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1.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 300: 111078, 2020 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361172

RESUMO

The ability of the brain to reduce the amount of trivial or redundant sensory inputs is called gating function. Dysfunction of sensory gating may lead to cognitive fragmentation and poor real-world functioning. The auditory dual-click paradigm is a pertinent neurophysiological measure of sensory gating function. This meta-analysis aimed to examine the subcomponents of abnormal P50 waveforms in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia to assess P50 sensory gating deficits and examine effects of diagnoses, illness states (first-episode psychosis vs. schizophrenia, remission vs. episodes in bipolar disorder), and treatment status (medication-free vs. medicated). Literature search of PubMed between Jan 1st 1980 and March 31st 2019 identified 2091 records for schizophrenia, 362 for bipolar disorder. 115 studies in schizophrenia (4932 patients), 16 in bipolar disorder (975 patients) and 10 in first-degree relatives (848 subjects) met the inclusion criteria. P50 sensory gating ratio (S2/S1) and S1-S2 difference were significantly altered in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and their first-degree relatives. First-episode psychosis did not differ from schizophrenia, however episodes altered P50 sensory gating in bipolar disorder. Medications improve P50 sensory gating alterations in schizophrenia significantly and at trend level in bipolar disorder. Future studies should examine longitudinal course of P50 sensory gating in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

2.
Psychol Med ; : 1-11, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive alterations are a central and heterogeneous trait in psychotic disorders, driven by environmental, familial and illness-related factors. In this study, we aimed to prospectively investigate the impact of high familial risk for cognitive alterations, unconfounded by illness-related factors, on symptomatic outcomes in patients. METHODS: In total, 629 probands with non-affective psychosis and their sibling not affected by psychosis were assessed at baseline, 3- and 6-year follow-up. Familial cognitive risk was modeled by three cognitive subtypes ('normal', 'mixed' and 'impaired') in the unaffected siblings. Generalized linear mixed models assessed multi-cross-sectional associations between the sibling cognitive subtype and repeated measures of proband symptoms across all assessments. Between-group differences over time were assessed by adding an interaction effect of time and sibling cognitive subtype. RESULTS: Probands affected by psychosis with a sibling of the impaired cognitive subtype were less likely to be in symptomatic remission and showed more disorganization across all time points. When assessing differences over time, probands of siblings with the impaired cognitive subtype showed less remission and less improvement of disorganization after 3 and 6 years relative to the other subtypes. They also showed less reduction of positive, negative and excitement symptoms at 6-year follow-up compared to probands with a sibling of the normal cognitive subtype. CONCLUSIONS: Cross-sibling pathways from higher levels of familial cognitive vulnerability to worse long-term outcomes may be informative in identifying cognition-related environmental and genetic risks that impact psychotic illness heterogeneity over time.

3.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159746

RESUMO

Importance: Detection, prognosis, and indicated interventions in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR-P) are key components of preventive psychiatry. Objective: To provide a comprehensive, evidence-based systematic appraisal of the advancements and limitations of detection, prognosis, and interventions for CHR-P individuals and to formulate updated recommendations. Evidence Review: Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Reviews, and Ovid/PsychINFO were searched for articles published from January 1, 2013, to June 30, 2019, to identify meta-analyses conducted in CHR-P individuals. MEDLINE was used to search the reference lists of retrieved articles. Data obtained from each article included first author, year of publication, topic investigated, type of publication, study design and number, sample size of CHR-P population and comparison group, type of comparison group, age and sex of CHR-P individuals, type of prognostic assessment, interventions, quality assessment (using AMSTAR [Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews]), and key findings with their effect sizes. Findings: In total, 42 meta-analyses published in the past 6 years and encompassing 81 outcomes were included. For the detection component, CHR-P individuals were young (mean [SD] age, 20.6 [3.2] years), were more frequently male (58%), and predominantly presented with attenuated psychotic symptoms lasting for more than 1 year before their presentation at specialized services. CHR-P individuals accumulated several sociodemographic risk factors compared with control participants. Substance use (33% tobacco use and 27% cannabis use), comorbid mental disorders (41% with depressive disorders and 15% with anxiety disorders), suicidal ideation (66%), and self-harm (49%) were also frequently seen in CHR-P individuals. CHR-P individuals showed impairments in work (Cohen d = 0.57) or educational functioning (Cohen d = 0.21), social functioning (Cohen d = 1.25), and quality of life (Cohen d = 1.75). Several neurobiological and neurocognitive alterations were confirmed in this study. For the prognosis component, the prognostic accuracy of CHR-P instruments was good, provided they were used in clinical samples. Overall, risk of psychosis was 22% at 3 years, and the risk was the highest in the brief and limited intermittent psychotic symptoms subgroup (38%). Baseline severity of attenuated psychotic (Cohen d = 0.35) and negative symptoms (Cohen d = 0.39) as well as low functioning (Cohen d = 0.29) were associated with an increased risk of psychosis. Controlling risk enrichment and implementing sequential risk assessments can optimize prognostic accuracy. For the intervention component, no robust evidence yet exists to favor any indicated intervention over another (including needs-based interventions and control conditions) for preventing psychosis or ameliorating any other outcome in CHR-P individuals. However, because the uncertainty of this evidence is high, needs-based and psychological interventions should still be offered. Conclusions and Relevance: This review confirmed recent substantial advancements in the detection and prognosis of CHR-P individuals while suggesting that effective indicated interventions need to be identified. This evidence suggests a need for specialized services to detect CHR-P individuals in primary and secondary care settings, to formulate a prognosis with validated psychometric instruments, and to offer needs-based and psychological interventions.

