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1.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 23(1): 2, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients have an increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. Here, we aimed to investigate whether gender and age are contributing to the misclassification of CV risk in RA patients. METHODS: Prospectively collected data on cardiovascular risk factors and incident events from the Nijmegen inception cohort were analyzed, with up to 10 years follow-up. Original as well as the EULAR-modified (M)_SCORE algorithms were used to calculate CV risk. Patients were stratified in deciles according to predicted risk; the Hosmer-Lemeshow test was used to check concordance between observed and predicted risk, in subgroups of gender and age. RESULTS: There were 863 RA patients included with 128 incident CV events. When using SCORE in the whole group, there was evidence of a discrepancy between the predicted and observed CV risk (H-L test p < 0.003), mainly present in the female subgroup (H-L test p < 0.001). Interestingly, 36% of females who developed an event belonged to the low CV risk group, whereas this was just 10% in RA males. When analyzing the subgroups based on age, a discrepancy was present only in the youngest patients (H-L test p < 0.001 in patients < 55 years) consisting of an underestimation of CV risk (5.3% predicted vs. 8.0% observed). Similar results were obtained when the M_SCORE was applied. CONCLUSION: CV risk is especially underestimated in female and younger RA patients. This suggests that modifying the weight for the female gender and/or younger age in currently used CV risk algorithms might improve their predictive value in RA, contributing to better CV risk management.

2.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1642020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332031

RESUMO

Severe infectious diseases result in an increased volume of distribution. Renal function is usually impaired, but can in fact be increased early in the course of the disease. In renally cleared drugs with a small therapeutic index a dose reduction should take place or these medications should be temporarily discontinued. Renally cleared antibiotics may be subject to subtherapeutic levels of antibiotics, especially early in the course of the disease. Diuretics and RAAS inhibitors should usually be interrupted during acute illness; bèta-blockers should be continued. Statins can usually be continued. Paracetamol can usually be prescribed. NSAIDs, however, are almost always contra-indicated. Patients with chronic use of corticosteroids should receive a stress dose. There is no evidence to support discontinuing immunosuppressants. Platelet aggregation inhibitors and directly acting oral anticoagulants are continued, whereas coumarins should be monitored vigorously or substituted for low molecular weight heparins.

3.
Acta Derm Venereol ; 100(19): adv00340, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196101

RESUMO

A dose reduction strategy for adalimumab, etanercept and ustekinumab in patients with psoriasis who have stable and low disease activity has recently been compared with usual care in the CONDOR study (CONtrolled DOse Reduction) of biologics in patients with psoriasis with low disease activity. The aim of the current study was to perform a cost-utility analysis with a 12-month time horizon alongside this trial, using prospectively measured healthcare costs and quality-adjusted life years, based on Short-Form Six-Dimension utilities. Bootstrap analys-es were used to calculate the decremental cost-utility ratio and the incremental net monetary benefit. The dose reduction strategy resulted in a mean cost saving of €3,820 (95th percentile -€3,099 to -€4,509) per patient over a period of 12 months. There was an 83% chance that dose reduction would result in a reduction in quality adjusted life years (mean -0.02 (95th percentile -0.06 to 0.02). In conclusion, dose reduction of biologics resulted in substantial cost savings with an acceptable reduction in quality of life.

4.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 8(9): 1031-1044, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921269

RESUMO

Extra-intestinal manifestations (EIMs) of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) occur frequently and contribute to morbidity and reduced quality of life. The musculoskeletal, ocular and cutaneous organ systems are frequently involved in IBD-related EIMs. By focusing on manifestations involving the joints, skin and eyes, this review will discuss the most common clinically relevant and burdensome EIMs that affect IBD patients, and strives for early recognition, adequate treatment and timely referral. For this purpose, we aimed to create a comprehensive overview on this topic, with the main focus on the treatment of reactive and associated EIMs, including spondyloarthropathies, pyoderma gangrenosum, erythema nodosum, psoriasis and anterior uveitis. The recently developed biologicals enable simultaneous treatment of inflammatory disorders. This review can be used as a helpful guide in daily clinical practice for physicians who are involved in the treatment of IBD patients.

