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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 640-657, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402090

RESUMO

The identification of genetic variants implicated in human developmental disorders has been revolutionized by second-generation sequencing combined with international pooling of cases. Here, we describe seven individuals who have diverse yet overlapping developmental anomalies, and who all have de novo missense FBXW11 variants identified by whole exome or whole genome sequencing and not reported in the gnomAD database. Their phenotypes include striking neurodevelopmental, digital, jaw, and eye anomalies, and in one individual, features resembling Noonan syndrome, a condition caused by dysregulated RAS signaling. FBXW11 encodes an F-box protein, part of the Skp1-cullin-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex, involved in ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation and thus fundamental to many protein regulatory processes. FBXW11 targets include ß-catenin and GLI transcription factors, key mediators of Wnt and Hh signaling, respectively, critical to digital, neurological, and eye development. Structural analyses indicate affected residues cluster at the surface of the loops of the substrate-binding domain of FBXW11, and the variants are predicted to destabilize the protein and/or its interactions. In situ hybridization studies on human and zebrafish embryonic tissues demonstrate FBXW11 is expressed in the developing eye, brain, mandibular processes, and limb buds or pectoral fins. Knockdown of the zebrafish FBXW11 orthologs fbxw11a and fbxw11b resulted in embryos with smaller, misshapen, and underdeveloped eyes and abnormal jaw and pectoral fin development. Our findings support the role of FBXW11 in multiple developmental processes, including those involving the brain, eye, digits, and jaw.

2.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(7): 1101-1112, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850703

RESUMO

We aimed to identify novel deletions and variants of TP63 associated with orofacial clefting (OFC). Copy number variants were assessed in three OFC families using microarray analysis. Subsequently, we analyzed TP63 in a cohort of 1072 individuals affected with OFC and 706 population-based controls using molecular inversion probes (MIPs). We identified partial deletions of TP63 in individuals from three families affected with OFC. In the OFC cohort, we identified several TP63 variants predicting to cause loss-of-function alleles, including a frameshift variant c.569_576del (p.(Ala190Aspfs*5)) and a nonsense variant c.997C>T (p.(Gln333*)) that introduces a premature stop codon in the DNA-binding domain. In addition, we identified the first missense variants in the oligomerization domain c.1213G>A (p.(Val405Met)), which occurred in individuals with OFC. This variant was shown to abrogate oligomerization of mutant p63 protein into oligomeric complexes, and therefore likely represents a loss-of-function allele rather than a dominant-negative. All of these variants were inherited from an unaffected parent, suggesting reduced penetrance of such loss-of-function alleles. Our data indicate that loss-of-function alleles in TP63 can also give rise to OFC as the main phenotype. We have uncovered the dosage-dependent functions of p63, which were previously rejected.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 709-720, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905399

RESUMO

The Mediator is an evolutionarily conserved, multi-subunit complex that regulates multiple steps of transcription. Mediator activity is regulated by the reversible association of a four-subunit module comprising CDK8 or CDK19 kinases, together with cyclin C, MED12 or MED12L, and MED13 or MED13L. Mutations in MED12, MED13, and MED13L were previously identified in syndromic developmental disorders with overlapping phenotypes. Here, we report CDK8 mutations (located at 13q12.13) that cause a phenotypically related disorder. Using whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing, and by international collaboration, we identified eight different heterozygous missense CDK8 substitutions, including 10 shown to have arisen de novo, in 12 unrelated subjects; a recurrent mutation, c.185C>T (p.Ser62Leu), was present in five individuals. All predicted substitutions localize to the ATP-binding pocket of the kinase domain. Affected individuals have overlapping phenotypes characterized by hypotonia, mild to moderate intellectual disability, behavioral disorders, and variable facial dysmorphism. Congenital heart disease occurred in six subjects; additional features present in multiple individuals included agenesis of the corpus callosum, ano-rectal malformations, seizures, and hearing or visual impairments. To evaluate the functional impact of the mutations, we measured phosphorylation at STAT1-Ser727, a known CDK8 substrate, in a CDK8 and CDK19 CRISPR double-knockout cell line transfected with wild-type (WT) or mutant CDK8 constructs. These experiments demonstrated a reduction in STAT1 phosphorylation by all mutants, in most cases to a similar extent as in a kinase-dead control. We conclude that missense mutations in CDK8 cause a developmental disorder that has phenotypic similarity to syndromes associated with mutations in other subunits of the Mediator kinase module, indicating probable overlap in pathogenic mechanisms.