4.
Behav Res Ther ; 128: 103592, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146218

RESUMO

In this study, the feasibility and efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in Daily Life (ACT-DL), ACT augmented with a daily life application, was investigated in 55 emerging adults (age 16 to 25) with subthreshold depressive and/or psychotic complaints. Participants were randomized to ACT-DL (n = 27) or to active control (n = 28), with assessments completed at pre- and post-measurement and 6- and 12-months follow-up. It took up to five (ACT-DL) and 11 (control) months to start group-based interventions. Participants attended on average 4.32 out of 5 ACT-DL sessions. On the app, they filled in on average 69 (48%) of signal-contingent beep-questionnaires, agreed to 15 (41%) of offered beep-exercises, initiated 19 on-demand exercises, and rated ACT-DL metaphors moderately useful. Relative to active control, interviewer-rated depression scores decreased significantly in ACT-DL participants (p = .027). Decreases in self-reported depression, psychotic-related distress, anxiety, and general psychopathology did not differ between conditions. ACT-DL participants reported increased mean NA (p = .011), relative to active controls. Mean PA did not change in either group, nor did psychological flexibility. ACT-DL is a feasible intervention, although adaptations in future research may improve delivery of and compliance with the intervention. There were mixed findings for its efficacy in reducing subthreshold psychopathology in emerging adults. Dutch Trial Register no.: NTR3808.

5.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015465

RESUMO

Schizophrenia occurs in about one in four individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). The aim of this International Brain and Behavior 22q11.2DS Consortium (IBBC) study was to identify genetic factors that contribute to schizophrenia, in addition to the ~20-fold increased risk conveyed by the 22q11.2 deletion. Using whole-genome sequencing data from 519 unrelated individuals with 22q11.2DS, we conducted genome-wide comparisons of common and rare variants between those with schizophrenia and those with no psychotic disorder at age ≥25 years. Available microarray data enabled direct comparison of polygenic risk for schizophrenia between 22q11.2DS and independent population samples with no 22q11.2 deletion, with and without schizophrenia (total n = 35,182). Polygenic risk for schizophrenia within 22q11.2DS was significantly greater for those with schizophrenia (padj = 6.73 × 10-6). Novel reciprocal case-control comparisons between the 22q11.2DS and population-based cohorts showed that polygenic risk score was significantly greater in individuals with psychotic illness, regardless of the presence of the 22q11.2 deletion. Within the 22q11.2DS cohort, results of gene-set analyses showed some support for rare variants affecting synaptic genes. No common or rare variants within the 22q11.2 deletion region were significantly associated with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that in addition to the deletion conferring a greatly increased risk to schizophrenia, the risk is higher when the 22q11.2 deletion and common polygenic risk factors that contribute to schizophrenia in the general population are both present.