5.
BMC Rheumatol ; 4: 37, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743343

RESUMO

Background: Dose loading of biological disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) in auto-immune rheumatic diseases (AIRDs) is performed to achieve steady state drug concentrations earlier after treatment start compared to dosing regimens without loading. Although loading inherently results in increased costs, treatment targets in terms of reduced disease activity may be achieved at an earlier state. It is an interesting topic that, surprisingly, has not received much attention in literature. Methods: In this review, we aimed at providing a theoretical description of the pharmacodynamic / -kinetic rationale for dose loading of bDMARDs in AIRDs and to systematically review the clinical evidence on the effectiveness of dose loading on disease activity in AIRDs. Results: Only a small number of studies (n = 5) has been published comparing the effectiveness of dose loading versus a regimen without dose loading of bDMARDs in AIRDs, addressing abatacept (n = 2), certolizumab pegol (n = 1), and secukinumab (n = 2). These studies provide insufficient evidence on superiority of dose loading in terms of disease activity compared to a dosing regimen without loading, while safety issues might be comparable. Conclusions: Although dose loading is commonly adopted for several bDMARDs in AIRDs, scientific evidence on its effectiveness and safety is surprisingly scarce and does not suggest superiority compared to a regimen without dose loading. More research in this field, also with regard to the pharmaco-economic consequences of dose loading, is urgently needed.

6.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242804

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is an inflammatory rheumatic disease characterised by pain and stiffness of neck, shoulder- and hipgirdle, typically with elevated acute phase reactants (APR). However, patients may present with normal APR. Our aim was to explore whether normal APR were due to 1) 'caught early in the disease', 2) misdiagnosis, or 3) a distinct subset of PMR with different clinical presentation and prognosis. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study on patients with clinical PMR diagnosis visiting the rheumatologists of the Sint Maartenskliniek from April 2008 to September 2017. RESULTS: Of 454 patients, 62 patients had normal, and 392 elevated APR. Normal APR patients had longer symptom duration before diagnosis (13 vs. 10 weeks; p=0.02), however, during follow-up 31% developed elevated APR. In elevated APR patients with previous APR data available while already symptomatic, 58% had earlier normal APR. Fewer normal APR patients had peripheral arthritis (2% vs. 9%;p=0.04), and anaemia (17% vs. 43%; p=0.001). More often they had a previous PMR diagnosis (16% vs. 8%; p=0.057) and a shorter median time to glucocorticoid-free remission (552 vs. 693 days; n=36 vs. 160; p=0.02). Route of GC administration differed between groups (p=0.026). Fewer patients received methotrexate; 3 vs. 12%; p=0.046). No difference in alternative diagnosis was observed. CONCLUSIONS: PMR patients with long-term normal APR seem to be a milder subset of PMR in clinical presentation and prognosis. Additionally, our data also suggest there is a subgroup with normal APR who are caught early in the disease. Misdiagnosis does not appear to play a role.

7.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(7): 867-873, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After adalimumab treatment failure, tumour necrosis factor inhibition (TNFi) and non-TNFi biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) are equally viable options on a group level as subsequent treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) based on the current best evidence synthesis. However, preliminary data suggest that anti-adalimumab antibodies (anti-drug antibodies, ADA) and adalimumab serum levels (ADL) during treatment predict response to a TNFi as subsequent treatment. OBJECTIVE: To validate the association of presence of ADA and/or low ADL with response to a subsequent TNFi bDMARD or non-TNFi bDMARD. Sub-analyses were performed for primary and secondary non-responders. METHODS: A diagnostic test accuracy retrospective cohort study was done in consenting RA patients who discontinued adalimumab after >3 months of treatment due to inefficacy and started another bDMARD. Inclusion criteria included the availability of (random timed) serum samples between ≥8 weeks after start and ≤2 weeks after discontinuation of adalimumab, and clinical outcome measurements Disease Activity Score in 28 joints - C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) between 3 to 6 months after treatment switch. Test characteristics for EULAR (European League Against Rheumatism) good response (DAS28-CRP based) after treatment with the next (non-)TNFi bDMARD were assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic and sensitivity/specificity. RESULTS: 137 patients were included. ADA presence was not predictive for response in switchers to a TNFi (sensitivity/specificity 18%/75%) or a non-TNFi (sensitivity/specificity 33%/70%). The same was true for ADL levels in patients that switched to a TNFi (sensitivity/specificity 50%/52%) and patients that switched to a non-TNFi (sensitivity/specificity 32%/69%). Predictive value of ADA and ADL were similar for both primary and secondary non-responders to adalimumab. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to earlier research, we could not find predictive value for response to a second TNFi or non-TNFi for either ADA or random timed ADL.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/sangue , Anticorpos/sangue , Antirreumáticos/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adalimumab/imunologia , Idoso , Antirreumáticos/imunologia , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Substituição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/imunologia
8.
JAMA Dermatol ; 156(4): 393-400, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049319