4.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(5): 738-746, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679813

RESUMO

Determining pathogenicity of genomic variation identified by next-generation sequencing techniques can be supported by recurrent disruptive variants in the same gene in phenotypically similar individuals. However, interpretation of novel variants in a specific gene in individuals with mild-moderate intellectual disability (ID) without recognizable syndromic features can be challenging and reverse phenotyping is often required. We describe 24 individuals with a de novo disease-causing variant in, or partial deletion of, the F-box only protein 11 gene (FBXO11, also known as VIT1 and PRMT9). FBXO11 is part of the SCF (SKP1-cullin-F-box) complex, a multi-protein E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex catalyzing the ubiquitination of proteins destined for proteasomal degradation. Twenty-two variants were identified by next-generation sequencing, comprising 2 in-frame deletions, 11 missense variants, 1 canonical splice site variant, and 8 nonsense or frameshift variants leading to a truncated protein or degraded transcript. The remaining two variants were identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization and consisted of a partial deletion of FBXO11. All individuals had borderline to severe ID and behavioral problems (autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, aggression) were observed in most of them. The most relevant common facial features included a thin upper lip and a broad prominent space between the paramedian peaks of the upper lip. Other features were hypotonia and hyperlaxity of the joints. We show that de novo variants in FBXO11 cause a syndromic form of ID. The current series show the power of reverse phenotyping in the interpretation of novel genetic variances in individuals who initially did not appear to have a clear recognizable phenotype.

5.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291340

RESUMO

Deletions on chromosome 15q14 are a known chromosomal cause of cleft palate, typically co-occurring with intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, and congenital heart defects. The identification of patients with loss-of-function variants in MEIS2, a gene within this deletion, suggests that these features are attributed to haploinsufficiency of MEIS2. To further delineate the phenotypic spectrum of the MEIS2-related syndrome, we collected 23 previously unreported patients with either a de novo sequence variant in MEIS2 (9 patients), or a 15q14 microdeletion affecting MEIS2 (14 patients). All but one de novo MEIS2 variant were identified by whole-exome sequencing. One variant was found by targeted sequencing of MEIS2 in a girl with a clinical suspicion of this syndrome. In addition to the triad of palatal defects, heart defects, and developmental delay, heterozygous loss of MEIS2 results in recurrent facial features, including thin and arched eyebrows, short alae nasi, and thin vermillion. Genotype-phenotype comparison between patients with 15q14 deletions and patients with sequence variants or intragenic deletions within MEIS2, showed a higher prevalence of moderate-to-severe intellectual disability in the former group, advocating for an independent locus for psychomotor development neighboring MEIS2.

6.
Ann Neurol ; 84(5): 788-795, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269351

RESUMO

NBEA is a candidate gene for autism, and de novo variants have been reported in neurodevelopmental disease (NDD) cohorts. However, NBEA has not been rigorously evaluated as a disease gene, and associated phenotypes have not been delineated. We identified 24 de novo NBEA variants in patients with NDD, establishing NBEA as an NDD gene. Most patients had epilepsy with onset in the first few years of life, often characterized by generalized seizure types, including myoclonic and atonic seizures. Our data show a broader phenotypic spectrum than previously described, including a myoclonic-astatic epilepsy-like phenotype in a subset of patients. Ann Neurol 2018;84:796-803.