6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 53, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066691

RESUMO

22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) is associated with high risk of psychiatric disorders and cognitive impairment. It remains unclear to what extent key cognitive skills are associated with psychopathology, and whether cognition is stable over time in 22q11.2DS. 236 children, adolescents and adults with 22q11.2DS and 106 typically developing controls were recruited from three sites across Europe. Measures of IQ, processing speed, sustained attention, spatial working memory and psychiatric assessments were completed. Cognitive performance in individuals was calculated relative to controls in different age groups (children (6-9 years), adolescents (10-17 years), adults (18+ years)). Individuals with 22q11.2DS exhibited cognitive impairment and higher rates of psychiatric disorders compared to typically developing controls. Presence of Autism Spectrum Disorder symptoms was associated with greater deficits in processing speed, sustained attention and working memory in adolescents but not children. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents and psychotic disorder in adulthood was associated with sustained attention impairment. Processing speed and working memory were more impaired in children and adults with 22q11.2DS respectively, whereas the deficit in sustained attention was present from childhood and remained static over developmental stages. Psychopathology was associated with cognitive profile of individuals with 22q11.2DS in an age-specific and domain-specific manner. Furthermore, magnitude of cognitive impairment differed by developmental stage in 22q11.2DS and the pattern differed by domain.

7.
Trials ; 21(1): 147, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic medication is effective for symptomatic treatment in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. After symptom remission, continuation of antipsychotic treatment is associated with lower relapse rates and lower symptom severity compared to dose reduction/discontinuation. Therefore, most guidelines recommend continuation of treatment with antipsychotic medication for at least 1 year. Recently, however, these guidelines have been questioned as one study has shown that more patients achieved long-term functional remission in an early discontinuation condition-a finding that was not replicated in another recently published long-term study. METHODS/DESIGN: The HAMLETT (Handling Antipsychotic Medication Long-term Evaluation of Targeted Treatment) study is a multicenter pragmatic single-blind randomized controlled trial in two parallel conditions (1:1) investigating the effects of continuation versus dose-reduction/discontinuation of antipsychotic medication after remission of a first episode of psychosis (FEP) on personal and social functioning, psychotic symptom severity, and health-related quality of life. In total 512 participants will be included, aged between 16 and 60 years, in symptomatic remission from a FEP for 3-6 months, and for whom psychosis was not associated with severe or life-threatening self-harm or violence. Recruitment will take place at 24 Dutch sites. Patients are randomized (1:1) to: continuation of antipsychotic medication until at least 1 year after remission (original dose allowing a maximum reduction of 25%, or another antipsychotic drug in similar dose range); or gradual dose reduction till eventual discontinuation of antipsychotics according to a tapering schedule. If signs of relapse occur in this arm, medication dose can be increased again. Measurements are conducted at baseline, at 3, and 6 months post-baseline, and yearly during a follow-up period of 4 years. DISCUSSION: The HAMLETT study will offer evidence to guide patients and clinicians regarding questions concerning optimal treatment duration and when to taper off medication after remission of a FEP. Moreover, it may provide patient characteristics associated with safe dose reduction with a minimal risk of relapse. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 1.3, October 2018. The study is active and currently recruiting patients (since September 2017), with the first 200 participants by the end of 2019. We anticipate completing recruitment in 2022 and final assessments (including follow-up 3.5 years after phase one) in 2026. TRIAL REGISTRATION: European Clinical Trials Database, EudraCT number 2017-002406-12. Registered 7 June 2017.

8.
Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp201919060583, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is among the strongest known genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. Previous studies have reported variable alterations in subcortical brain structures in 22q11DS. To better characterize subcortical alterations in 22q11DS, including modulating effects of clinical and genetic heterogeneity, the authors studied a large multicenter neuroimaging cohort from the ENIGMA 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Working Group. METHODS: Subcortical structures were measured using harmonized protocols for gross volume and subcortical shape morphometry in 533 individuals with 22q11DS and 330 matched healthy control subjects (age range, 6-56 years; 49% female). RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the 22q11DS group showed lower intracranial volume (ICV) and thalamus, putamen, hippocampus, and amygdala volumes and greater lateral ventricle, caudate, and accumbens volumes (Cohen's d values, -0.90 to 0.93). Shape analysis revealed complex differences in the 22q11DS group across all structures. The larger A-D deletion was associated with more extensive shape alterations compared with the smaller A-B deletion. Participants with 22q11DS with psychosis showed lower ICV and hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus volumes (Cohen's d values, -0.91 to 0.53) compared with participants with 22q11DS without psychosis. Shape analysis revealed lower thickness and surface area across subregions of these structures. Compared with subcortical findings from other neuropsychiatric disorders studied by the ENIGMA consortium, significant convergence was observed between participants with 22q11DS with psychosis and participants with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest neuroimaging study of 22q11DS to date, the authors found widespread alterations to subcortical brain structures, which were affected by deletion size and psychotic illness. Findings indicate significant overlap between 22q11DS-associated psychosis, idiopathic schizophrenia, and other severe neuropsychiatric illnesses.