RESUMO

Importance: Biologics revolutionized the treatment of psoriasis. Biologics are given in a fixed dose, but lower doses might be possible. Objective: To investigate whether dose reduction (DR) of biologics in patients with stable psoriasis is noninferior to usual care (UC). Design, Setting, and Participants: This pragmatic, open-label, prospective, controlled, noninferiority randomized clinical trial was conducted from March 1, 2016, to July 22, 2018, at 6 dermatology departments in the Netherlands. A total of 120 patients with plaque psoriasis and stable low disease activity who were receiving treatment with adalimumab, etanercept, or ustekinumab were studied. Interventions: Patients were randomized 1:1 to DR (n = 60) or UC (n = 60). In the DR group, injection intervals were prolonged stepwise, leading to 67% and 50% of the original dose. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was between-group difference in disease activity corrected for baseline at 12 months compared with the predefined noninferiority margin of 0.5. Secondary outcomes were Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score and health-related quality of life (including Dermatology Life Quality Index [DLQI] and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey scores), proportion of patients with short and persistent flares (defined as PASI and/or DLQI scores >5 for ≥3 months), and proportion of patients with successful dose tapering. Results: Of 120 patients (mean [SD] age, 54.0 [13.2] years; 82 [68%] male), 2 patients were lost to follow-up, 2 patients had a protocol violation, and 5 patients had a protocol deviation, leaving 111 patients for the per-protocol analysis (53 in the DR group and 58 in the UC group). The median PASI scores at month 12 were 3.4 (interquartile range [IQR], 2.2-4.5) in the DR group and 2.1 (IQR, 0.6-3.6) in the UC group (mean difference, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.7-1.8). This indicates that noninferiority was not demonstrated for DR compared to UC. The median DLQI score at month 12 was 1.0 (IQR, 0.0-2.0) in the DR group and 0.0 (IQR, 0.0-2.0) in the UC group (mean difference, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3-1.3), indicating noninferiority for DR compared with UC. No significant difference was found regarding persistent flares between groups (n = 5 in both groups). Twenty-eight patients (53%; 95% CI, 39%-67%) in the DR group tapered their dose successfully at 12 months. No severe adverse events related to the intervention occurred. Conclusions and Relevance: In this trial, noninferiority was not demonstrated for DR of adalimumab, etanercept, and ustekinumab based on the PASI in patients with psoriasis compared with UC with the chosen noninferiority margin. However, the strategy was noninferior based on the DLQI. Dose tapering did not lead to persistent flares or safety issues. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02602925.

9.
Trials ; 21(1): 155, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both methotrexate (MTX) and leflunomide (LEF) are registered and regularly prescribed as first-line treatments for the use in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and they are occasionally used in combination. However, evidence about their individual, and especially combined efficacy, in PsA is lacking. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness and safety of MTX and LEF combination therapy to MTX monotherapy in patients with PsA. METHODS: COMPLETE-PsA is a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)-untreated patients (n = 78) with clinical diagnosis of active (i.e. ≥2 swollen joints) PsA will be randomized 1:1 (stratified for high disease activity, Psoriatic Arthritis Disease Activity Score [PASDAS] ≥ 5.4) to the combination or monotherapy. The intervention group receives MTX 25 mg (oral or subcutaneous) once weekly plus LEF 20 mg daily, and the control group receives the same but with placebo instead of LEF daily. Primary endpoint is between-group difference in PASDAS at 16 weeks, adjusted for baseline PASDAS. Key secondary parameters include between-group comparisons in change in Disease Activity in Psoriatic Arthritis (DAPSA) score, skin score, enthesitis score, dactylitis score, and swollen/tender joint count, as well as the proportion of patients fulfilling minimal disease activity (MDA), American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20/50/70 response criteria at week 16. Furthermore, safety, function and quality of life (Health Assessment Questionnaire [HAQ], Psoriatic Arthritic Impact of Disease [PSAID], Short Form 12 [SF-12]) will be assessed. DISCUSSION: This is, to our knowledge, the first randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial assessing the effectiveness of MTX and LEF combination therapy in patients with PsA. The study will provide important information for treatment strategies and treatment recommendations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Dutch Trial Register NTR7632 (3 December 2018). CMO NL66544.091.18 (19 November 2018).

10.
Trials ; 21(1): 90, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) are effective in the treatment of patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA), including psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). However, these drugs come with some disadvantages such as adverse events, practical burden for patients and high costs. Dose optimisation of TNFi after patients have reached low disease activity (LDA) has been shown feasible and safe in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, data on TNFi dose optimisation in PsA and axSpA are scarce, especially pragmatic, randomised strategy studies. METHODS: We developed an investigator-driven, pragmatic, open-label, randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial (DRESS-PS) to compare the effects of a disease activity-guided treat-to-target strategy with or without a tapering attempt in patients with SpA (PsA and axSpA combined), ≥ 16 years of age, who are being treated with TNFi, and have had at least 6 months of low disease activity. The primary outcome is the percentage of patients in LDA after 12 months of follow up. Patients are assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of follow up. Bayesian power analyses with a weakened prior based on a similar study performed in RA resulted in a sample size of 95 patients in total. DISCUSSION: More knowledge on disease activity-guided treatment algorithms would contribute to better treatment choices and cost savings and potentially decrease the risk of side effects. In this article we elucidate some of our design choices on TNFi dose optimisation and its clinical and methodological consequences. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Dutch Trial Register, NL6771. Registered on 27 November 2018 (CMO NL66181.091.18, 23 October 2018).


Assuntos
Artrite Psoriásica/tratamento farmacológico , Espondilartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico , Adalimumab/efeitos adversos , Adalimumab/economia , Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/economia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Artrite Psoriásica/psicologia , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Custo-Benefício , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Etanercepte/efeitos adversos , Etanercepte/economia , Etanercepte/uso terapêutico , Seguimentos , Humanos , Infliximab/efeitos adversos , Infliximab/economia , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Projetos de Pesquisa , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espondilartrite/psicologia , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/economia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(6): 685-699, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969328

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To provide an update of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) rheumatoid arthritis (RA) management recommendations to account for the most recent developments in the field. METHODS: An international task force considered new evidence supporting or contradicting previous recommendations and novel therapies and strategic insights based on two systematic literature searches on efficacy and safety of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) since the last update (2016) until 2019. A predefined voting process was applied, current levels of evidence and strengths of recommendation were assigned and participants ultimately voted independently on their level of agreement with each of the items. RESULTS: The task force agreed on 5 overarching principles and 12 recommendations concerning use of conventional synthetic (cs) DMARDs (methotrexate (MTX), leflunomide, sulfasalazine); glucocorticoids (GCs); biological (b) DMARDs (tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab), abatacept, rituximab, tocilizumab, sarilumab and biosimilar (bs) DMARDs) and targeted synthetic (ts) DMARDs (the Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors tofacitinib, baricitinib, filgotinib, upadacitinib). Guidance on monotherapy, combination therapy, treatment strategies (treat-to-target) and tapering on sustained clinical remission is provided. Cost and sequencing of b/tsDMARDs are addressed. Initially, MTX plus GCs and upon insufficient response to this therapy within 3 to 6 months, stratification according to risk factors is recommended. With poor prognostic factors (presence of autoantibodies, high disease activity, early erosions or failure of two csDMARDs), any bDMARD or JAK inhibitor should be added to the csDMARD. If this fails, any other bDMARD (from another or the same class) or tsDMARD is recommended. On sustained remission, DMARDs may be tapered, but not be stopped. Levels of evidence and levels of agreement were mostly high. CONCLUSIONS: These updated EULAR recommendations provide consensus on the management of RA with respect to benefit, safety, preferences and cost.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Sociedades Médicas , Medicamentos Sintéticos/uso terapêutico , Antirreumáticos/economia , Produtos Biológicos/economia , Consenso , Quimioterapia Combinada , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos Sintéticos/economia , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14812, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616008