7.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2018 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248410

RESUMO

Whole genome sequencing (WGS) holds the potential to identify pathogenic gene mutations, copy number variation, uniparental disomy and structural rearrangements in a single genetic test. With its high diagnostic yield and decreasing costs, the question arises whether WGS can serve as a single test for all referrals to diagnostic genome laboratories ("one test fits all"). Here, we provide an estimate for the proportion of clinically relevant aberrations identified by light microscopy in postnatal referrals that would go undetected by WGS. To this end, we compiled the clinically relevant abnormal findings for each of the different referral categories in our laboratory during the period 2006-2015. We assumed that WGS would be performed on 300-500 bp DNA fragments with 150-bp paired sequence reads, and that the mean genome coverage is 30x, corresponding to current practice. For the detection of chromosomal mosaicism we set minimum thresholds of 10% for monosomy and 20% for trisomy. Based on the literature we assumed that balanced Robertsonian translocations and ∼9% of other, balanced chromosome rearrangements would not be detectable because of breakpoints in sequences of repetitive DNA. Based on our analysis of all 14,957 referrals, including 1455 abnormal cases, we show that at least 8.1% of these abnormalities would escape detection (corresponding to 0.79% of all referrals). The highest rate occurs in referrals of premature ovarian failure, as 73.3% of abnormalities would not be identified because of the frequent occurrence of low-level sex chromosome mosaicism. Among referrals of recurrent miscarriage, 25.6% of abnormalities would go undetected, mainly because of a high proportion of balanced Robertsonian translocations. In referrals of mental retardation (with or without multiple congenital anomalies) the abnormality would be missed in only 0.35% of referrals. These include cases without imbalances of unique DNA sequences but of clinical relevance, as for example, r(20) epilepsy syndrome. The expected shift to large-scale implementation of WGS ("one test fits most") as initial genetic test will be beneficial to patients and their families, since a cause for the clinical phenotype can be identified in more cases by a single genetic test at an early phase in the diagnostic process. However, a niche for genome analysis by light microscopy will remain. For example, in referrals of newborns with a suspicion of Down syndrome, karyotyping is not only a cost-effective method for providing a quick diagnosis, but also discriminates between trisomy 21 and a Robertsonian translocation involving chromosome 21. Thus, when replacing karyotyping by WGS, one must be aware of the rates and spectra of undetected abnormalities. In addition, it is equally important that requirements for cytogenetic follow-up studies are recognized.

8.
Brain ; 140(9): 2322-2336, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29050398

RESUMO

De novo in-frame deletions and duplications in the SPTAN1 gene, encoding the non-erythrocyte αII spectrin, have been associated with severe West syndrome with hypomyelination and pontocerebellar atrophy. We aimed at comprehensively delineating the phenotypic spectrum associated with SPTAN1 mutations. Using different molecular genetic techniques, we identified 20 patients with a pathogenic or likely pathogenic SPTAN1 variant and reviewed their clinical, genetic and imaging data. SPTAN1 de novo alterations included seven unique missense variants and nine in-frame deletions/duplications of which 12 were novel. The recurrent three-amino acid duplication p.(Asp2303_Leu2305dup) occurred in five patients. Our patient cohort exhibited a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes, comprising six patients with mild to moderate intellectual disability, with or without epilepsy and behavioural disorders, and 14 patients with infantile epileptic encephalopathy, of which 13 had severe neurodevelopmental impairment and four died in early childhood. Imaging studies suggested that the severity of neurological impairment and epilepsy correlates with that of structural abnormalities as well as the mutation type and location. Out of seven patients harbouring mutations outside the α/ß spectrin heterodimerization domain, four had normal brain imaging and three exhibited moderately progressive brain and/or cerebellar atrophy. Twelve of 13 patients with mutations located within the spectrin heterodimer contact site exhibited severe and progressive brain, brainstem and cerebellar atrophy, with hypomyelination in most. We used fibroblasts from five patients to study spectrin aggregate formation by Triton-X extraction and immunocytochemistry followed by fluorescence microscopy. αII/ßII aggregates and αII spectrin in the insoluble protein fraction were observed in fibroblasts derived from patients with the mutations p.(Glu2207del), p.(Asp2303_Leu2305dup) and p.(Arg2308_Met2309dup), all falling in the nucleation site of the α/ß spectrin heterodimer region. Molecular modelling of the seven SPTAN1 amino acid changes provided preliminary evidence for structural alterations of the A-, B- and/or C-helices within each of the mutated spectrin repeats. We conclude that SPTAN1-related disorders comprise a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes ranging from mild to severe and progressive. Spectrin aggregate formation in fibroblasts with mutations in the α/ß heterodimerization domain seems to be associated with a severe neurodegenerative course and suggests that the amino acid stretch from Asp2303 to Met2309 in the α20 repeat is important for α/ß spectrin heterodimer formation and/or αII spectrin function.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Encéfalo/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Adolescente , Atrofia/complicações , Atrofia/patologia , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Encefalopatias/complicações , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Epilepsia/complicações , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/complicações , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Fenótipo , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 98(5): 963-970, 2016 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27087320