9.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 31: 33-46, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901337

RESUMO

Promotion of good mental health in young people with and without mental disorders has received little empirical research attention and interventions for improving mental health in young people are not well established. This situation could be explained among other reasons due to the difficulties to define and operationalise what good mental health is. The current manuscript, produced by the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology Thematic Working Group on the Prevention of Mental Disorders and Mental Health Promotion (ECNP TWG PMD-MHP), presents a critical review of the available operationalizations for good mental health. A pragmatic conceptual operationalisation of good mental health is a much-needed step towards more standardised research in this field. Good mental health can be defined as a state of well-being that allows individuals to cope with the normal stresses of life and function productively. Universal and selective interventions are suitable to promote mental health. Core domains that define good mental health encompass: (i) mental health literacy, (ii) attitude towards mental disorders, (iii) self-perceptions and values, (iv) cognitive skills, (v) academic/ occupational performance, (vi) emotions, (vii) behaviours, (viii) self-management strategies, (ix) social skills, (x) family and significant relationships (xi) physical health, (xii) sexual health, (xiii) meaning of life, (xiv) and quality of life. These domains should be widely traceable in the literature and can be used to conduct further empirical research in the field of good mental health. Such data can lead to more robust evidence to identify and establish the pathways to follow in order to improve mental health.

10.
Schizophr Bull ; 46(2): 432-441, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424555

RESUMO

In the last 2 decades, several neuroimaging studies investigated brain abnormalities associated with the early stages of psychosis in the hope that these could aid the prediction of onset and clinical outcome. Despite advancements in the field, neuroimaging has yet to deliver. This is in part explained by the use of univariate analytical techniques, small samples and lack of statistical power, lack of external validation of potential biomarkers, and lack of integration of nonimaging measures (eg, genetic, clinical, cognitive data). PSYSCAN is an international, longitudinal, multicenter study on the early stages of psychosis which uses machine learning techniques to analyze imaging, clinical, cognitive, and biological data with the aim of facilitating the prediction of psychosis onset and outcome. In this article, we provide an overview of the PSYSCAN protocol and we discuss benefits and methodological challenges of large multicenter studies that employ neuroimaging measures.

11.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 45(3): 534-541, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352467

RESUMO

Extinction learning is assumed to represent a core mechanism underlying exposure therapy. Empirical evaluations of this assumption, however, are largely lacking. The current study investigated whether neural activations and self-report outcomes during extinction learning and extinction recall could specifically predict exposure therapy response in specific phobia. In this double-blind randomized controlled trial, individuals with spider phobia (N = 45; female/male = 41/4) were on group basis randomly allocated to exposure therapy (n = 25; female/male = 24/1) or progressive muscle relaxation (PMR; n = 20; female/male = 17/3). Intervention effects were measured with the Fears of Spiders questionnaire. Participants also underwent a three-day fear conditioning, extinction learning, and extinction recall paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging at baseline. Extinction outcomes were self-reported fear and threat expectancy, and neural responses during conditioned stimulus processing and during extinction-related prediction errors (US omissions) in regions of interest (ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and nucleus accumbens). Results showed that exposure therapy resulted in stronger symptom reductions than PMR (Cohen's d = 0.90). Exposure therapy response was specifically predicted by prediction-error related vmPFC activation during early extinction. There were also indications vmPFC activations during conditioned safety stimulus processing at early extinction predicted therapy outcome. Neural activations during extinction recall and self-report data did however not predict therapy outcome. These findings indicate that exposure therapy may rely on neural extinction learning processes. Prediction errors are thought to drive the extinction learning process, and prediction error-related vmPFC activation specifically predicted therapy outcome. The extent to which vmPFC processes safety signals may additionally be predictive of exposure therapy response, but the specificity is less clear.

12.
Early Interv Psychiatry ; 14(2): 228-234, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680477

RESUMO

AIM: Young people around the age of 18 receiving mental health care usually face the transition from child and adolescent (CAMHS) to adult mental health services (AMHS) bringing the risk of disruption in continuity of care. Recognizing the importance of early intervention in this vulnerable life-period, this study aims to emphasize the importance of a client-centred approach and continuity of care for this age group. For a deeper understanding of the specific needs of this group, the working method of a Dutch youth mental health (YMH) team working in a secondary mental health care setting is described, including some clinical characteristics and treatment results of patients who accessed this service. METHODS: Data consist of a detailed description of the working method of the YMH team combined with clinical characteristics of all patients aged 15-25 years accessing the services of the YMH team over a two-year period. RESULTS: The YMH team incorporated suggestions of earlier research into a client centred treatment. Key elements were multidisciplinary meetings, transcending diagnosis, flexibility and collaboration with other care providers. Clinical records showed a complex patient population and significant treatment effect. CONCLUSIONS: The group of emerging adults accessing the YMH team can be described as a patient group with a high diversity and complexity of disorders and problems. Continuity of care was met when patients turned 18, allowing treatments to be successfully performed by the same team of professionals using a client-centred approach.

13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(1): 26-40, 2020 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870554

RESUMO

The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) results from non-allelic homologous recombination between low-copy repeats termed LCR22. About 60%-70% of individuals with the typical 3 megabase (Mb) deletion from LCR22A-D have congenital heart disease, mostly of the conotruncal type (CTD), whereas others have normal cardiac anatomy. In this study, we tested whether variants in the hemizygous LCR22A-D region are associated with risk for CTDs on the basis of the sequence of the 22q11.2 region from 1,053 22q11.2DS individuals. We found a significant association (FDR p < 0.05) of the CTD subset with 62 common variants in a single linkage disequilibrium (LD) block in a 350 kb interval harboring CRKL. A total of 45 of the 62 variants were associated with increased risk for CTDs (odds ratio [OR) ranges: 1.64-4.75). Associations of four variants were replicated in a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies of CTDs in affected individuals without 22q11.2DS. One of the replicated variants, rs178252, is located in an open chromatin region and resides in the double-elite enhancer, GH22J020947, that is predicted to regulate CRKL (CRK-like proto-oncogene, cytoplasmic adaptor) expression. Approximately 23% of patients with nested LCR22C-D deletions have CTDs, and inactivation of Crkl in mice causes CTDs, thus implicating this gene as a modifier. Rs178252 and rs6004160 are expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) of CRKL. Furthermore, set-based tests identified an enhancer that is predicted to target CRKL and is significantly associated with CTD risk (GH22J020946, sequence kernal association test (SKAT) p = 7.21 × 10-5) in the 22q11.2DS cohort. These findings suggest that variance in CTD penetrance in the 22q11.2DS population can be explained in part by variants affecting CRKL expression.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 22/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Cardiopatias Congênitas/patologia , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Fenótipo , Duplicações Segmentares Genômicas
14.
Trials ; 20(1): 769, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychotic experiences, social functioning and general psychopathology are important targets for early intervention in individuals with Ultra-High-Risk state (UHR) and a first-episode psychosis (FEP). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a promising, next-generation Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) that aims to modify these targets, but evidence on sustainable change and its underlying mechanisms in individuals' daily lives remains limited. The aim of the INTERACT study is to investigate the efficacy of a novel ecological momentary intervention, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in Daily Life (ACT-DL) in a multi-centre randomised controlled trial of individuals with UHR or FEP. METHODS/DESIGN: In a multi-centre randomised controlled trial, individuals aged 16-65 years with UHR or FEP will be randomly allocated to ACT-DL in addition to treatment as usual (TAU) as the experimental condition or a control condition of TAU only, which will include - for the entire study period - access to routine mental health care and, where applicable, CBT for psychosis (CBTp). Outcomes will be assessed at baseline (i.e. before randomisation), post-intervention (i.e. after the 8-week intervention period), and 6-month and 12-month follow-ups (i.e. 6 and 12 months after completing the intervention period) by blinded assessors. The primary outcome will be distress associated with psychotic experiences, while secondary outcomes will include (momentary) psychotic experiences, social functioning and psychopathology. Process measures to assess putative mechanisms of change will include psychological flexibility, stress sensitivity and reward experiences. In addition, acceptability, treatment adherence and treatment fidelity of ACT-DL will be assessed. DISCUSSION: The current study is the first to test the efficacy of ACT-DL in individuals with UHR and FEP. If this trial demonstrates the efficacy of ACT-DL, it has the potential to significantly advance the treatment of people with UHR and FEP and, more generally, provides initial support for implementing mHealth interventions in mental health services. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register, ID: NTR4252. Registered on 26 September 2013.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of psychopathology emerges in late adolescence and continues into adulthood. Continuity of care must be guaranteed in this life phase. The current service configuration, with a distinction between child/adolescent and adult mental health services (CAMHS and AMHS), impedes continuity of care. AIM: To map professionals' experiences with and attitudes towards young people's transition from CAMHS to AMHS and the problems they encounter. METHODS: An online questionnaire distributed among professionals providing mental health care to young people (15-25 years old) with psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Five hundred and eighteen professionals completed the questionnaire. Decision-making regarding transition is generally based on the professional's own deliberations. The preparation was limited to discussing changes with the adolescent and parents. Most transition-related problems are experienced in CAMHS, primarily with regard to collaboration with AMHS. Respondents report that the developmental age should be leading in the transition-decision making process and that developmentally appropriate services are important in bridging the gap. CONCLUSION: Professionals in CAMHS and AMHS experience problems in the preparation of, and the collaboration during transition. The problems are related to coordination, communication and rules and regulations. Professionals attach importance to improvement through an increase in flexibility and more specialist services for youth.

