total of eight questions. The EMAs enquire about the consumption of 11 key food groups of the Mediterranean diet in the last 24-48 h in a semi-quantitative way. EMAs capture the daily frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and extra virgin olive oil on different days of the week. Additionally, EMAs capture the weekly frequency of consumption of whole grain products, sugary drinks, nuts, legumes, sweets, fish and seafood, and red and processed meats. A designed scoring system behind the EMAs extracts the percentage of adherence to the MedDiet recommendations and calculates a quality index of the diet every week. Individualized reports are sent periodically to the volunteers highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of their diet. EMAs are also expected to have a behavioral effect, reinforcing the choice of Mediterranean foods.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Computadores de Mão , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Humanos , Azeite de Oliva , Verduras
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695542

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stressful episodes and high alcohol consumption during adolescence are considered major risk factors for the development of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Identification of mechanisms underlying these early events, which enhanced vulnerability to mental illness, is essential for both their prevention and treatment. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were used to investigate the long-term effects of early restraint stress and intermittent alcohol exposure (intragastric administration of 3 g/kg ethanol; 4 days/week for 4 weeks during adolescence) on anxiety-like behavior and the expression of signaling systems associated with emotional behaviors [e.g., corticosterone, fatty acid-derived molecules and endocannabinoid enzymes, glutamate receptor subunits, corticotropin releasing hormone receptors (CRHR1 and CRHR2) and neuropeptide Y receptors (NPY1R and NPYR2)] in the blood and amygdala. RESULTS: Overall, both stress and alcohol exposure during adolescence induced anxiogenic-like behaviors, increased plasma levels of corticosterone and increases in the amygdalar expression of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor and certain subunits of glutamate receptors (i.e., mGluR1, mGluR5 and NMDAR1) in young adult rats. In addition, there were specific main effects of alcohol exposure on the expression of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor, monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and NPY2R in the amygdala, and significant increases were observed in rats exposed to alcohol. Interestingly, there were significant interaction effects between restraint stress and alcohol exposure on the expression of plasma 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), and both CRHR1,2 and NPY1R in the amygdala. Thus, the restraint stress was associated with increased 2-AG levels, which was not observed in rats exposed to alcohol. The alcohol exposure was associated with an increased expression of CRHR1,2 but the restraint stress prevented these increases (stress alcohol rats). In contrast, NPY1R was only increased in rats exposed to stress and alcohol. Finally, we did not observe any potentiation of the behavioral and molecular effects by the combination of stress and alcohol, which is concordant with an overall ceiling effect on some of the variables. CONCLUSION: Separate and combined early stress and alcohol induced a common anxious phenotype with increased corticosterone in adulthood. However, there were differences in the amygdalar expression of signaling systems involved in maladaptive changes in emotional behavior. Therefore, our results suggest the existence of partially different mechanisms for stress and alcohol exposures.

8.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440023

RESUMO

Considered the ß-keto analogue of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), 3,4-Methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone) is a synthetic cathinone. Over the years, methylone has been used as a substitute for conventional psychostimulants, such as MDMA. To date, little is known about the human pharmacology of methylone; the only available information has been provided by surveys or published intoxication reports. In the present observational-naturalistic study, we evaluate the acute subjective and physiological effects of methylone after oral self-administration in comparison to MDMA in healthy poly-drug users. Fourteen participants (10 males, 4 females) selected their single oral doses of methylone from 100 to 300 mg (n = 8, mean dose 187.5 mg) or MDMA from 75 to 100 mg (n = 6, mean dose 87.5 mg) based on their experience. Study variables were assessed at 0, 1, 2, and 4 h (h) and included vital signs (non-invasive blood pressure, heart rate, cutaneous temperature) and subjective effects using visual analogue scales (VAS), the 49-item Addiction Research Centre Inventory (ARCI) short form, and the Evaluation of the Subjective Effects of Substances with Abuse Potential (VESSPA-SSE) questionnaire. Additionally, oral fluid concentrations of methylone and MDMA were determined. Acute pharmacological effects produced by methylone followed the prototypical psychostimulant and empathogenic profile associated with MDMA, although they were less intense. Methylone concentrations in oral fluid can be considered a useful biomarker to detect acute exposure in oral fluid. Oral fluid concentrations of MDMA and methylone peaked at 2 h and concentrations of MDMA were in the range of those previously described in controlled studies. Our results demonstrate that the potential abuse liability of methylone is similar to that of MDMA in recreational subjects.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Energy drinks (EDs) reduce sleepiness, fatigue and improve driving performance while alcohol does just the opposite. Although it is a trendy combination among young people, the effects of alcohol mixed with EDs on driving performance have been poorly studied. The aim was to assess if there is an interaction between the effects of both drinks on driving-related skills, as well as perceptions about driving ability. METHODS: Randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled four-way crossover clinical trial. Participants: Sixteen healthy volunteers. Interventions: 60 g of ethanol and 750mL of Red Bull® (RB) were administered in two separated doses. Conditions were alcohol + RB placebo, alcohol + RB, alcohol placebo + RB and both placebos. Objective performance was assessed using a tracking test and simple reaction time, N-Back and movement estimation tasks. Additionally, willingness to drive, other subjective effects and ethanol and caffeine blood concentrations were also measured. RESULTS: Alcohol increased the time outside the road in the tracking test and increased simple reaction time but the addition of RB had no main or interaction effects on performance. Nonetheless, driving-related skills after alcohol + RB were better than after alcohol alone. Willingness to drive increased with the combination of drinks. RB also reduced alcohol-induced sedation while drunkenness did not change. These effects were seen even though alcohol + RB increased alcohol (14.8%) and caffeine plasma concentrations (17.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Mixing EDs with alcohol predisposes consumers to drive under alcohol influence, perhaps in part because EDs counteract its detrimental effects on driving-related skills. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02771587.

10.
J Clin Med ; 10(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34442043

RESUMO

Whether the increased risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalization and death observed in Down syndrome (DS) are disease specific or also occur in individuals with DS and non-COVID-19 pneumonias is unknown. This retrospective cohort study compared COVID-19 cases in persons with DS hospitalized in Spain reported to the Trisomy 21 Research Society COVID-19 survey (n = 86) with admissions for non-COVID-19 pneumonias from a retrospective clinical database of the Spanish Ministry of Health (n = 2832 patients). In-hospital mortality rates were significantly higher for COVID-19 patients (26.7% vs. 9.4%), especially among individuals over 40 and patients with obesity, dementia, and/or epilepsy. The mean length of stay of deceased patients with COVID-19 was significantly shorter than in those with non-COVID-19 pneumonias. The rate of admission to an ICU in patients with DS and COVID-19 (4.3%) was significantly lower than that reported for the general population with COVID-19. Our findings confirm that acute SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to higher mortality than non-COVID-19 pneumonias in individuals with DS, especially among adults over 40 and those with specific comorbidities. However, differences in access to respiratory support might also account for some of the heightened mortality of individuals with DS with COVID-19.

11.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444940

RESUMO

According to the food addiction (FA) model, the consumption of certain types of food could be potentially addictive and can lead to changes in intake regulation. We aimed to describe metabolic parameters, dietary characteristics, and affective and neurocognitive vulnerabilities of individuals with and without FA, and to explore its influences on weight loss progression. The sample included 448 adults (55-75 years) with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome from the PREDIMED-Plus cognition sub-study. Cognitive and psychopathological assessments, as well as dietary, biochemical, and metabolic measurements, were assessed at baseline. Weight progression was evaluated after a 3-year follow up. The presence of FA was associated with higher depressive symptomatology, neurocognitive decline, low quality of life, high body mass index (BMI), and high waist circumference, but not with metabolic comorbidities. No differences were observed in the dietary characteristics except for the saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids consumption. After three years, the presence of FA at baseline resulted in a significantly higher weight regain. FA is associated with worse psychological and neurocognitive state and higher weight regain in adults with metabolic syndrome. This condition could be an indicator of bad prognosis in the search for a successful weight loss process.


