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1.
Eur Radiol ; 29(9): 4861-4870, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate the correlation between MRI phenotypes of prostate cancer as defined by PI-RADS v2 and the Decipher Genomic Classifier (used to estimate the risk of early metastases). METHODS: This single-center, retrospective study included 72 nonconsecutive men with prostate cancer who underwent MRI before radical prostatectomy performed between April 2014 and August 2017 and whose MRI registered lesions were microdissected from radical prostatectomy specimens and then profiled using Decipher (89 lesions; 23 MRI invisible [PI-RADS v2 scores ≤ 2] and 66 MRI visible [PI-RADS v2 scores ≥ 3]). Linear regression analysis was used to assess clinicopathologic and MRI predictors of Decipher results; correlation coefficients (r) were used to quantify these associations. AUC was used to determine whether PI-RADS v2 could accurately distinguish between low-risk (Decipher score < 0.45) and intermediate-/high-risk (Decipher score ≥ 0.45) lesions. RESULTS: MRI-visible lesions had higher Decipher scores than MRI-invisible lesions (mean difference 0.22; 95% CI 0.13, 0.32; p < 0.0001); most MRI-invisible lesions (82.6%) were low risk. PI-RADS v2 had moderate correlation with Decipher (r = 0.54) and had higher accuracy (AUC 0.863) than prostate cancer grade groups (AUC 0.780) in peripheral zone lesions (95% CI for difference 0.01, 0.15; p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: MRI phenotypes of prostate cancer are positively correlated with Decipher risk groups. Although PI-RADS v2 can accurately distinguish between lesions classified by Decipher as low or intermediate/high risk, some lesions classified as intermediate/high risk by Decipher are invisible on MRI. KEY POINTS: • MRI phenotypes of prostate cancer as defined by PI-RADS v2 positively correlated with a genomic classifier that estimates the risk of early metastases. • Most but not all MRI-invisible lesions had a low risk for early metastases according to the genomic classifier. • MRI could be used in conjunction with genomic assays to identify lesions that may carry biological potential for early metastases.

2.
Eur Urol ; 76(1): 59-68, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bladder-sparing trimodality therapy (TMT) is an alternative to radical cystectomy (RC) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), and biomarkers to inform therapy selection are needed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic value of immune and stromal signatures in MIBC treated with TMT. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We used a clinical-grade platform to perform transcriptome-wide gene expression profiling of primary tumors from 136 MIBC patients treated with TMT at a single institution. We observed 60 overall survival events at 5yr, and median follow-up time for patients without an event was 5.0yr (interquartile range 3.1, 5.0). Expression data from another cohort of 223 MIBC patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and RC were also analyzed. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Molecular subtype, immune, and stromal signatures were evaluated for associations with disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) in TMT patients, and in patients treated with NAC and RC. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Gene expression profiling of TMT cases identified luminal (N=40), luminal-infiltrated (N=26), basal (N=54), and claudin-low (N=16) subtypes. Signatures of T-cell activation and interferon gamma signaling were associated with improved DSS in the TMT cohort (hazard ratio 0.30 [0.14-0.65], p=0.002 for T cells), but not in the NAC and RC cohort. Conversely, a stromal signature was associated with worse DSS in the NAC and RC cohort (p=0.006), but not in the TMT cohort. This study is limited by its retrospective nature. CONCLUSIONS: Higher immune infiltration in MIBC is associated with improved DSS after TMT, whereas higher stromal infiltration is associated with shorter DSS after NAC and RC. Additional studies should be conducted to determine whether gene expression profiling can predict treatment response. PATIENT SUMMARY: We used gene expression profiling to study the association between tumor microenvironment and outcomes following bladder preservation therapy for invasive bladder cancer. We found that outcomes varied with immune and stromal signatures within the tumor. We conclude that gene expression profiling has potential to guide treatment decisions in bladder cancer.

