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Rev Bras Anestesiol ; 62(3): 289-97, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22656675


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Extracorporeal circulation (ECC) may change drug pharmacokinetics as well as brain function. The objectives of this study are to compare emergence time and postoperative sedation intensity assessed by the bispectral index (BIS) and the Ramsay sedation scale in patients undergoing myocardial revascularization (MR) with or without ECC. METHOD: Ten patients undergoing MR with ECC (ECC group) and 10 with no ECC (no-ECC group) were administered with sufentanyl, propofol 2.0 µg.mL(-1) and pancuronium target controlled infusion. After surgery, propofol infusion was reduced to 1 µg.mL(-1) and suspended when extubation was indicated. Patients BIS, Ramsay scale and time to wake up were assessed. RESULTS: The ECC group showed lower BIS values beginning at 60 minutes after surgery (no-ECC = 66±13 and ECC = 53±14, p=0.01) until 120 minutes after infusion (no-ECC = 85±8 and ECC = 73±12, p=0.02). Sedation level measured by the Ramsay scale was higher in the ECC group at 30 minutes after the end of the surgery (no-ECC = 5±1 and ECC = 6±0, p=0.021), at the end of infusion (no-ECC = 5±1 and ECC = 6±1, p=0.012) and 5 minutes after the end of infusion (no-ECC = 4±1 and ECC = 5±0.42, p=0.039). Emergence from anesthesia time was higher in the ECC group (no-ECC = 217±81 and ECC = 319±118, p=0.038). CONCLUSIONS: There was a higher intensity of sedation after the end of surgery and a longer wake up time in ECC group, suggesting changes in the pharmacokinetics of propofol or effects of ECC on central nervous system.

Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Circulação Extracorpórea , Revascularização Miocárdica , Idoso , Monitores de Consciência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 64(4): 279-85, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19488583


OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of intrathecal morphine on pulmonary function, analgesia, and morphine plasma concentrations after cardiac surgery. INTRODUCTION: Lung dysfunction increases morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Regional analgesia may improve pulmonary outcomes by reducing pain, but the occurrence of this benefit remains controversial. METHODS: Forty-two patients were randomized for general anesthesia (control group n=22) or 400 microg of intrathecal morphine followed by general anesthesia (morphine group n=20). Postoperative analgesia was accomplished with an intravenous, patient-controlled morphine pump. Blood gas measurements, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume (FEV), and FVC/FEV ratio were obtained preoperatively, as well as on the first and second postoperative days. Pain at rest, profound inspiration, amount of coughing, morphine solicitation, consumption, and plasma morphine concentration were evaluated for 36 hours postoperatively. Statistical analyses were performed using the repeated measures ANOVA or Mann-Whiney tests (*p<0.05). RESULTS: Both groups experienced reduced FVC postoperatively (3.24 L to 1.38 L in control group; 2.72 L to 1.18 L in morphine group), with no significant decreases observed between groups. The two groups also exhibited similar results for FEV1 (p=0.085), FEV1/FVC (p=0.68) and PaO2/FiO2 ratio (p=0.08). The morphine group reported less pain intensity (evaluated using a visual numeric scale), especially when coughing (18 hours postoperatively: control group= 4.73 and morphine group= 1.80, p=0.001). Cumulative morphine consumption was reduced after 18 hours in the morphine group (control group= 20.14 and morphine group= 14.20 mg, p=0.037). The plasma morphine concentration was also reduced in the morphine group 24 hours after surgery (control group= 15.87 ng.mL-1 and morphine group= 4.08 ng.mL-1, p=0.029). CONCLUSIONS: Intrathecal morphine administration did not significantly alter pulmonary function; however, it improved patient analgesia and reduced morphine consumption and morphine plasma concentration.

Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Morfina/farmacologia , Analgésicos Opioides/sangue , Análise de Variância , Anestesia Geral , Gasometria , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Injeções Espinhais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/sangue , Medição da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Espirometria , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Capacidade Vital/efeitos dos fármacos
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 88(6): 637-42, 2007 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17664990


BACKGROUND: Betablockers are used in the treatment of angina pectoris and others ischemic coronary diseases, reducing mortality and cardiovascular events. Atenolol is a hydrophilic betablocker which is characterized by gastrointestinal absorption, small extent of distribution and renal function-dependent elimination. OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to determine the inter-individual variability of atenolol in coronary patients. METHODS: Plasma atenolol was quantified in six blood samples collected during the preoperative period from seven patients with coronary insufficiency and surgical indication, chronically treated with atenolol PO 25 to 100 mg/day. All patients presented a normal or slightly reduced renal function. RESULTS: All enrolled patients presented normal or slightly reduced renal function as a result of age and underlying disease. Atenolol plasma concentrations showed a monoexponential decline, confirming the first-order pharmacokinetics at the doses employed for the control of coronary insufficiency (mean +/- SD): 123 +/- 56, 329 +/- 96, 288 +/- 898, 258 +/- 85, 228 +/- 79 and 182 +/- 73 ng/ml at times zero, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12h after dose administration. The investigated group showed a small inter-patient variability of atenolol administrated at multiple regimens due to the hydrophilic characteristic of the drug. Furthermore, accumulation of atenolol administered chronically was greater in coronary patients, compared to healthy subjects. CONCLUSION: In view of its cardio-selectivity and low-variability, atenolol should be used as the first-choice drug for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome and other cardiovascular diseases.

Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/sangue , Atenolol/sangue , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Administração Oral , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacocinética , Idoso , Atenolol/administração & dosagem , Atenolol/farmacocinética , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Revascularização Miocárdica , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo