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1.
Hypertension ; 76(6): 1971-1979, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131310

RESUMO

Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. To identify targets for the prevention of hypertension and its associated disease burden, we used the 2-sample Mendelian randomization method to investigate the causal associations of 18 cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle behaviors with hypertension. From European-descent genome-wide association studies, we selected genetic variants (P<5×10-8) for type 2 diabetes, fasting glucose, lipids, body mass index, smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, physical activity, sleep duration, insomnia, and educational level. We extracted the genetic associations with hypertension from 2 European cohorts: the FinnGen Study (15 870 cases and 74 345 controls) and UK Biobank (54 358 cases and 408 652 controls). The inverse-variance weighted method was used as main analysis method. Genetically predicted triglycerides (pooled odds ratio [OR] per 1 SD, 1.17 [1.10-1.25]), body mass index (OR per 1 SD, 1.42 [1.37-1.48]), alcohol dependence (OR, 1.10 [1.06-1.13]), and insomnia (OR, 1.17 [1.13-1.20]) were associated with a higher odds of hypertension. Higher genetically predicted high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR per 1 SD, 0.88 [0.83-0.94]) and educational level (OR per 1 SD, 0.56 [0.54-0.59]) were associated with a lower odds of hypertension. Suggestive evidence was obtained for type 2 diabetes, smoking initiation and alcohol consumption with a higher hypertension odds, and longer sleep duration with a lower hypertension odds. This Mendelian randomization study identified high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, body mass index, alcohol dependence, insomnia, and educational level as causal risk factors for hypertension. This implicates that these modifiable risk factors are important targets in the prevention of hypertension.

2.
J Nutr ; 150(12): 3171-3179, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A low vitamin D and K status has been associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk but the evidence of their combined effect on cardiovascular health is limited. OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to investigate the prospective association of vitamin D and K status with subclinical measures of cardiovascular health and all-cause mortality among a population of Dutch Caucasians. METHODS: We performed an observational prospective study on 601 participants of the Hoorn Study (mean ± SD age: 70 ± 6 y, 50.4% women, BMI: 27.2 ± 4.0 kg/m2), of whom 321 underwent an echocardiogram in 2000-2001 and 2007-2009. Vitamin D and K status was assessed at baseline by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix-gla protein (dp-ucMGP)-high concentrations indicate low vitamin K status. Vital status was assessed from baseline until 2018. We studied the association of categories of 25(OH)D (stratified by the clinical cutoff of 50 mmol/L) and dp-ucMGP (stratified by the median value of 568 pmol/L) with echocardiographic measures using linear regression and with all-cause mortality using Cox regression, adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Compared with markers of normal vitamin D and K status, markers of low vitamin D and K status were prospectively associated with increased left ventricular mass index (5.9 g/m2.7; 95% CI: 1.8, 10.0 g/m2.7). Participants with low vitamin D and K status were also at increased risk of all-cause mortality with an HR of 1.64 (95% CI: 1.12, 2.39) compared with normal vitamin D and K status. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of low vitamin D and K status is associated with adverse cardiac remodeling and increased risk of all-cause mortality in men and women. Future studies should investigate whether vitamin D and K supplementation could help to improve cardiovascular health and to decrease CVD risk.

3.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 290, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An overview of the diagnostic performance of natriuretic peptides (NPs) for the detection of diastolic dysfunction (DD) and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), in a non-acute setting, is currently lacking. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed and Embase.com (May 13, 2019). Studies were included when they (1) reported diagnostic performance measures, (2) are for the detection of DD or HFpEF in a non-acute setting, (3) are compared with a control group without DD or HFpEF or with patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, (4) are in a cross-sectional design. Two investigators independently assessed risk of bias of the included studies according to the QUADAS-2 checklist. Results were meta-analysed when three or more studies reported a similar diagnostic measure. RESULTS: From 11,728 titles/abstracts, we included 51 studies. The meta-analysis indicated a reasonable diagnostic performance for both NPs for the detection of DD and HFpEF based on AUC values of approximately 0.80 (0.73-0.87; I2 = 86%). For both NPs, sensitivity was lower than specificity for the detection of DD and HFpEF: approximately 65% (51-85%; I2 = 95%) versus 80% (70-90%; I2 = 97%), respectively. Both NPs have adequate ability to rule out DD: negative predictive value of approximately 85% (78-93%; I2 = 95%). The ability of both NPs to prove DD is lower: positive predictive value of approximately 60% (30-90%; I2 = 99%). CONCLUSION: The diagnostic performance of NPs for the detection of DD and HFpEF is reasonable. However, they may be used to rule out DD or HFpEF, and not for the diagnosis of DD or HFpEF.