RESUMO

Here, we assessed whether 41 SNPs within steroid hormone genes associated with erosive disease. The most relevant finding was the rheumatoid factor (RF)-specific effect of the CYP1B1, CYP2C9, ESR2, FcγR3A, and SHBG SNPs to modulate the risk of bone erosions (P = 0.004, 0.0007, 0.0002, 0.013 and 0.015) that was confirmed through meta-analysis of our data with those from the DREAM registry (P = 0.000081, 0.0022, 0.00074, 0.0067 and 0.0087, respectively). Mechanistically, we also found a gender-specific correlation of the CYP2C9rs1799853T/T genotype with serum vitamin D3 levels (P = 0.00085) and a modest effect on IL1ß levels after stimulation of PBMCs or blood with LPS and PHA (P = 0.0057 and P = 0.0058). An overall haplotype analysis also showed an association of 3 ESR1 haplotypes with a reduced risk of erosive arthritis (P = 0.009, P = 0.002, and P = 0.002). Furthermore, we observed that the ESR2, ESR1 and FcγR3A SNPs influenced the immune response after stimulation of PBMCs or macrophages with LPS or Pam3Cys (P = 0.002, 0.0008, 0.0011 and 1.97•10-7). Finally, we found that a model built with steroid hormone-related SNPs significantly improved the prediction of erosive disease in seropositive patients (PRF+ = 2.46•10-8) whereas no prediction was detected in seronegative patients (PRF- = 0.36). Although the predictive ability of the model was substantially lower in the replication population (PRF+ = 0.014), we could confirm that CYP1B1 and CYP2C9 SNPs help to predict erosive disease in seropositive patients. These results are the first to suggest a RF-specific association of steroid hormone-related polymorphisms with erosive disease.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Doenças Ósseas/diagnóstico , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/genética , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Doenças Ósseas/genética , Doenças Ósseas/imunologia , Citocromo P-450 CYP1B1/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/imunologia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fator Reumatoide/sangue , Fator Reumatoide/imunologia
15.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 58(11): 1907-1922, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518426