16.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 29(12): 1374-1385, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685359

RESUMO

Previous research in patients with psychotic disorder has shown widespread abnormalities in brain activation during reward anticipation. Research at the level of subclinical psychotic experiences in individuals unexposed to antipsychotic medication is limited with inconclusive results. Therefore, brain activation during reward anticipation was examined in a larger sample of individuals with subclinical psychotic experiences (PE). Participants in the PE-group were included based on CAPE scores. A sample of emerging adults aged 16-26 years (n = 47) with PE and healthy controls (HC) (n = 40) underwent fMRI scanning. The Monetary Incentive Delay task was conducted with cues related to win, loss or neutral conditions. fMRI nonparametric tests were used to examine the reward versus neutral cue contrast. A significant main effect of the large win (€3.00) > neutral contrast was found in both groups showing activation in many brain areas, including classic reward regions. Whole brain analysis on the group comparison regarding the large win > neutral contrast showed significantly decreased activation in the right insula, putamen and supramarginal gyrus in the PE-group compared to controls. There was no group difference in the hypothesized reward-related region. Decreased activation in the right insula, putamen and supramarginal gyrus during reward anticipation in individuals with PE may be consistent with altered processing of sensory information, related to decreased emotional valuing and motivational tendencies and/or altered motor-cognitive processes. The absence of group differences in striatal activation suggests that activation here is intact in the earliest stages of psychosis and may exhibit progressive deterioration in as the disease develops.

17.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31737978

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder associated with both structural and functional brain abnormalities. In the past few years, there has been growing interest in the application of machine learning techniques to neuroimaging data for the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of this disorder. However, the vast majority of studies published so far have used either structural or functional neuroimaging data, without accounting for the multimodal nature of the disorder. Structural MRI and resting-state functional MRI data were acquired from a total of 295 patients with schizophrenia and 452 healthy controls at five research centers. We extracted features from the data including gray matter volume, white matter volume, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation, regional homogeneity and two connectome-wide based metrics: structural covariance matrices and functional connectivity matrices. A support vector machine classifier was trained on each dataset separately to distinguish the subjects at individual level using each of the single feature as well as their combination, and 10-fold cross-validation was used to assess the performance of the model. Functional data allow higher accuracy of classification than structural data (mean 82.75% vs. 75.84%). Within each modality, the combination of images and matrices improves performance, resulting in mean accuracies of 81.63% for structural data and 87.59% for functional data. The use of all combined structural and functional measures allows the highest accuracy of classification (90.83%). We conclude that combining multimodal measures within a single model is a promising direction for developing biologically informed diagnostic tools in schizophrenia.