4.
Atherosclerosis ; 313: 35-42, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcohol consumption is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. The highest levels of alcohol consumption are observed in Europe, where alcohol as contributing cause of coronary heart disease (CHD) is also most significant. We aimed to describe alcohol consumption patterns across European regions and adherence to the current guidelines in patients with a recent CHD event. METHODS: The ESC-EORP survey (EUROASPIRE V) has been conducted in 2016-2017 at 131 centers in 27 European countries in 7350 patients with a recent CHD. Median alcohol consumption, as well as the proportion of abstainers and excessive drinkers (i.e. >70 g/week for women and >140 for men, as recommended by the European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention), was calculated for each region. To assess adherence to guidelines, proportions of participants who were advised to reduce excessive alcohol consumption and participants who were incorrectly not advised were calculated per region. RESULTS: Mean age was 64 years (SD: 9.5), 75% were male. Abstention rates were 53% in males and 77% in females, whereas excessive drinking was reported by 9% and 5% of them, respectively. Overall, 57% of the participants were advised to reduce alcohol consumption. In the total population, 3% were incorrectly not advised, however, this percentage differed per region (range: 1%-9%). In regions where alcohol consumption was highest, participants were less often advised to reduce their consumption. CONCLUSION: In this EUROASPIRE V survey, the majority of CHD patients adhere to the current drinking guidelines, but substantial heterogeneity exists between European regions.

5.
Eur J Nutr ; 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808059

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the association of both plasma vitamin D and K concentrations with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and cardiovascular events in the general population. METHODS: We studied 4742 participants of the Prevention of REnal and Vascular ENd-Stage Disease (PREVEND) Study. At baseline, vitamin D and K status was determined by measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and dephosphorylated uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-ucMGP), respectively. Patients were categorized into: 25(OH)D < 50 or ≥ 50 nmol/L and dp-ucMGP < 361 or ≥ 361 pmol/L with 25(OH)D > 75 nmol/L and dp-ucMGP < 361 pmol/L as reference. Cause of death was coded according to International Classification of Diseases 9&10 codes from the 2001-2003 examination until date of death/event or censoring date (January 1st, 2017). RESULTS: Mean age was 52.6 ± 11.9 years and 2513 (53%) were female. During a median of 14.2 year follow-up, 620 participants died of which 142 were due to cardiovascular causes. Combined low vitamin D and K status was present in 970 participants (20%) and was associated with a greater risk of all-cause mortality compared to high vitamin D and high vitamin K status group (n = 1424) after adjusting for potential confounders: hazard ratio 1.46 (95% confidence intervals 1.12-1.90). We observed similar trends, albeit non-significant for cardiovascular mortality, and cardiovascular events: 1.42 (0.79-2.55), 1.28 (0.93-1.77), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Combined low vitamin D and K status are associated with increased all-cause mortality risk and possibly with cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular events compared with adequate vitamin D and K status. Future studies should investigate the effect of combined vitamin D and K supplementation on clinical outcomes.

6.
Am Heart J ; 227: 64-73, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors may be important targets in the prevention of heart failure. The current knowledge on the relationship between lifestyle factors and heart failure originates mostly from observational studies. The objective of this study was to investigate causal associations of multiple lifestyle factors with heart failure risk by using Mendelian randomization. METHODS: We obtained summary statistics data for single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the following 5 lifestyle factors at genome-wide significance in genome-wide association studies of European-descent individuals: smoking, alcohol consumption, coffee consumption, physical activity, and sleep duration. The corresponding data for heart failure were acquired from a genome-wide association study comprising 47,309 cases and 930,014 controls of European ancestry. For the primary analyses, we used the inverse-variance weighted method. RESULTS: Genetic predisposition to smoking initiation (ever smoked regularly) was robustly associated with a higher odds of heart failure (odds ratio: 1.28; 99% CI: 1.21-1.35). Genetically predicted longer sleep duration was associated with a lower odds of heart failure (odds ratio per hour/day: 0.73; 99% CI: 0.60-0.89). We found no associations of alcohol consumption, coffee consumption, and physical activity with heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: This Mendelian randomization study showed that smoking initiation increases heart failure risk, whereas longer sleep duration decreases the risk of heart failure. Sleep duration should be regarded as novel risk factor in heart failure prevention guidelines. The potential causal role of alcohol and coffee consumption and physical activity for heart failure warrants further investigation in future larger Mendelian randomization analyses.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
7.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(9): 1586-1597, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592317

RESUMO

AIM: Diagnosing heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in the non-acute setting remains challenging. Natriuretic peptides have limited value for this purpose, and a multitude of studies investigating novel diagnostic circulating biomarkers have not resulted in their implementation. This review aims to provide an overview of studies investigating novel circulating biomarkers for the diagnosis of HFpEF and determine their risk of bias (ROB). METHODS AND RESULTS: A systematic literature search for studies investigating novel diagnostic HFpEF circulating biomarkers in humans was performed up until 21 April 2020. Those without diagnostic performance measures reported, or performed in an acute heart failure population were excluded, leading to a total of 28 studies. For each study, four reviewers determined the ROB within the QUADAS-2 domains: patient selection, index test, reference standard, and flow and timing. At least one domain with a high ROB was present in all studies. Use of case-control/two-gated designs, exclusion of difficult-to-diagnose patients, absence of a pre-specified cut-off value for the index test without the performance of external validation, the use of inappropriate reference standards and unclear timing of the index test and/or reference standard were the main bias determinants. Due to the high ROB and different patient populations, no meta-analysis was performed. CONCLUSION: The majority of current diagnostic HFpEF biomarker studies have a high ROB, reducing the reproducibility and the potential for clinical care. Methodological well-designed studies with a uniform reference diagnosis are urgently needed to determine the incremental value of circulating biomarkers for the diagnosis of HFpEF.

8.
J Clin Med ; 9(5)2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365608

RESUMO

Cardiovascular complications are one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide and are strongly associated with atherosclerosis and vascular calcification (VC). Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a higher prevalence of VC as renal function declines, which will result in increased mortality. Serum calciprotein particles (CPPs) are colloidal nanoparticles that have a prominent role in the initiation and progression of VC. The T50 test is a novel test that measures the conversion of primary to secondary calciprotein particles indicating the tendency of serum to calcify. Therefore, we accomplished a comprehensive review as the first integrated approach to clarify fundamental aspects that influence serum CPP levels and T50, and to explore the effects of CPP and calcification propensity on various chronic disease outcomes. In addition, new topics were raised regarding possible clinical uses of T50 in the assessment of VC, particularly in patients with CKD, including possible opportunities in VC management. The relationships between serum calcification propensity and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were also addressed. The review is the outcome of a comprehensive search on available literature and could open new directions to control VC.

9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(7): e014324, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200717

RESUMO

Background Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality compared with heavy drinkers and abstainers. To date, studies have relied on self-reported consumption, which may be prone to misclassification. Urinary ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is an alcohol metabolite and validated biomarker for recent alcohol consumption. We aimed to examine and compare the associations of self-reported alcohol consumption and EtG with CVD and all-cause mortality. Methods and Results In 5676 participants of the PREVEND (Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease) study cohort, EtG was measured in 24-hour urine samples and alcohol consumption questionnaires were administered. Participants were followed up for occurrence of first CVD and all-cause mortality. Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusted for age, sex, and CVD risk factors, were fitted for self-reported consumption, divided into 5 categories: abstention, 1 to 4 units/month (reference), 2 to 7 units/week, 1 to 3 units/day, and ≥4 units/day. Similar models were fitted for EtG, analyzed as both continuous and categorical variables. Follow-up times differed for CVD (8 years; 385 CVD events) and all-cause mortality (14 years; 724 deaths). For both self-reported alcohol consumption and EtG, nonsignificant trends were found toward J-shaped associations between alcohol consumption and CVD, with higher risk in the lowest (hazard ratio for abstention versus 1-4 units/month, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.02-1.98) and highest drinking categories (hazard ratio for ≥4 units/day versus 1-4 units/month, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.68-1.84). Neither self-report nor EtG was associated with all-cause mortality. Conclusions Comparable associations with CVD events and all-cause mortality were found for self-report and EtG. This argues for the validity of self-reported alcohol consumption in epidemiologic research.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a phosphate-regulating hormone that increases early in the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD), is associated with disease progression in patients with established CKD. Here we aimed to investigate the association between plasma FGF23 and new-onset CKD in the general population. METHODS: We included 5253 individuals without CKD who participated in the Prevention of Renal and Vascular Endstage Disease study, a prospective, population-based cohort. Multi-variable Cox regression was used to study the association of plasma C-terminal FGF23 with new-onset CKD, defined as a combined endpoint of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/ 1.73 m2, urinary 24-h albumin excretion (UAE) >30 mg/24 h or both, or with all-cause mortality. RESULTS: The median baseline FGF23 was 68 [interquartile range (IQR) 56-85] RU/mL, eGFR was 95 ± 13 mL/min/1.73 m2 and UAE was 7.8 (IQR 5.8-11.5) mg/24 h. After follow-up of 7.5 (IQR 7.2-8.0) years, 586 participants developed CKD and 214 participants died. A higher FGF23 level was associated with new-onset CKD, independent of risk factors for kidney disease and parameters of bone and mineral homoeostasis {fully adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.25 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.44] per doubling of FGF23; P = 0.001}. In secondary analyses, FGF23 was independently associated with new-onset eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 [adjusted HR 1.28 (95% CI 1.00-1.62); P = 0.048] or with UAE >30 mg/24 h [adjusted HR 1.24 (95% CI 1.06-1.45); P = 0.01] individually. A higher FGF23 level was also associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality [fully adjusted HR 1.30 (95% CI 1.03-1.63); P = 0.03]. CONCLUSIONS: High FGF23 levels are associated with an increased risk of new-onset CKD and all-cause mortality in this prospective population-based cohort, independent of established CKD risk factors.

11.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(4): 706-714, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) experience substantial survival benefit compared with dialysis patients. However, their mortality and graft failure risk remain high. KTRs are often low in micronutrient status, including vitamins D and K. We investigated the association of both vitamins D and K status, and vitamin D treatment with all-cause mortality and death-censored graft failure. METHODS: We studied 461 KTRs from a single-centre study at median 6.1 years after transplantation. At baseline, vitamins D and K concentrations were measured by 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and dephosphorylated uncarboxylated matrix gla protein (dp-ucMGP) and patients were categorized into: 25(OH)D <50/≥50 nmol/L and median dp-ucMGP <1057/≥1057 pmol/L. RESULTS: Mean age was 52 ± 12 years, and 122 KTRs (26%) had low vitamins D and K status. During median 9.8 years follow-up, 128 patients (28%) died and 48 (10%) developed death-censored graft failure. Low vitamins D and K status was associated with 2.33 (1.26-4.30) [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval)] increased mortality risk and 3.25 (1.17-9.08) increased graft failure risk compared with KTR with 25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L and dp-ucMGP <1057 pmol/L. Dp-ucMGP was strongly associated with mortality (per 500 pmol/L increase): 1.41 (1.08-1.41) for vitamin D treatment versus no treatment 1.07 (0.97-1.18), and graft failure 1.71 (1.17-2.49) for vitamin D treatment versus 1.19 (1.05-1.36) no treatment, P-interaction <0.07 for vitamin D treatment (n = 44). CONCLUSIONS: Combined vitamins D and K deficiency are highly prevalent and are associated with increased mortality and graft failure risk compared with high vitamins D and K status. Low vitamin K status was strongly associated with an increased risk of premature mortality and graft failure for patients treated with vitamin D versus no vitamin D treatment.


Assuntos
Rejeição de Enxerto/mortalidade , Nefropatias/mortalidade , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina K/complicações , Vitamina K/sangue , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto/sangue , Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/patologia , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Nefropatias/sangue , Nefropatias/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(1): 132-140, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Data on the prospective relationship of alcohol consumption at more moderate levels with systolic and diastolic function are scarce. We aimed to examine the prospective association of alcohol consumption with echocardiographic measures of cardiac structure and function, in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 778 participants from the Hoorn Study (aged 68.4 ± 7.2 years, 49% women), a population-based prospective cohort study, oversampled for people with impaired glucose metabolism or T2DM. Self-reported alcohol consumption was collected at baseline with a validated food-frequency questionnaire and categorized into: none (0/week), light (>0-≤30 g/week), light-to-moderate (>30-≤70 g/week), moderate (>70-≤140 g/week), and heavy drinkers (>140 g/week). Echocardiography was performed at baseline (N = 778) and after 8 years follow-up (N = 404). Multiple linear regression was used to study the association between alcohol consumption and echocardiographic measures (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left atrial volume index (LAVI) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI)), adjusted for confounders. Moderate and heavy alcohol consumption were associated with a decreased LVEF of -3.91% (CI: -7.13;-0.69) for moderate and -4.77% (-8.18;-1.36) for heavy drinkers compared to light drinkers. No associations were found between alcohol consumption, LVMI and LAVI. Modified Poisson regression showed a trend that higher alcohol consumption amounts were associated with a higher risk of incident systolic dysfunction (LVEF≤50%) (P-for-trend 0.058). CONCLUSION: The findings provide longitudinal evidence that moderate and heavy alcohol consumption are associated with decreased LVEF and trend towards a higher risk of incident LV systolic dysfunction, compared to light drinkers.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia
13.
Eur J Nutr ; 59(3): 1243-1251, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069456

RESUMO

PURPOSE: No previous study has evaluated the relationship between vitamin K and frailty. Thus, we assessed the relationship between vitamin K status and frailty over 13 years in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA). METHODS: Prospective cohort study with 644 community-dwelling adults ≥ 55 years from the LASA cohort. In 2002-2003, plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-ucMGP) was measured as marker of vitamin K status through a sandwich ELISA. Frailty was measured at baseline and in four follow-up examinations with the LASA Frailty Index (LASA-FI), which was used as both a continuous and a dichotomous measure (FI ≥ 0.25), as indicator of the degree of frailty and frailty risk, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed with multivariable generalized estimating equations using the lowest dp-ucMGP tertile, reflecting a high vitamin K status, as reference. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age was 59.9 (2.9) years, and 54% were female. Compared with the lowest tertile, the medium and highest dp-ucMGP tertile were associated with a higher degree of frailty [1.40, 95% confidence interval (0.01-2.81) and 1.62, (0.18-3.06), respectively. P trend: 0.03]. Additionally, the medium and highest dp-ucMGP tertile had a higher odds ratio of frailty [1.75 (1.11-2.77) and 1.63 (1.04-2.57), respectively]. The degree of frailty increased over time, but the differences by dp-ucMGP tertiles existed since baseline and remained stable during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline plasma low vitamin K status was associated with a greater degree of frailty and frailty risk in this cohort of older adults, which highlights the importance of ensuring an optimal nutritional status of this vitamin to prevent frailty in later life.

14.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Despite modern treatment, risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unacceptably high. Observational studies have shown associations of magnesium with risk for several clinical outcomes in CKD of variable magnitude. The aim of this review is to provide a systematic overview and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies assessing the association of plasma magnesium concentration with clinically relevant outcomes in adult patients with chronic kidney disease, with a minimal follow-up of 6 months. Primary outcomes of interest were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular events, sudden death and hospitalisation. METHODS: The electronic databases PubMed, Embase and The Cochrane Library were searched using terms relating to plasma magnesium and CKD patients, and two authors independently selected eligible studies. Study quality was assessed according to the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results of studies with a comparable magnesium exposure and outcome measure, were pooled using a random-effects meta-regression analysis. RESULTS: The search yielded 6156 records of which 33 studies, involving 348,059 patients, met the eligibility criteria. Finally, 22 studies could be included in the meta-analysis. Higher magnesium was associated with a lower risk for all-cause mortality (HR 0.90 [0.87-0.94] per 0.1 mmol/L increase of magnesium) and cardiovascular mortality and events (HR 0.85 [0.77-0.94] per 0.1 mmol/L). CONCLUSIONS: Magnesium concentration is inversely associated with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality and events. Therefore, increasing magnesium may improve risk in patients with chronic kidney disease. This meta-analysis forms a firm base for future prospective trials to test whether increasing plasma magnesium, indeed has beneficial effects on clinical outcomes.

