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1.
Hypertension ; 75(6): 1607-1614, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275192

RESUMO

The mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment are incompletely understood but may include arterial stiffness and microvascular dysfunction. In the population-based Maastricht Study, we investigated the association between arterial stiffness and cognitive performance, and whether any such association was mediated by microvascular dysfunction. We included cross-sectional data of 2544 participants (age, 59.7 years; 51.0% men; 26.0% type 2 diabetes mellitus). We used carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and carotid distensibility coefficient as measures of aortic and carotid stiffness, respectively. We calculated a composite score of microvascular dysfunction based on magnetic resonance imaging features of cerebral small vessel disease, flicker light-induced retinal arteriolar and venular dilation response, albuminuria, and plasma biomarkers of microvascular dysfunction (sICAM-1 [soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1], sVCAM-1 [soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1], sE-selectin [soluble E-selectin], and vWF [von Willebrand factor]). Cognitive domains assessed were memory, processing speed, and executive function. A cognitive function score was calculated as the average of these domains. Higher aortic stiffness (per m/s) was associated with lower cognitive function (ß, -0.018 SD [95% CI, -0.036 to -0.000]) independent of age, sex, education, and cardiovascular risk factors, but higher carotid stiffness was not. Higher aortic stiffness (per m/s) was associated with a higher microvascular dysfunction score (ß, 0.034 SD [95% CI, 0.014 to 0.053]), and a higher microvascular dysfunction score (per SD) was associated with lower cognitive function (ß, -0.089 SD [95% CI, -0.124 to -0.053]). Microvascular dysfunction significantly explained 16.2% of the total effect of aortic stiffness on cognitive function. The present study showed that aortic stiffness, but not carotid stiffness, is independently associated with worse cognitive performance, and that this association is in part explained by microvascular dysfunction.

2.
Diabetes Care ; 43(1): 201-208, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601638

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes are associated with structural brain abnormalities, often observed in cognitive disorders. Besides visible lesions, (pre)diabetes might also be associated with alterations of the intrinsic organization of the white matter. In this population-based cohort study, the association of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes with white matter network organization was assessed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In the Maastricht Study, a type 2 diabetes-enriched population-based cohort study (1,361 subjects with normal glucose metabolism, 348 with prediabetes, and 510 with type 2 diabetes assessed by oral glucose tolerance test; 52% men; aged 59 ± 8 years), 3 Tesla structural and diffusion MRI was performed. Whole-brain white matter tractography was used to assess the number of connections (node degree) between 94 brain regions and the topology (graph measures). Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to investigate the associations of glucose metabolism status with network measures. Associations were adjusted for age, sex, education, and cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes were associated with lower node degree after full adjustment (standardized [st]ßPrediabetes = -0.055 [95% CI -0.172, 0.062], stßType2diabetes = -0.256 [-0.379, -0.133], P trend < 0.001). Prediabetes was associated with lower local efficiency (stß = -0.084 [95% CI -0.159, -0.008], P = 0.033) and lower clustering coefficient (stß = -0.097 [95% CI -0.189, -0.005], P = 0.049), whereas type 2 diabetes was not. Type 2 diabetes was associated with higher communicability (stß = 0.148 [95% CI 0.042, 0.253], P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that prediabetes and type 2 diabetes are associated with fewer white matter connections and weaker organization of white matter networks. Type 2 diabetes was associated with higher communicability, which was not yet observed in prediabetes and may reflect the use of alternative white matter connections.

3.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 35(2): 195-203, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736136

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: As no causal treatment for dementia is available yet, the focus of dementia research is slowly shifting towards prevention strategies. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the predictive accuracy of the "LIfestyle for BRAin Health" (LIBRA) score, a weighted compound score of 12 modifiable risk and protective factors, for dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in midlife and late-life, and in individuals with high or low genetic risk based on presence of the apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele. METHODS: The LIBRA score was calculated for participants from the Finnish Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) population-based study examined in midlife (n = 1024) and twice in late-life (n = 604) up to 30 years later. Diagnoses of MCI and dementia were made according to established criteria. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between LIBRA and risk of dementia and MCI in models adjusted for sex and education (age as timescale). RESULTS: Higher midlife LIBRA scores were related to higher risk of dementia (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.43) and MCI (unadjusted model: HR = 1.12; 95% CI, 1.03-1.22) up to 30 years later. Higher late-life LIBRA scores were related to higher risk of MCI (HR = 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00-1.25), but not dementia (HR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.84-1.24). Higher late-life LIBRA scores were related to higher dementia risk among apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 non-carriers. CONCLUSIONS: Findings emphasize the importance of modifiable risk and protective factors for dementia prevention.

4.
Neurology ; 94(3): e267-e281, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827004

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is one of the main modifiable risk factors for dementia. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the best antihypertensive class for optimizing cognition. Our objective was to determine whether any particular antihypertensive class was associated with a reduced risk of cognitive decline or dementia using comprehensive meta-analysis including reanalysis of original participant data. METHODS: To identify suitable studies, MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO and preexisting study consortia were searched from inception to December 2017. Authors of prospective longitudinal human studies or trials of antihypertensives were contacted for data sharing and collaboration. Outcome measures were incident dementia or incident cognitive decline (classified using the reliable change index method). Data were separated into mid and late-life (>65 years) and each antihypertensive class was compared to no treatment and to treatment with other antihypertensives. Meta-analysis was used to synthesize data. RESULTS: Over 50,000 participants from 27 studies were included. Among those aged >65 years, with the exception of diuretics, we found no relationship by class with incident cognitive decline or dementia. Diuretic use was suggestive of benefit in some analyses but results were not consistent across follow-up time, comparator group, and outcome. Limited data precluded meaningful analyses in those ≤65 years of age. CONCLUSION: Our findings, drawn from the current evidence base, support clinical freedom in the selection of antihypertensive regimens to achieve blood pressure goals. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: The review was registered with the international prospective register of systematic reviews (PROSPERO), registration number CRD42016045454.

