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1.
J Sports Sci ; 39(22): 2577-2595, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219609

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the current state of evidence and methodological quality of studies on implicit and explicit motor learning in both typically developing children and children with developmental disorders. A systematic literature review was conducted on the experimental literature published up to April 2020. A total of 25 studies were included. Studies were evaluated on methodological quality, paradigm used, and level of evidence. The results showed that implicit paradigms are as effective as explicit paradigms in both groups of children. Studies are predominantly experimental in nature involving mostly upper limb aiming tasks. The few studies that were performed outside the lab (n = 5) suggest superior efficacy of the implicit paradigm. Methodological quality varied between studies and was not always of sufficient standard to allow conclusions. In particular, manipulation checks were only performed in 13 studies (52% of all studies), limiting conclusions. Further progress can be made by focussing on improving methodological quality through retention testing by the inclusion of a control group, by the inclusion of a manipulation check, and via assessment of relevant co-variables, such as working memory, age, and motor competence.

2.
Hum Mov Sci ; 69: 102556, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989949

RESUMO

This study investigated the role of working memory capacity on implicit and explicit motor sequence learning in young children. To this end, a task was utilized that required a gross motor response (flexing the elbow) and that could differentiate between movement speed (i.e., reaction time and movement time) and movement accuracy. Children aged 7-9 years practiced a serial reaction time task that involved the production of a fixed sequence of elbow flexions of prescribed magnitude across two consecutive days. Children in the explicit group were informed about the presence of the sequence and were shown this sequence, while children in the implicit group were not made aware of the sequence. Additionally, children's verbal and visuospatial working memory capacity was assessed. Results of day 1 regarding movement speed revealed no evidence of sequence learning for either group, but movement accuracy results suggested that sequence learning occurred for the implicit group. For both groups, only improvements in movement accuracy were consolidated on day 2, indicating both general and sequence specific learning. Working memory capacity did not correlate with learning in either of the groups. Children in the explicit group accumulated more sequence knowledge compared to children in the implicit group, but this knowledge did not translate to more or better sequence learning. The minimal differences found between the implicit and explicit condition and the absence of a role for working memory capacity add to the increasing evidence that the observed differences between implicit and explicit sequence learning in adults may be less distinct in children.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Movimento , Análise de Variância , Criança , Humanos , Conhecimento , Destreza Motora , Tempo de Reação , Interface Usuário-Computador
3.
Motor Control ; 23(1): 34-51, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012053

RESUMO

Effective learning methods are essential for motor skill development and participation in children with low motor abilities. Current learning methods predominantly aim to increase declarative knowledge through explicit instructions that necessitate sufficient working memory capacity. This study investigated the roles of declarative knowledge and working memory capacity in explicit motor learning of children with low motor abilities. We studied both acquisition performance (i.e., performance during practice) and learning (i.e., the improvement in performance from pretest to posttest). After practice with explicit instructions, children with low motor abilities showed significant learning, albeit that improvement was relatively small. However, working memory capacity and declarative knowledge did not predict learning. By contrast, working memory capacity and declarative knowledge did predict performance during practice. These findings suggest that explicit instructions enhance motor performance during practice, but that motor learning per se is largely implicit in children with low motor abilities.


Assuntos
Conhecimento , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Hum Mov Sci ; 62: 211-220, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419514

RESUMO

Effective motor learning paradigms are essential for children with motor difficulties to enhance their motor skills and facilitate performance in physical activities and in daily life. This study aimed to examine the effect of feedback with an internal or external focus of attention on motor learning of children with probable Developmental Coordination Disorder (pDCD). In addition, the role of working memory capacity was examined. Children were recruited via physical therapists, who integrated the experimental procedures within therapy sessions. We analyzed data of 25 children between 5 and 11 years old. They practiced a novel motor task of throwing a 'slingerball' over three weeks, while receiving feedback with an internal or external focus of attention. Results showed that children improved throwing accuracy regardless of the type of feedback they received. Visuospatial working memory capacity enhanced learning, especially for children receiving feedback with an external focus of attention. These findings corroborate clinical recommendations stating that children with DCD benefit from task specific training and feedback, which is promoted with both foci of attention. However, the findings contrast the expected benefits of practice with an external focus of attention. It highlights that the exact mechanisms and task constraints that influence the learning processes with an internal and external focus among children are not yet understood and warrant further study.