15.
J Nutr ; 149(12): 2199-2205, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is a frequently studied risk factor for chronic diseases, but many studies are hampered by self-report of alcohol consumption. The urinary metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG), reflecting alcohol consumption during the past 72 h, is a promising objective marker, but population data are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the reliability of EtG as a marker for habitual alcohol consumption compared with self-report and other biomarkers in the general population. METHODS: Among 6211 participants in the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) cohort, EtG concentrations were measured in 24-h urine samples. EtG was considered positive when concentrations were ≥100 ng/mL. Habitual alcohol consumption was self-reported by questionnaire (categories: no/almost never, 1-4 units per month, 2-7 units per week, 1-3 units per day or ≥4 units per day). Plasma HDL cholesterol concentration, erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume (MCV), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were determined as indirect biomarkers of alcohol consumption. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and proportions of agreement between reported consumption and EtG were calculated. To test the agreement of EtG concentration and alcohol consumption in categories, linear regression analysis was performed. In addition, the association between EtG concentrations and indirect biomarkers was analyzed. RESULTS: Mean age was 53.7 y, and 52.9% of participants men. Of the self-reported abstainers, 92.3% had an EtG concentration <100 ng/mL. Sensitivity was 66.3%, positive predictive value was 96.3%, and negative predictive value was 47.4%. The proportion of positive agreement was 78.5%, and the proportion of negative agreement was 62.7%. EtG concentrations were linearly associated with higher categories of alcohol consumption (P-trend < 0.001), adjusted for age, sex, and renal function. EtG was positively related to MCV, HDL cholesterol, and GGT but not to AST and ALT concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that urinary EtG is in reasonable agreement with self-reported alcohol consumption and therefore can be used as an objective marker of habitual alcohol consumption in the general population.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Glucuronatos/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934817

RESUMO

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of developing vascular calcifications, as well as bone dynamics impairment, leading to a poor quality of life and increased mortality. Certain vitamin K dependent proteins (VKDPs) act mainly as calcification inhibitors, but their involvement in the onset and progression of CKD are not completely elucidated. This review is an update of the current state of knowledge about the relationship between CKD and four extrahepatic VKDPs: matrix Gla protein, osteocalcin, growth-arrest specific protein 6 and Gla-rich protein. Based on published literature in the last ten years, the purpose of this review is to address fundamental aspects about the link between CKD and circulating VKDPs levels as well as to raise new topics about how the interplay between molecular weight and charge could influence the modifications of circulating VKDPs at the glomerular level, or whether distinct renal etiologies have effect on VKDPs. This review is the output of a systematic literature search and may open future research avenues in this niche domain.


Assuntos
Nefropatias/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Vitamina K/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Diálise Renal
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820261

RESUMO

Background: Higher physical activity is associated with lower chronic disease risk among older adults. However, less is known about the optimal balance between daily physical activity and sedentary time and their correlates among older adults. We described objectively measured physical activity patterns using 7 day hip-accelerometry and assessed its correlates in a large cross-sectional sample of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, a population-based cohort of older Dutch adults. In addition, we examined different combined profiles of sedentary time and physical activity across strata of sex, age, education and BMI groups. Results: Mean age was 71 (SD 8) years and 51% (n = 615) were women. The majority of wear time was spent sedentary (65%) followed by light (33%), and MVPA (2%). Higher age and higher BMI were related to more time spent sedentary, while female sex and lower education were related lower sedentary time. The combination of high sedentary time (≥65.4% of waking time) and low physical activity (< 9.1% of waking time) was significantly associated with higher age, higher BMI, and slower walking speed compared to the combination of low sedentary time and high physical activity P < 0.001. Conclusions: Dutch older adults spend on average 65% of their waking time sedentary. Older adults' sedentary time differs by age, sex, education and BMI groups. The combination of high sedentary time and low physical was associated with higher age, higher BMI, and slower walking speed compared to the combination of low sedentary time and high MVPA. This suggests that increasing light activity might be an effective and feasible strategy in older persons to reduce sedentary time. Future studies should assess whether low- sedentary and high-light physical activity are associated with improved long-term health outcomes (also independent of MVPA).