RESUMO

Deletions of chromosome 1p36 affect approximately 1 in 5,000 newborns and are associated with developmental delay, intellectual disability, and defects involving the brain, eye, ear, heart, and kidney. Arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide repeats (RERE) is located in the proximal 1p36 critical region. RERE is a widely-expressed nuclear receptor coregulator that positively regulates retinoic acid signaling. Animal models suggest that RERE deficiency might contribute to many of the structural and developmental birth defects and medical problems seen in individuals with 1p36 deletion syndrome, although human evidence supporting this role has been lacking. In this report, we describe ten individuals with intellectual disability, developmental delay, and/or autism spectrum disorder who carry rare and putatively damaging changes in RERE. In all cases in which both parental DNA samples were available, these changes were found to be de novo. Associated features that were recurrently seen in these individuals included hypotonia, seizures, behavioral problems, structural CNS anomalies, ophthalmologic anomalies, congenital heart defects, and genitourinary abnormalities. The spectrum of defects documented in these individuals is similar to that of a cohort of 31 individuals with isolated 1p36 deletions that include RERE and are recapitulated in RERE-deficient zebrafish and mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that mutations in RERE cause a genetic syndrome and that haploinsufficiency of RERE might be sufficient to cause many of the phenotypes associated with proximal 1p36 deletions.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/etiologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Transtornos Cromossômicos/etiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Mutação/genética , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 1 , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Prognóstico
10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(6): 1566-9, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26892345

RESUMO

We report an 11-year-old girl with mild intellectual disability, skeletal anomalies, congenital heart defect, myopia, and facial dysmorphisms including an extra incisor, cup-shaped ears, and a preauricular skin tag. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis identified a de novo 4.5-Mb microdeletion on chromosome 14q24.2q24.3. The deleted region and phenotype partially overlap with previously reported patients. Here, we provide an overview of the literature on 14q24 microdeletions and further delineate the associated phenotype. We performed exome sequencing to examine other causes for the phenotype and queried genes present in the 14q24.2q24.3 microdeletion that are associated with recessive disease for variants in the non-deleted allele. The deleted region contains 65 protein-coding genes, including the ciliary gene IFT43. Although Sanger and exome sequencing did not identify variants in the second IFT43 allele or in other IFT complex A-protein-encoding genes, immunocytochemistry showed increased accumulation of IFT-B proteins at the ciliary tip in patient-derived fibroblasts compared to control cells, demonstrating defective retrograde ciliary transport. This could suggest a ciliary defect in the pathogenesis of this disorder. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 14 , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Miopia/genética , Fenótipo , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Criança , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Exoma , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos
11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 97(3): 457-64, 2015 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26299366

RESUMO

Using whole-exome sequencing, we have identified in ten families 14 individuals with microcephaly, developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, spasticity, seizures, sensorineural hearing loss, cortical visual impairment, and rare autosomal-recessive predicted pathogenic variants in spermatogenesis-associated protein 5 (SPATA5). SPATA5 encodes a ubiquitously expressed member of the ATPase associated with diverse activities (AAA) protein family and is involved in mitochondrial morphogenesis during early spermatogenesis. It might also play a role in post-translational modification during cell differentiation in neuronal development. Mutations in SPATA5 might affect brain development and function, resulting in microcephaly, developmental delay, and intellectual disability.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Perda Auditiva/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Convulsões/genética , ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genes Recessivos , Humanos , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutação/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 96(4): 651-6, 2015 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25799107

RESUMO

Chromothripsis represents an extreme class of complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs) with major effects on chromosomal architecture. Although recent studies have associated chromothripsis with congenital abnormalities, the incidence and pathogenic effects of this phenomenon require further investigation. Here, we analyzed the genomes of three families in which chromothripsis rearrangements were transmitted from a mother to her child. The chromothripsis in the mothers resulted in completely balanced rearrangements involving 8-23 breakpoint junctions across three to five chromosomes. Two mothers did not show any phenotypic abnormalities, although 3-13 protein-coding genes were affected by breakpoints. Unbalanced but stable transmission of a subset of the derivative chromosomes caused apparently de novo complex copy-number changes in two children. This resulted in gene-dosage changes, which are probably responsible for the severe congenital phenotypes of these two children. In contrast, the third child, who has a severe congenital disease, harbored all three chromothripsis chromosomes from his healthy mother, but one of the chromosomes acquired de novo rearrangements leading to copy-number changes. These results show that the human genome can tolerate extreme reshuffling of chromosomal architecture, including breakage of multiple protein-coding genes, without noticeable phenotypic effects. The presence of chromothripsis in healthy individuals affects reproduction and is expected to substantially increase the risk of miscarriages, abortions, and severe congenital disease.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Padrões de Herança/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Fenótipo , Translocação Genética/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Humanos , Análise em Microsséries
13.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 23(1): 135-8, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24781760

RESUMO

MED13L haploinsufficiency syndrome has been described in two patients and is characterized by moderate intellectual disability (ID), conotruncal heart defects, facial abnormalities and hypotonia. Missense mutations in MED13L are linked to transposition of the great arteries and non-syndromal intellectual disability. Here we describe two novel patients with de novo MED13L aberrations. The first patient has a de novo mutation in the splice acceptor site of exon 5 of MED13L. cDNA analysis showed this mutation results in an in-frame deletion, removing 15 amino acids in middle of the conserved MED13L N-terminal domain. The second patient carries a de novo deletion of exons 6-20 of MED13L. Both patients show features of the MED13L haploinsufficiency syndrome, except for the heart defects, thus further confirming the existence of the MED13L haploinsufficiency syndrome.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Complexo Mediador/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Processamento Alternativo , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Exoma , Facies , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Síndrome
14.
Cell Rep ; 9(6): 2001-10, 2014 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25497101

RESUMO

Genomic rearrangements are a common cause of human congenital abnormalities. However, their origin and consequences are poorly understood. We performed molecular analysis of two patients with congenital disease who carried de novo genomic rearrangements. We found that the rearrangements in both patients hit genes that are recurrently rearranged in cancer (ETV1, FOXP1, and microRNA cluster C19MC) and drive formation of fusion genes similar to those described in cancer. Subsequent analysis of a large set of 552 de novo germline genomic rearrangements underlying congenital disorders revealed enrichment for genes rearranged in cancer and overlap with somatic cancer breakpoints. Breakpoints of common (inherited) germline structural variations also overlap with cancer breakpoints but are depleted for cancer genes. We propose that the same genomic positions are prone to genomic rearrangements in germline and soma but that timing and context of breakage determines whether developmental defects or cancer are promoted.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Rearranjo Gênico , Genoma Humano , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Animais , Pontos de Quebra do Cromossomo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Peixe-Zebra
15.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 22(5): 652-9, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24105367