Assuntos
Dependência de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Cognição , Depressão/epidemiologia , Dieta/métodos , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Dependência de Alimentos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Perda de Peso
12.
Adv Nutr ; 12(6): 2172-2189, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388248

RESUMO

The consumption of dietary phytochemicals has been associated with several health benefits and relevant biological activities. It is postulated that biotransformations of these compounds regulated by the microbiota, Phase I/II reactions, transport proteins, and deconjugating enzymes contribute not only to their metabolic clearance but also, in some cases, to their bioactivation. A number of factors (age, genetics, sex, physiopathological conditions, and the interplay with other dietary phytochemicals) modulating metabolic activities are important sources and contributors to the interindividual variability observed in clinical studies evaluating the biological activities of phytochemicals. In this review, we discuss all the processes that can affect the bioaccessibility and beneficial effects of these bioactive compounds. Herein, we argue that the role of these factors must be further studied to correctly understand and predict the effects observed following the intake of phytochemicals. This is, in particular, with regard to in vitro investigations, which have shown great inconsistency with preclinical and clinical studies. The complexity of in vivo metabolic activity and biotransformation should therefore be considered in the interpretation of results in vitro and their translation to human physiopathology.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212205

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Endocannabinoids are well poised to regulate crosstalk between energy sensing of hunger and satiety and reward-driven motivation. OBJECTIVES: Here, we aimed to unravel associations between plasma endocannabinoids and brain connectivity in homeostatic and reward circuits across hunger and satiety states. METHODS: Fifteen participants (7 females) underwent two counter-balanced resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans, one after overnight fasting and one after consumption of a standardized filling meal (satiety). Before each scan, we drew blood to measure plasma endocannabinoid concentrations (anandamide [AEA], anandamide-derived POEA, and 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG]), analyzed with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: We found that AEA levels were associated with increased connectivity between the lateral hypothalamus and the ventral striatum during satiety. Furthermore, fasting AEA levels correlated with connectivity between the ventral striatum and the anterior cingulate cortex and the insula. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, results suggest that peripheral AEA concentrations are sensitive to homeostatic changes and linked to neural communication in reward and salience networks. Findings may have significant implications for understanding normal and abnormal interactions between homeostatic input and reward valuation.

14.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(7): 1923-1936, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839903

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Cocaine addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that lacks of an effective treatment. Isoflavones are a family of compounds present in different plants and vegetables like soybeans that share a common chemical structure. Previous studies have described that synthetic derivatives from the natural isoflavone daidzin can modulate cocaine addiction, by a mechanism suggested to involve aldehyde-dehydrogenase (ALDH) activities. OBJECTIVES: Based on these previous studies, we investigated the effects of three natural isoflavones, daidzin, daidzein, and genistein, on the modulation of the cocaine reinforcing effects and on cue-induced reinstatement in an operant mouse model of cocaine self-administration. RESULTS: Chronic treatment with daidzein or genistein decreased operant responding to obtain cocaine intravenous infusions. On the other hand, daidzein and daidzin, but not genistein, were effective in decreasing cue-induced cocaine reinstatement. Complementary studies revealed that daidzein effects on cocaine reinforcement were mediated through a mechanism that involved dopamine type-2/3 receptors (DA-D2/3) activities. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that these natural compounds alone or in combination can be a potential therapeutic approach for cocaine addiction. Further clinical studies are required in order to ascertain their potential therapeutic use.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/tratamento farmacológico , Cocaína/administração & dosagem , Sinais (Psicologia) , Isoflavonas/administração & dosagem , Fitoestrógenos/administração & dosagem , Reforço Psicológico , Animais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/psicologia , Condicionamento Operante/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Extinção Psicológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Locomoção/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Autoadministração
15.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 29(4): 575-587, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908163

RESUMO

GOALS: To explore affective and cognitive status, later in life, in individuals with and without previous history of eating disorder (ED), and also its association with higher risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) symptomatology. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of 6756 adults, aged 55-75 years with overweight/obesity and MetS participating in the Predimed-Plus study was conducted. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires to examine lifetime history of ED, according to DSM-5 criteria, and other psychopathological and neurocognitive factors. Anthropometric and metabolic measurements were also collected. RESULTS: Of the whole sample, 24 individuals (0.35%) reported a previous history of ED. In this subsample, there were more women and singles compared to their counterparts, but they also presented higher levels of depressive symptoms and higher cognitive impairment, but also higher body mass index (BMI) and severe obesity, than those without lifetime ED. CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the first studies to analyse the cognitive and metabolic impact of a previous history of ED. The results showed that previous ED was associated with greater affective and cognitive impairment, but also with higher BMI, later in life. No other MetS risk factors were found, after controlling for relevant variables.