Assuntos
Atenção , Aprendizagem , Memória de Curto Prazo , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras , Destreza Motora , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Feedback Formativo , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Hum Mov Sci ; 60: 183-190, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29945034

RESUMO

The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of an external focus of attention (i.e., on the movement outcome) versus an internal focus of attention (i.e., on the movement itself) on motor learning in typically developing children. We examined both immediate motor performance (i.e., practice effect, when focus instructions are given) as well as motor performance after one week (i.e., learning effect). In addition, we examined if an external and an internal focus of attention differently affected movement automatization, as measured using a dual-task paradigm. Finally, we explored whether the effect of attentional focus instructions on motor learning was influenced by children's working memory capacity. Participants were 8-12 year old (N = 162) typically developing children. Participants practiced a new motor task (i.e., 'Slingerball throwing task'). Results showed that an external focus of attention led to higher throwing accuracy during practice, but this beneficial effect did not extent to the retention test one week later. Furthermore, movement automatization did not differ after external or internal focus of attention instructions, and working memory capacity did not predict motor learning in children in either of the instruction conditions. This is the first study to show that the beneficial effects of an external focus of attention on discrete motor tasks found in previous studies with a child population seem to be short lived and decline after a one-week interval.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Prática Psicológica , Retenção Psicológica
6.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; 89(2): 190-199, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617214

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A large pool of evidence supports the beneficial effect of an external focus of attention on motor skill performance in adults. In children, this effect has been studied less and results are inconclusive. Importantly, individual differences are often not taken into account. We investigated the role of working memory, conscious motor control, and task-specific focus preferences on performance with an internal and external focus of attention in children. METHODS: Twenty-five children practiced a golf putting task in both an internal focus condition and external focus condition. Performance was defined as the average distance toward the hole in 3 blocks of 10 trials. Task-specific focus preference was determined by asking how much effort it took to apply the instruction in each condition. In addition, working memory capacity and conscious motor control were assessed. RESULTS: Children improved performance in both the internal focus condition and external focus condition (ŋp2 = .47), with no difference between conditions (ŋp2 = .01). Task-specific focus preference was the only factor moderately related to the difference between performance with an internal focus and performance with an external focus (r = .56), indicating better performance for the preferred instruction in Block 3. CONCLUSION: Children can benefit from instruction with both an internal and external focus of attention to improve short-term motor performance. Individual, task-specific focus preference influenced the effect of the instructions, with children performing better with their preferred focus. The results highlight that individual differences are a key factor in the effectiveness in children's motor performance. The precise mechanisms underpinning this effect warrant further research.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Individualidade , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Golfe/fisiologia , Golfe/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
7.
Res Dev Disabil ; 45-46: 353-64, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26299638

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of errors during practice on motor skill learning in young individuals with cerebral palsy (CP). Minimizing errors has been validated in typically developing children and children with intellectual disabilities as a method for implicit learning, because it reduces working memory involvement during learning. The present study assessed whether a practice protocol that aims at minimizing errors can induce implicit learning in young individuals with CP as well. Accordingly, we hypothesized that reducing errors during practice would lead to enhanced learning and a decrease in the dependency of performance on working memory. Young individuals with CP practiced an aiming task following either an error-minimizing (N=20) or an error-strewn (N=18) practice protocol. Aiming accuracy was assessed in pre-, post- and retention test. Dual task performance was assessed to establish dependency on working memory. The two practice protocols did not invoke different amounts or types of learning in the participants with CP. Yet, participants improved aiming accuracy and showed stable motor performance after learning, irrespective of the protocol they followed. Across groups the number of errors made during practice was related to the amount of learning, and the degree of conscious monitoring of the movement. Only participants with relatively good working memory capacity and a poor initial performance showed a rudimentary form of (most likely, explicit) learning. These new findings on the effect of the amount of practice errors on motor learning in children of CP are important for designing interventions for children and adolescents with CP.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/reabilitação , Memória de Curto Prazo , Destreza Motora , Prática Psicológica , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
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