RESUMO

Recently, microarrays have replaced karyotyping as a first tier test in patients with idiopathic intellectual disability and/or multiple congenital abnormalities (ID/MCA) in many laboratories. Although in about 14-18% of such patients, DNA copy-number variants (CNVs) with clinical significance can be detected, microarrays have the disadvantage of missing balanced rearrangements, as well as providing no information about the genomic architecture of structural variants (SVs) like duplications and complex rearrangements. Such information could possibly lead to a better interpretation of the clinical significance of the SV. In this study, the clinical use of mate pair next-generation sequencing was evaluated for the detection and further characterization of structural variants within the genomes of 50 ID/MCA patients. Thirty of these patients carried a chromosomal aberration that was previously detected by array CGH or karyotyping and suspected to be pathogenic. In the remaining 20 patients no causal SVs were found and only benign aberrations were detected by conventional techniques. Combined cluster and coverage analysis of the mate pair data allowed precise breakpoint detection and further refinement of previously identified balanced and (complex) unbalanced aberrations, pinpointing the causal gene for some patients. We conclude that mate pair sequencing is a powerful technology that can provide rapid and unequivocal characterization of unbalanced and balanced SVs in patient genomes and can be essential for the clinical interpretation of some SVs.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Duplicação Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 18 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 21 , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Cariótipo , Masculino , Recombinação Genética
16.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 22(7): 896-901, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24281369

RESUMO

A genetic contribution to a broad range of epilepsies has been postulated, and particularly copy number variations (CNVs) have emerged as significant genetic risk factors. However, the role of CNVs in patients with epilepsies with complex phenotypes is not known. Therefore, we investigated the role of CNVs in patients with unclassified epilepsies and complex phenotypes. A total of 222 patients from three European countries, including patients with structural lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dysmorphic features, and multiple congenital anomalies, were clinically evaluated and screened for CNVs. MRI findings including acquired or developmental lesions and patient characteristics were subdivided and analyzed in subgroups. MRI data were available for 88.3% of patients, of whom 41.6% had abnormal MRI findings. Eighty-eight rare CNVs were discovered in 71 out of 222 patients (31.9%). Segregation of all identified variants could be assessed in 42 patients, 11 of which were de novo. The frequency of all structural variants and de novo variants was not statistically different between patients with or without MRI abnormalities or MRI subcategories. Patients with dysmorphic features were more likely to carry a rare CNV. Genome-wide screening methods for rare CNVs may provide clues for the genetic etiology in patients with a broader range of epilepsies than previously anticipated, including in patients with various brain anomalies detectable by MRI. Performing genome-wide screens for rare CNVs can be a valuable contribution to the routine diagnostic workup in patients with a broad range of childhood epilepsies.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas , Epilepsia , Dosagem de Genes , Variação Genética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Fenótipo , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico por imagem , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Radiografia
17.
Am J Med Genet A ; 164A(1): 194-8, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24243657

RESUMO

Deletions of the long arm of chromosome 2 are rare. Few cases of interstitial deletions of the 2q33q35 region have been reported. Individuals with deletions in this region have growth retardation, psychomotor retardation, micrognathia, microcephaly, and apparently low-set ears. We describe a female fetus with a de novo deletion of 2q33.2 to q35 with delayed gyral formation with widespread neuronal heterotopia of the white matter, small cerebellum, esophageal atresia, laryngeal stenosis, micrognathia, and intrauterine growth retardation. With the use of karyotyping and high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization the boundaries and gene content of the deletion were identified. Our aim was to determine whether a candidate gene for the brain phenotype was present in the deletion. By this means and based on literature we pinpointed the microtubule associated gene MAP2 as a candidate for the brain anomalies.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2 , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Atresia Esofágica/genética , Laringoestenose/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Autopsia , Encéfalo/patologia , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico , Atresia Esofágica/diagnóstico , Feminino , Feto , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariotipagem , Laringoestenose/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Fenótipo
18.
Eur J Med Genet ; 56(7): 346-50, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23603061