RESUMO

The effect of TNF-α inhibitors (TNFi), with or without concomitant NSAIDs, on radiographic progression in axial SpA remains unclear. Therefore, we performed a systematic literature review up to January 2019 to determine whether longer use of standard dose TNFi is superior vs lower duration or lower dose TNFi therapy, conventional synthetic DMARDs alone, or no therapy in inhibiting radiographic progression in patients with axial SpA. Our search yielded 373 titles of which 14 full text articles and five abstracts were eligible for quantitative analysis. Studies had an overall moderate to critical risk of bias. Data could not be pooled due to clinical and methodological heterogeneity. Individual studies showed conflicting results with mainly no significant difference in radiographic progression when comparing effect of TNFi therapy to no TNFi therapy or when comparing to less TNFi therapy until 2 years of follow-up. Results that are more significant are shown after 2 years' follow-up, mainly in subgroups with baseline syndesmophytes. Data on the additional or synergistic effect of concomitant NSAID use were inconclusive.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Radiografia , Espondilartrite/diagnóstico por imagem , Espondilartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD010455, 2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) agents are effective in treating people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but are associated with (dose-dependent) adverse effects and high costs. To prevent overtreatment, several trials have assessed the effectiveness of down-titration compared with continuation of the standard dose. This is an update of a Cochrane Review published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the benefits and harms of down-titration (dose reduction, discontinuation, or disease activity-guided dose tapering) of anti-TNF agents on disease activity, functioning, costs, safety, and radiographic damage compared with usual care in people with RA and low disease activity. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and CENTRAL (29 March 2018) and four trial registries (11 April 2018) together with reference checking, citation searching, and contact with study authors to identify additional studies. We screened conference proceedings (American College of Rheumatology and European League Against Rheumatism 2005-2017). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing down-titration (dose reduction, discontinuation, disease activity-guided dose tapering) of anti-TNF agents (adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab) to usual care/no down-titration in people with RA and low disease activity. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard Cochrane methodology. MAIN RESULTS: One previously included trial was excluded retrospectively in this update because it was not an RCT/CCT. We included eight additional trials, for a total of 14 studies (13 RCTs and one CCT, 3315 participants in total) reporting anti-TNF down-titration. Six studies (1148 participants) reported anti-TNF dose reduction compared with anti-TNF continuation. Eight studies (2111 participants) reported anti-TNF discontinuation compared with anti-TNF continuation (three studies assessed both anti-TNF discontinuation and dose reduction), and three studies assessed disease activity-guided anti-TNF dose tapering (365 participants). These studies included data on all anti-TNF agents, but primarily adalimumab and etanercept. Thirteen studies were available in full text, one was available as abstract. We assessed the included studies generally at low to moderate risk of bias; our main concerns were bias due to open-label treatment and unblinded outcome assessment. Clinical heterogeneity between the trials was high. The included studies were performed at clinical centres around the world and included people with early as well as established RA, the majority of whom were female with mean ages between 47 and 60. Study durations ranged from 6 months to 3.5 years.We found that anti-TNF dose reduction leads to little or no difference in mean disease activity score (DAS28) after 26 to 52 weeks (high-certainty evidence, mean difference (MD) 0.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.11 to 0.24, absolute risk difference (ARD) 1%) compared with continuation. Also, anti-TNF dose reduction does not result in an important deterioration in function after 26 to 52 weeks (Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI)) (high-certainty evidence, MD 0.09, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.19, ARD 3%). Next to this, anti-TNF dose reduction may slightly reduce the proportion of participants switched to another biologic (low-certainty evidence), but probably slightly increases the proportion of participants with minimal radiographic progression after 52 weeks (moderate-certainty evidence, risk ratio (RR) 1.22, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.95, ARD 2% higher). Anti-TNF dose reduction may cause little or no difference in serious adverse events, withdrawals due to adverse events and proportion of participants with persistent remission (low-certainty evidence).Results show that anti-TNF discontinuation probably slightly increases the mean disease activity score (DAS28) after 28 to 52 weeks (moderate-certainty evidence, MD 0.96, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.25, ARD 14%), and that the RR of persistent remission lies between 0.16 and 0.77 (low-certainty evidence). Anti-TNF discontinuation increases the proportion participants with minimal radiographic progression after 52 weeks (high-certainty evidence, RR 1.69, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.59, ARD 7%) and may lead to a slight deterioration in function (HAQ-DI) (low-certainty evidence). It is uncertain whether anti-TNF discontinuation influences the number of serious adverse events (due to very low-certainty evidence) and the number of withdrawals due to adverse events after 28 to 52 weeks probably increases slightly (moderate-certainty evidence, RR 1.46, 95% CI 0.75 to 2.84, ARD 1% higher).Anti-TNF disease activity-guided dose tapering may result in little or no difference in mean disease activity score (DAS28) after 72 to 78 weeks (low-certainty evidence). Furthermore, anti-TNF disease activity-guided dose tapering results in little or no difference in the proportion of participants with persistent remission after 18 months (high-certainty evidence, RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.06, ARD -9%) and may result in little or no difference in switching to another biologic (low-certainty evidence). Anti-TNF disease activity-guided dose tapering may slightly increase proportion of participants with minimal radiographic progression (low-certainty evidence) and probably leads to a slight deterioration of function after 18 months (moderate-certainty evidence, MD 0.2 higher, 0.02 lower to 0.42 higher, ARD 7% higher), It is uncertain whether anti-TNF disease activity-guided dose tapering influences the number of serious adverse events due to very low-certainty evidence. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found that fixed-dose reduction of anti-TNF, after at least three to 12 months of low disease activity, is comparable to continuation of the standard dose regarding disease activity and function, and may be comparable with regards to the proportion of participants with persistent remission. Discontinuation (also without disease activity-guided adaptation) of anti-TNF is probably inferior to continuation of treatment with respect to disease activity, the proportion of participants with persistent remission, function, and minimal radiographic damage. Disease activity-guided dose tapering of anti-TNF is comparable to continuation of treatment with respect to the proportion of participants with persistent remission and may be comparable regarding disease activity.Caveats of this review are that available data are mainly limited to etanercept and adalimumab, the heterogeneity between studies, and the use of superiority instead of non-inferiority designs.Future research should focus on the anti-TNF agents infliximab and golimumab; assessment of disease activity, function, and radiographic outcomes after longer follow-up; and assessment of long-term safety, cost-effectiveness, and predictors for successful down-titration. Also, use of a validated flare criterion, non-inferiority designs, and disease activity-guided tapering instead of fixed-dose reduction or discontinuation would allow researchers to better interpret study findings and generalise to clinical practice.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão
18.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37(3): 367-372, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767874