16.
Alzheimers Dement (N Y) ; 7(1): e12155, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33816762

RESUMO

Introduction: Subjects exhibiting subjective cognitive decline (SCD) are at an increased risk for mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Given the delay between risk exposure and disease onset, SCD individuals are increasingly considered a good target population for cost-effective lifestyle-based Alzheimer's disease prevention trials. Methods: The PENSA study is a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial that aims to evaluate the efficacy of a personalized multimodal intervention in lifestyle (diet counseling, physical activity, cognitive training, and social engagement) combined with the use of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) over 12 months, in slowing down cognitive decline and improving brain connectivity. The study population includes 200 individuals meeting SCD criteria and carrying the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele, who will be randomized into four treatment arms (multimodal intervention + EGCG/placebo, or lifestyle recommendations + EGCG/placebo). The primary efficacy outcome is change in the composite score for cognitive performance measured with the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite (ADCS-PACC-like) adding to the original version the Interference score from the Stroop Color and Word Test and the Five Digit Test. Secondary efficacy outcomes are (1) change in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and structural neuronal connectivity (structural MRI) and (2) the safety assessment of the EGCG compound. This study is framed within the WW-FINGERS consortium. Discussion: The use of new technologies (i.e., mobile ecological momentary assessments [EMAs], activity tracker) in the PENSA study allows the collection of continuous data on lifestyle behaviors (diet and physical activity) and mood, enabling a personalized design as well as an intensive follow-up of participants. These data will be used to give feedback to participants about their own performance along the intervention, promoting their involvement and adherence. The results of the study may aid researchers on the design of future clinical trials involving preventive lifestyle multicomponent interventions.

17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9144, 2021 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33911087

RESUMO

This study examines if overweight/obesity are related to higher impulsivity, food addiction and depressive symptoms, and if these variables could be modified after 1 year of a multimodal intervention (diet, physical activity, psychosocial support). 342 adults (55-75 years) with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) from the PREDIMED-Plus Cognition study were randomized to the intervention or to the control group (lifestyle recommendations). Cognitive and psychopathological assessments were performed at baseline and after 1-year follow-up. At baseline, higher impulsivity was linked to higher food addiction and depressive symptoms, but not to body mass index (BMI). Food addiction not only predicted higher BMI and depressive symptoms, but also achieved a mediational role between impulsivity and BMI/depressive symptoms. After 1 year, patients in both groups reported significant decreases in BMI, food addiction and impulsivity. BMI reduction and impulsivity improvements were higher in the intervention group. Higher BMI decrease was achieved in individuals with lower impulsivity. Higher scores in food addiction were also related to greater post-treatment impulsivity. To conclude, overweight/obesity are related to higher impulsivity, food addiction and depressive symptoms in mid/old age individuals with MetS. Our results also highlight the modifiable nature of the studied variables and the interest of promoting multimodal interventions within this population.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Obesidade/terapia , Intervenção Psicossocial , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Depressão/patologia , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Dependência de Alimentos , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Pers Med ; 11(3)2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668817

RESUMO

A close epidemiological link has been reported between cannabis use and schizophrenia (SCZ). However, biochemical markers in living humans related to the impact of cannabis in this disease are still missing. Olfactory neuroepithelium (ON) cells express neural features and offer a unique advantage to study biomarkers of psychiatric diseases. The aim of our study was to find exclusively deregulated proteins in ON cells of SCZ patients with and without a history of cannabis use. Thus, we compared the proteomic profiles of SCZ non-cannabis users (SCZ/nc) and SCZ cannabis users (SCZ/c) with control subjects non-cannabis users (C/nc) and control cannabis users (C/c). The results revealed that the main cascades affected in SCZ/nc were cell cycle, DNA replication, signal transduction and protein localization. Conversely, cannabis use in SCZ patients induced specific alterations in metabolism of RNA and metabolism of proteins. The levels of targeted proteins in each population were then correlated with cognitive performance and clinical scores. In SCZ/c, the expression levels of 2 proteins involved in the metabolism of RNA (MTREX and ZNF326) correlated with several cognitive markers and clinical signs. Moreover, use duration of cannabis negatively correlated with ZNF326 expression. These findings indicate that RNA-related proteins might be relevant to understand the influence of cannabis use on SCZ.