18.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678199

RESUMO

Vitamin D supplementation has been widely promoted to restore 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations; however, experimental evidence suggests a nutrient interaction with vitamin K. We assessed the effects of 1200 IU vitamin D3 per day versus placebo for six months on vitamin K status in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with participants aged 60⁻80 years with depressive symptoms and ≥1 functional limitation for a secondary analysis. Stored baseline and six-month follow-up blood samples were available for 131 participants (n = 65 placebo vs. n = 66 vitamin D supplementation). We measured dephosphorylated uncarboxylated matrix gla protein (MGP) (dp-ucMGP) concentrations-a marker of vitamin K deficiency. Mean age was 68 years, and 89 participants (68%) were women. Vitamin K antagonists were used by 16 participants and multivitamin supplements by 50 participants. No differences in change between intervention and placebo were found (-38.5 ± 389 vs. 4.5 ± 127 (pmol/L), p = 0.562). When excluding vitamin K antagonist users and multivitamin users, dp-ucMGP at follow-up was significantly higher in the vitamin D group (n = 40) compared to placebo (n = 30), with a difference of 92.8 (5.7, 180) pmol/L, adjusting for baseline dp-ucMGP and sex. In conclusion, vitamin D supplementation for six months did not affect vitamin K status; however, among participants without vitamin K antagonist or multivitamin use, vitamin D supplementation influenced dp-ucMGP concentrations.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/sangue , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/sangue , Idoso , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0203157, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30161193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in end-stage renal disease and is strongly associated with vascular calcification. Both kidney transplantation and phosphate binders may lower the risk of vascular calcification. Vascular calcification is actively inhibited by vitamin-K-dependent matrix γ-carboxyglutamic acid protein (MGP). Whether kidney transplantation or phosphate binders affect vitamin K status is unknown. Therefore, we studied the influence of kidney transplantation and phosphate binder use on vitamin K status. METHODS: We measured plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP), a marker reflecting low vitamin K status, in a cross-sectional study of patients on hemodialysis (n = 82), peritoneal dialysis (n = 31) or who recently received a kidney transplantation (n = 36). By medication inventory, we assessed phosphate binder use. With linear regression, we assessed the influence of kidney transplantation and phosphate binder use on natural-log-transformed dp-ucMGP, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Mean age of patients was 52±13 years; 102 (68%) were male. Dp-ucMGP levels were significantly lower in kidney transplant recipients (median 689 pmol/L) compared to patients on dialysis (median 1537 pmol/L, p<0.001). Eighty-nine patients on dialysis used phosphate binders. Using any phosphate binder was not associated with dp-ucMGP levels (median 1637 pmol/L, p = 0.09) compared to no phosphate binders (median 1142 pmol/L). Twenty-six patients used sevelamer monotherapy, which was associated with higher dp-ucMGP levels (median 1740 pmol/L, p = 0.04) after adjusting for age, sex and vitamin K antagonist use. CONCLUSIONS: Recent kidney transplantation is associated with lower dp-ucMGP levels suggesting improved vitamin K status after transplantation. Sevelamer monotherapy is associated with higher dp-ucMGP levels suggesting worsening of vitamin K status. Both findings warrant more attention to vitamin K status in patients on dialysis, as vitamin K is necessary for protection against vascular calcification.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/sangue , Quelantes/efeitos adversos , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/sangue , Transplante de Rim , Quelantes/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Diálise Renal , Sevelamer/efeitos adversos , Sevelamer/uso terapêutico , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores
20.
Maturitas ; 113: 73-79, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29903651

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between vitamin K status and physical functioning over 13 years in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study of 633 community-dwelling adults from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) aged 55-65 years (54% women). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: At baseline (2002-2003), plasma desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-ucMGP) was measured with a sandwich ELISA as a marker of vitamin K status. The outcome measures handgrip strength, calf circumference, self-reported functional limitations and functional performance were obtained at baseline and four follow-up examinations. We used generalized estimating equations to determine the relationship between dp-ucMGP tertiles and the various outcome measurements after adjusting for potential confounders. The lowest dp-ucMGP tertile reflects a high vitamin K status and was the reference. RESULTS: Mean dp-ucMGP was 376 ±â€¯233 pmol/L and mean follow-up was 11.1 years. Participants showed a decline in the outcome measures over time. Compared with the lowest tertile, the highest dp-ucMGP tertile had: lower handgrip strength, 1.1 kg (95% confidence interval (-2.1, -0.1; P-trend <0.001); smaller calf circumference, -0.5 cm (-0.9 -0.1; P-trend = 0.018); and, only among women, a 0.7-point poorer functional performance score (-1.1, -0.3; P-interaction = 0.002). Dp-ucMGP was not related to self-reported functional limitations. No interaction effects between time and dp-ucMGP were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Low vitamin K status was associated with lower handgrip strength, smaller calf circumference, and, in women only, with poorer functional performance score. A low vitamin K status was however not related to the 13-year decline in these measures.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina K/sangue , Vitamina K/sangue , Idoso , Envelhecimento/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia
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