3.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 22(3): 399-405, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542054

RESUMO

ABSTACT: BACKGROUND: Many men diagnosed with prostate cancer are active surveillance (AS) candidates. However, AS may be associated with increased risk of disease progression and metastasis due to delayed therapy. Genomic classifiers, e.g., Decipher, may allow better risk-stratify newly diagnosed prostate cancers for AS. METHODS: Decipher was initially assessed in a prospective cohort of prostatectomies to explore the correlation with clinically meaningful biologic characteristics and then assessed in diagnostic biopsies from a retrospective multicenter cohort of 266 men with National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) very low/low and favorable-intermediate risk prostate cancer. Decipher and Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) were compared as predictors of adverse pathology (AP) for which there is universal agreement that patients with long life-expectancy are not suitable candidates for AS (primary pattern 4 or 5, advanced local stage [pT3b or greater] or lymph node involvement). RESULTS: Decipher from prostatectomies was significantly associated with adverse pathologic features (p-values < 0.001). Decipher from the 266 diagnostic biopsies (64.7% NCCN-very-low/low and 35.3% favorable-intermediate) was an independent predictor of AP (odds ratio 1.29 per 10% increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.61, p-value 0.025) when adjusting for CAPRA. CAPRA area under curve (AUC) was 0.57, (95% CI 0.47-0.68). Adding Decipher to CAPRA increased the AUC to 0.65 (95% CI 0.58-0.70). NPV, which determines the degree of confidence in the absence of AP for patients, was 91% (95% CI 87-94%) and 96% (95% CI 90-99%) for Decipher thresholds of 0.45 and 0.2, respectively. Using a threshold of 0.2, Decipher was a significant predictor of AP when adjusting for CAPRA (p-value 0.016). CONCLUSION: Decipher can be applied to prostate biopsies from NCCN-very-low/low and favorable-intermediate risk patients to predict absence of adverse pathologic features. These patients are predicted to be good candidates for active surveillance.

4.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(6): 581-590, 2018 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29185869

RESUMO

Purpose It is clinically challenging to integrate genomic-classifier results that report a numeric risk of recurrence into treatment recommendations for localized prostate cancer, which are founded in the framework of risk groups. We aimed to develop a novel clinical-genomic risk grouping system that can readily be incorporated into treatment guidelines for localized prostate cancer. Materials and Methods Two multicenter cohorts (n = 991) were used for training and validation of the clinical-genomic risk groups, and two additional cohorts (n = 5,937) were used for reclassification analyses. Competing risks analysis was used to estimate the risk of distant metastasis. Time-dependent c-indices were constructed to compare clinicopathologic risk models with the clinical-genomic risk groups. Results With a median follow-up of 8 years for patients in the training cohort, 10-year distant metastasis rates for National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) low, favorable-intermediate, unfavorable-intermediate, and high-risk were 7.3%, 9.2%, 38.0%, and 39.5%, respectively. In contrast, the three-tier clinical-genomic risk groups had 10-year distant metastasis rates of 3.5%, 29.4%, and 54.6%, for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk, respectively, which were consistent in the validation cohort (0%, 25.9%, and 55.2%, respectively). C-indices for the clinical-genomic risk grouping system (0.84; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.93) were improved over NCCN (0.73; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.86) and Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (0.74; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.84), and 30% of patients using NCCN low/intermediate/high would be reclassified by the new three-tier system and 67% of patients would be reclassified from NCCN six-tier (very-low- to very-high-risk) by the new six-tier system. Conclusion A commercially available genomic classifier in combination with standard clinicopathologic variables can generate a simple-to-use clinical-genomic risk grouping that more accurately identifies patients at low, intermediate, and high risk for metastasis and can be easily incorporated into current guidelines to better risk-stratify patients.