19.
Eur J Pain ; 25(6): 1316-1328, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain is a complex condition characterized by sensory, cognitive and affective symptoms that magnify the perception of pain. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms are largely unknown and there is an urgent need for the development of novel medications. The endocannabinoid system modulates pain perception and drugs targeting the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) devoid of psychoactive side effects could emerge as novel analgesics. An interesting model to evaluate the mechanisms underlying resistance to pain is the fragile X mental retardation protein knockout mouse (Fmr1KO), a model of fragile X syndrome that exhibits nociceptive deficits and fails to develop neuropathic pain. METHODS: A partial sciatic nerve ligation was performed to wild-type (WT) and Fmr1KO mice having (HzCB2 and Fmr1KO-HzCB2, respectively) or not (WT and Fmr1KO mice) a partial deletion of CB2 to investigate the participation of the endocannabinoid system on the pain-resistant phenotype of Fmr1KO mice. RESULTS: Nerve injury induced canonical hypersensitivity in WT and HzCB2 mice, whereas this increased pain sensitivity was absent in Fmr1KO mice. Interestingly, Fmr1KO mice partially lacking CB2 lost this protection against neuropathic pain. Similarly, pain-induced depressive-like behaviour was observed in WT, HzCB2 and Fmr1KO-HzCB2 mice, but not in Fmr1KO littermates. Nerve injury evoked different alterations in WT and Fmr1KO mice at spinal and supra-spinal levels that correlated with these nociceptive and emotional alterations. CONCLUSIONS: This work shows that CB2 is necessary for the protection against neuropathic pain observed in Fmr1KO mice, raising the interest in targeting this receptor for the treatment of neuropathic pain. SIGNIFICANCE: Neuropathic pain is a complex chronic pain condition and current treatments are limited by the lack of efficacy and the incidence of important side effects. Our findings show that the pain-resistant phenotype of Fmr1KO mice against nociceptive and emotional manifestations triggered by persistent nerve damage requires the participation of the cannabinoid receptor CB2, raising the interest in targeting this receptor for neuropathic pain treatment. Additional multidisciplinary studies more closely related to human pain experience should be conducted to explore the potential use of cannabinoids as adequate analgesic tools.


Assuntos
Endocanabinoides , Neuralgia , Analgésicos , Animais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neuralgia/genética , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/genética
20.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(2)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525579

RESUMO

Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone with psychostimulant properties which remains one of the most popular new psychoactive substances (NPS). It is frequently used orally and/or intranasally. To date, no studies have evaluated the acute effects and pharmacokinetics after self-administration of mephedrone orally (ingestion) and intranasally (insufflation) in naturalistic conditions. An observational study was conducted to assess and compare the acute pharmacological effects, as well as the oral fluid (saliva) concentrations of mephedrone self-administered orally and intranasally. Ten healthy experienced drug users (4 females and 6 males) self-administered a single dose of mephedrone, orally (n = 5, 100-200 mg; mean 150 mg) or intranasally (n = 5, 50-100 mg, mean 70 mg). Vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, and cutaneous temperature) were measured at baseline (0), 1, 2, and 4 h after self-administration. Each participant completed subjective effects questionnaires: A set of Visual Analogue Scales (VAS), the 49-item Addiction Research Centre Inventory (ARCI), and Evaluation of the Subjective Effects of Substances with Abuse Potential (VESSPA-SSE) at baseline, 1, 2, and 4 h after self-administration. Oral fluid and urine were collected during 4 h. Both routes of mephedrone self-administration enhanced ratings of euphoria and well-being effects and increased cardiovascular effects in humans. Although it was at times assessed that the oral route produced greater and larger effects than the intranasal one, concentrations of mephedrone in oral fluid and also the total amount of mephedrone and metabolites in urine showed that concentrations of mephedrone are considerably higher when self-administered intranasally in comparison to orally. Controlled clinical trials are needed to confirm our observational results.

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