18.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 606, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31572227

RESUMO

Background: The main objective of this project is to create a research and intervention model to promote large-scale implementation and evaluations of generic very brief interventions for children of parents with mental disorders (COPMI). Feasible interventions for COPMI aged 0-18 years are highly needed, as this is a large high-risk group in society. Reducing behavioral problems and enhancing wellbeing for families with parents affected by any mental disorder are important preventive initiatives. One key prevention strategy is to reduce the risk and expression of psychopathology in children and to promote wellbeing. The present model protocol offers an intervention for children of parents with mental disorders internationally based on a model already implemented in the Netherlands and Norway. Methods: Participants will be parents receiving treatment in mental health services in participating countries and their minor children aged 6-18 years. Participants should be randomized into an intervention group or control group. Data should be retrieved from electronic patient journals (demographics, DSM 5/ICD-10, SCID, MINI) as well as from assessment measures administered at baseline and follow-up, including the KIDSCREEN-27, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), Parents' Evaluations of Developmental Status (PEDS), Parenting Sense of Competence (PSOC), Resilience Scale for Adolescence (READ), Guilt and Shame Questionnaire for Adolescents of Parents with Mental Illness (GSQ-APMI), Mental Health Literacy Scale, and Parent-Child Communication Scale. Results: The hypothesis is that there will be improvements of child behavioral and emotional problems, and outcomes in the project will be reported in terms of parent´s diagnosis, child behavioral and emotional problems, child wellbeing, family communication and functioning, as well as participants' satisfaction. Discussion: This multi-site international protocol will focus the attention of European scientific and policy makers toward COPMI. This young segment of the population is presently almost completely neglected in most European health policies, despite having a large burden of disability and being at risk of transgenerational transmission of psychopathology. We will further discuss the feasibility of a very brief intervention aiming at preventing mental disorders in young people.

19.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 29(12): 1301-1311, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606303

RESUMO

Prevention is the most promising way to reduce the high personal, familial, societal, clinical and economic costs of mental disorders in Europe and worldwide. A complementary approach is to go beyond the prevention of mental ill health, to promote good mental health. This manuscript highlights the first European consortium fostering cutting-edge multidisciplinary research in these two areas. The ECNP-funded Network on the Prevention of Mental Disorders and Mental Health Promotion (ECNP PMD-MHP) brings together European sites of excellence with different expertise for translational research collaboration, including partnerships with the industry. The ECNP PMD-MHP Network adopts a transdiagnostic, lifespan, clinical staging model which cuts across different mental disorders and different methodologies. The main aims of the ECNP PMD-MHP Network are to facilitate multidisciplinary collaboration, enhance knowledge and data sharing, standardise core assessment and outcome measures, promote clinical research, apply for grant funding, and generate research reports. By supporting collaborative research, the ECNP PMD-MHP Network will be vital for fostering European psychiatry in the field of prevention of mental disorders and promotion of good mental health.

20.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies using resting-state functional neuroimaging have revealed alterations in whole-brain images, connectome-wide functional connectivity and graph-based metrics in groups of patients with schizophrenia relative to groups of healthy controls. However, it is unclear which of these measures best captures the neural correlates of this disorder at the level of the individual patient. METHODS: Here we investigated the relative diagnostic value of these measures. A total of 295 patients with schizophrenia and 452 healthy controls were investigated using resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging at five research centres. Connectome-wide functional networks were constructed by thresholding correlation matrices of 90 brain regions, and their topological properties were analyzed using graph theory-based methods. Single-subject classification was performed using three machine learning (ML) approaches associated with varying degrees of complexity and abstraction, namely logistic regression, support vector machine and deep learning technology. RESULTS: Connectome-wide functional connectivity allowed single-subject classification of patients and controls with higher accuracy (average: 81%) than both whole-brain images (average: 53%) and graph-based metrics (average: 69%). Classification based on connectome-wide functional connectivity was driven by a distributed bilateral network including the thalamus and temporal regions. CONCLUSION: These results were replicated across the three employed ML approaches. Connectome-wide functional connectivity permits differentiation of patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls at single-subject level with greater accuracy; this pattern of results is consistent with the 'dysconnectivity hypothesis' of schizophrenia, which states that the neural basis of the disorder is best understood in terms of system-level functional connectivity alterations.

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