5.
Eur Urol Focus ; 4(4): 540-546, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28753844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The most suspicious lesions on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be representative of final pathology. OBJECTIVE: We connect imaging with high-precision spatial annotation of biopsies and genomic cancer signatures to compare the genomic signals of the index lesion and biopsy cores of adjacent and far away locations. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Eleven patients diagnosed with high-risk prostate cancer on MRI/transrectal ultrasound-fusion biopsy (Bx) and treated with radical prostatectomy (RP). Five tissue specimens were collected from each patient. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Whole transcriptome RNA-expression was profiled for each sample. Genomic signatures were used to compare signals in MRI invisible versus visible foci using Pearson's correlation and to assess intratumoral heterogeneity using hierarchical clustering. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Ten RP and 27 Bx-samples passed quality control. Gene expression between RP and index Bx, but not adjacent benign samples, was highly correlated. Genomic Gleason grade classifier features measured across the different samples showed concordant expression across Bx and RP tumor samples, while an inverse expression pattern was observed between tumor and benign samples indicating the lack of a strong field-effect. The distribution of low and high Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) samples was 10 and 11, respectively. Genomics of all low PI-RADS samples resembled benign tissue and most high PI-RADS samples resembled cancer tissue. A strong association was observed between PI-RADS version 2 and Decipher as well as the genomic Gleason grade classifier score. Clustering analysis showed that most samples cluster tightly by patient. One patient showed unique tumor biology in index versus secondary lesion suggesting the presence of intrapatient heterogeneity and the utility in profiling multiple foci identified by MRI. CONCLUSIONS: MRI-targeted Bx-genomics show excellent correlation with RP-genomics and confirm the information captured by PI-RADS. Sampling of the target lesion must be precise as correlation between index and benign lesions was not seen. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we tested if targeted prostate sampling using magnetic resonance imaging-fusion biopsy allows to genetically describe index tumors of prostate cancer. We found that imaging genomics correlated well with final prostatectomy provided that the target is hit precisely.

6.
Cancer ; 123(15): 2850-2859, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28422278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with prostate cancer and their providers face uncertainty as they consider adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) or salvage radiotherapy (SRT) after undergoing radical prostatectomy. The authors prospectively evaluated the impact of the Decipher test, which predicts metastasis risk after radical prostatectomy, on decision making for ART and SRT. METHODS: A total of 150 patients who were considering ART and 115 who were considering SRT were enrolled. Providers submitted a management recommendation before processing the Decipher test and again at the time of receipt of the test results. Patients completed validated surveys on prostate cancer (PCa)-specific decisional effectiveness and PCa-related anxiety. RESULTS: Before the Decipher test, observation was recommended for 89% of patients considering ART and 58% of patients considering SRT. After Decipher testing, 18% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 12%-25%) of treatment recommendations changed in the ART arm, including 31% among high-risk patients; and 32% (95% CI, 24%-42%) of management recommendations changed in the salvage arm, including 56% among high-risk patients. Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS) scores were better after viewing Decipher test results (ART arm: median DCS before Decipher, 25 and after Decipher, 19 [P<.001]; SRT arm: median DCS before Decipher, 27 and after Decipher, 23 [P<.001]). PCa-specific anxiety changed after Decipher testing; fear of PCa disease recurrence in the ART arm (P = .02) and PCa-specific anxiety in the SRT arm (P = .05) decreased significantly among low-risk patients. Decipher results reported per 5% increase in 5-year metastasis probability were associated with the decision to pursue ART (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.19-1.85) and SRT (odds ratio, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.09-1.81) in multivariable logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of Decipher test results was associated with treatment decision making and improved decisional effectiveness among men with PCa who were considering ART and SRT. Cancer 2017;123:2850-59. © 2017 American Cancer Society.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Radioterapia Adjuvante , Terapia de Salvação , Idoso , Ansiedade/psicologia , Conflito (Psicologia) , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Metástase Neoplásica , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/psicologia , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Clin Oncol ; 35(18): 1991-1998, 2017 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28358655