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate ex-vivo drug-inhibited cytokine production before the start of a biological DMARD (bDMARD) as predictor of treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: In a prospective RA cohort study [BIO-TOP], blood samples were obtained from patients before the start of a bDMARD (abatacept, adalimumab, etanercept, rituximab or tocilizumab). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were pre-incubated for 1 hour with the therapeutic in-vivo concentration of the bDMARD and stimulated for 24 hours with heat-killed Candida albicans or Pam3Cys. Concentrations of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNFα, IL-17 and IFNγ were determined by ELISA. EULAR response (good vs. moderate/no) was assessed at month 6. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were generated to evaluate the predictive value of baseline characteristics and ex-vivo cytokine production (including stimulated cytokine concentrations and absolute changes after inhibition by a bDMARD). Logistic prediction models were created to assess the added value of potential cytokine predictors. RESULTS: 277 RA patients were included with 330 blood samples. Good response was reached in 39% of the cases. DAS28-CRP was predictive for response to adalimumab (AUC 0.70, 95%CI 0.57-0.83), etanercept (AUC 0.68, 95%CI 0.58-0.78) and rituximab (AUC 0.76, 95%CI 0.65-0.86). ACPA was modestly predictive for response to abatacept (AUC 0.63, 95%CI 0.52-0.75). In the ex-vivo analysis, 4 of 64 (6%) tests showed some predictive value but these had no added value to clinical factors routinely measured in RA, such as DAS28-CRP. CONCLUSIONS: Ex-vivo inhibition of cytokine production by bDMARDs is unable to help prediction of treatment response to bDMARDs in RA.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos , Artrite Reumatoide , Produtos Biológicos , Citocinas/biossíntese , Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/sangue , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Pharmacogenomics ; 20(2): 85-93, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628539

RESUMO

AIM: To study the performance of a clinical pharmacogenetic model for the prediction of nonresponse in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients treated with methotrexate (MTX) in combination with other synthetic or biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs . This prediction model includes gender, smoking status, rheumatoid factor positivity and four genetic variants in AMPD1 (rs17602729), ATIC (rs2372536), ITPA (rs1127354) and MTHFD1 (rs17850560). METHODS: A total of 314 RA patients from three Dutch studies were retrospectively included. Eligible patients were adults diagnosed with RA and had a treatment duration with MTX and follow-up for at least two study evaluation visits. Prediction model risk scores at the first and second evaluation were calculated and compared with the actual nonresponse (disease activity score >2.4). Regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses of the prediction model were performed. Also, the sensitivity, specificity and the positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were determined. RESULTS: The receiver operating characteristic area under the curve was 75% at first and 70% after second evaluation. At the second evaluation, prediction nonresponse had a sensitivity of 67% (CI: 54-78%), specificity of 69% (CI: 60-77%), PPV of 52% (CI: 45-60%) and NPV of 80% (CI: 73-85%). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the clinical pharmacogenetic model has an inadequate performance for the prediction of nonresponse to MTX in RA patients treated with combination therapies.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , Testes Farmacogenômicos , AMP Desaminase/genética , Adulto , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroximetil e Formil Transferases/genética , Masculino , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase (NADP)/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Complexos Multienzimáticos/genética , Nucleotídeo Desaminases/genética , Pirofosfatases/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
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