RESUMO

Patients with trisomy or tetrasomy of distal 15q show a recognizable overgrowth syndrome, whereas patients with a monosomy of 15q26 share some degree of pre- and postnatal growth retardation, but differ with respect to facial and skeletal dysmorphisms, congenital heart disease and intellectual development. By reviewing 16 cases with losses of 15q26 we found that the size of the deletion was also not a predictor of the breadth of the phenotypic spectrum, the severity of disease or prognosis of the patient. Although monosomies of 15q26 do not represent a classical contiguous gene syndrome, a few candidate genes for selected features such as proportional growth retardation and cardiac abnormalities have been identified. In 11 out of 16 patients with monosomy of distal 15q variable neurobehavioral phenotypes, including learning difficulties, seizures, attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder, hearing loss and autism, have been found. We discuss clinical ramifications for cases with a loss of 15q26 detected by prenatal array-CGH.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Monossomia , Fenótipo , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Crescimento/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 92(2): 210-20, 2013 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23332918

RESUMO

Genomic rearrangements involving AUTS2 (7q11.22) are associated with autism and intellectual disability (ID), although evidence for causality is limited. By combining the results of diagnostic testing of 49,684 individuals, we identified 24 microdeletions that affect at least one exon of AUTS2, as well as one translocation and one inversion each with a breakpoint within the AUTS2 locus. Comparison of 17 well-characterized individuals enabled identification of a variable syndromic phenotype including ID, autism, short stature, microcephaly, cerebral palsy, and facial dysmorphisms. The dysmorphic features were more pronounced in persons with 3'AUTS2 deletions. This part of the gene is shown to encode a C-terminal isoform (with an alternative transcription start site) expressed in the human brain. Consistent with our genetic data, suppression of auts2 in zebrafish embryos caused microcephaly that could be rescued by either the full-length or the C-terminal isoform of AUTS2. Our observations demonstrate a causal role of AUTS2 in neurocognitive disorders, establish a hitherto unappreciated syndromic phenotype at this locus, and show how transcriptional complexity can underpin human pathology. The zebrafish model provides a valuable tool for investigating the etiology of AUTS2 syndrome and facilitating gene-function analysis in the future.


Assuntos
Éxons/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/genética , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo , Isoformas de Proteínas/química , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Supressão Genética , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/química , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 158A(11): 2888-93, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22987625

RESUMO

Complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs) are rare genomic structural aberrations involving three or more breakpoints on two or more chromosomes. About one-third of all CCRs are familial. Transmittance of such a CCR results either in genomic imbalance due to abnormal segregation at meiosis I or is stably passed on to the next generation. Here we present a phenotypically normal mother with a CCR involving chromosomes 1, 3, and 5 that gave birth to a phenotypically abnormal son. The boy presented with hypotonia, mild facial dysmorphisms, and severe intellectual disability. Conventional karyotyping revealed the same apparently balanced CCR as in the mother. However, by use of array-comparative genome hybridization (array-CGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) we discovered that one of the derivative chromosomes in the patient contained a de novo rearrangement. It appears that during transmission of the CCR, an additional de novo deletion and duplication had arisen in one of the derivative chromosomes. We speculate that this was the result of the inverted duplication with a distal deletion mechanism. We also demonstrate the importance of high-resolution breakpoint analysis in CCRs and stress that genetic counseling of a familial CCR is not straightforward. To our knowledge, this would be the first description of this mechanism operating on a structurally abnormal chromosome.


Assuntos
Translocação Genética , Adulto , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Recém-Nascido , Cariótipo , Masculino
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