RESUMO

Purpose To perform the first meta-analysis of the performance of the genomic classifier test, Decipher, in men with prostate cancer postprostatectomy. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Decipher genomic resource information database were searched for published reports between 2011 and 2016 of men treated by prostatectomy that assessed the benefit of the Decipher test. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models fit to individual patient data were performed; meta-analyses were conducted by pooling the study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) using random-effects modeling. Extent of heterogeneity between studies was determined with the I2 test. Results Five studies (975 total patients, and 855 patients with individual patient-level data) were eligible for analysis, with a median follow-up of 8 years. Of the total cohort, 60.9%, 22.6%, and 16.5% of patients were classified by Decipher as low, intermediate, and high risk, respectively. The 10-year cumulative incidence metastases rates were 5.5%, 15.0%, and 26.7% ( P < .001), respectively, for the three risk classifications. Pooling the study-specific Decipher HRs across the five studies resulted in an HR of 1.52 (95% CI, 1.39 to 1.67; I2 = 0%) per 0.1 unit. In multivariable analysis of individual patient data, adjusting for clinicopathologic variables, Decipher remained a statistically significant predictor of metastasis (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.47; P < .001) per 0.1 unit. The C-index for 10-year distant metastasis of the clinical model alone was 0.76; this increased to 0.81 with inclusion of Decipher. Conclusion The genomic classifier test, Decipher, can independently improve prognostication of patients postprostatectomy, as well as within nearly all clinicopathologic, demographic, and treatment subgroups. Future study of how to best incorporate genomic testing in clinical decision-making and subsequent treatment recommendations is warranted.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Nomogramas , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Idoso , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
8.
Eur Urol ; 70(4): 588-596, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26806658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite salvage radiation therapy (SRT) for recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) after radical prostatectomy (RP), some patients still progress to metastases. Identifying these men would allow them to undergo systemic therapy including testing novel therapies to reduce metastases risk. OBJECTIVE: To test whether the genomic classifier (GC) predicts development of metastatic disease. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective multi-center and multi-ethnic cohort study from two academic centers and one Veterans Affairs Medical Center in the United States involving 170 men receiving SRT for recurrent PCa post-RP. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Time from SRT to development of metastatic disease tested using Cox regression, survival c-index, and decision curve analysis. Performance of GC was compared to the Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Score and Briganti risk models based on these metrics. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: With a median 5.7 yr follow-up after SRT, 20 patients (12%) developed metastases. On multivariable analysis, for each 0.1 unit increase in GC (scaled from 0 to 1), the hazard ratio for metastasis was 1.58 (95% confidence interval 1.16-2.17; p=0.002). Adjusting for androgen deprivation therapy did not materially change the results. The c-index for GC was 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.73-0.88) versus 0.63-0.65 for published clinico-pathologic risk models. The 5-yr cumulative incidence of metastasis post-SRT in patients with low, intermediate, and high GC scores was 2.7%, 8.4%, and 33.1%, respectively (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: While validation in larger, prospectively collected cohorts is required, these data suggest GC is a strong predictor of metastases among men receiving SRT for recurrent PCa post-RP, accurately identifying men who are excellent candidates for systemic therapy due to their very high-risk of metastases. PATIENT SUMMARY: Genomic classifier and two clinico-pathologic risk models were evaluated on their ability to predict metastases among men receiving salvage radiation therapy for recurrent prostate cancer. Genomic classifier was able to identify candidates for further therapies due to their very high-risk of metastases.


Assuntos
Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/radioterapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/classificação , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Transcriptoma , Adulto , Idoso , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Terapia de Salvação
9.
J Urol ; 195(6): 1748-53, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26626216

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We determined the value of Decipher®, a genomic classifier, to predict prostate cancer outcomes among patients after prostatectomy in a community health care setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the experience of 224 men treated with radical prostatectomy from 1997 to 2009 at Kaiser Permanente Northwest, a large prepaid health plan in Portland, Oregon. Study subjects had aggressive prostate cancer with at least 1 of several criteria such as preoperative prostate specific antigen 20 ng/ml or greater, pathological Gleason score 8 or greater, stage pT3 disease or positive surgical margins at prostatectomy. The primary end point was clinical recurrence or metastasis after surgery evaluated using a time dependent c-index. Secondary end points were biochemical recurrence and salvage treatment failure. We compared the performance of Decipher alone to the widely used CAPRA-S (Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Post-Surgical) score, and assessed the independent contributions of Decipher, CAPRA-S and their combination for the prediction of recurrence and treatment failure. RESULTS: Of the 224 patients treated 12 experienced clinical recurrence, 68 had biochemical recurrence and 34 experienced salvage treatment failure. At 10 years after prostatectomy the recurrence rate was 2.6% among patients with low Decipher scores but 13.6% among those with high Decipher scores (p=0.02). When CAPRA-S and Decipher scores were considered together, the discrimination accuracy of the ROC curve was increased by 0.11 compared to the CAPRA-S score alone (combined c-index 0.84 at 10 years after radical prostatectomy) for clinical recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Decipher improves our ability to predict clinical recurrence in prostate cancer and adds precision to conventional pathological prognostic measures.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Prostatectomia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Idoso , Centros Comunitários de Saúde , Genômica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Oregon , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Curva ROC , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Terapia de Salvação/efeitos adversos , Falha de Tratamento
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