5.
Hypertension ; 75(1): 237-245, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735081

RESUMO

Microvascular dysfunction may be associated with worse cognitive performance. Most previous studies did not adjust for important confounders, evaluated only individual measures of microvascular dysfunction, and showed inconsistent results. We evaluated the association between a comprehensive set of measures of microvascular dysfunction and cognitive performance in the population-based Maastricht Study. We used cross-sectional data including 3011 participants (age 59.5±8.2; 48.9% women; 26.5% type 2 diabetes mellitus [oversampled by design]). Measures of microvascular dysfunction included magnetic resonance imaging features of cerebral small vessel disease, plasma biomarkers of microvascular dysfunction, albuminuria, flicker light-induced retinal arteriolar and venular dilation response and heat-induced skin hyperemia. These measures were summarized into a microvascular dysfunction composite score. Cognitive domains assessed were memory, processing speed, and executive function. A cognitive function score was calculated as the sum of the scores on these 3 cognitive domains. The microvascular dysfunction score was associated with a worse cognitive function score (standardized ß, -0.087 [95% CI, -0.127 to -0.047]), independent of age, education level, sex, type 2 diabetes mellitus, smoking, alcohol use, hypertension, total/HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol ratio, triglycerides, lipid-modifying medication, prior cardiovascular disease, depression and plasma biomarkers of low-grade inflammation. The fully adjusted ß-coefficient of the association between the microvascular dysfunction score and the cognitive function score was equivalent to 2 (range, 1-3) years of aging for each SD higher microvascular dysfunction score. The microvascular dysfunction score was associated with worse memory and processing speed but not with worse executive function. The present study shows that microvascular dysfunction is associated with worse cognitive performance.

6.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 71(2): 549-557, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differences in dementia risk across the gradient of socioeconomic status (SES) exist, but their determinants are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates whether health conditions and lifestyle-related risk factors explain the SES inequalities in dementia risk. METHODS: 6,346 participants from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing were followed up from 2008/2009 until 2014/2015. We used Cox regression adjusted for age, gender, wealth/education, and clustering at the household level to examine the association between SES markers (wealth, education) and time to dementia in a structural equation model including potential mediation or effect modification by a weighted compound score of twelve modifiable risk and protective factors for dementia ('LIfestyle for BRAin health' (LIBRA) score). RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 6 years, 192 individuals (3.0%) developed dementia. LIBRA scores decreased with increasing wealth and higher educational level. A one-point increase in the LIBRA score was associated with a 13% increase in dementia risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.19). Higher wealth was associated with a decreased dementia risk (HR = 0.58, 0.39-0.85). Mediation analysis showed that 52% of the risk difference between the highest and lowest wealth tertile was mediated by differences in LIBRA (indirect effect: HR = 0.75, 0.66-0.85). Education was not directly associated with dementia (HR = 1.05, 0.69-1.59), but was a distal risk factor for dementia by explaining differences in wealth and LIBRA scores (indirect effect high education: HR = 0.92, 0.88-0.95). CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic differences in dementia risk can be partly explained by differences in modifiable health conditions and lifestyle factors.

7.
PLoS Med ; 16(7): e1002853, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With no effective treatments for cognitive decline or dementia, improving the evidence base for modifiable risk factors is a research priority. This study investigated associations between risk factors and late-life cognitive decline on a global scale, including comparisons between ethno-regional groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We harmonized longitudinal data from 20 population-based cohorts from 15 countries over 5 continents, including 48,522 individuals (58.4% women) aged 54-105 (mean = 72.7) years and without dementia at baseline. Studies had 2-15 years of follow-up. The risk factors investigated were age, sex, education, alcohol consumption, anxiety, apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE*4) status, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure and pulse pressure, body mass index, cardiovascular disease, depression, diabetes, self-rated health, high cholesterol, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, physical activity, smoking, and history of stroke. Associations with risk factors were determined for a global cognitive composite outcome (memory, language, processing speed, and executive functioning tests) and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Individual participant data meta-analyses of multivariable linear mixed model results pooled across cohorts revealed that for at least 1 cognitive outcome, age (B = -0.1, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.31, SE = 0.11), depression (B = -0.11, SE = 0.06), diabetes (B = -0.23, SE = 0.10), current smoking (B = -0.20, SE = 0.08), and history of stroke (B = -0.22, SE = 0.09) were independently associated with poorer cognitive performance (p < 0.05 for all), and higher levels of education (B = 0.12, SE = 0.02) and vigorous physical activity (B = 0.17, SE = 0.06) were associated with better performance (p < 0.01 for both). Age (B = -0.07, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.41, SE = 0.18), and diabetes (B = -0.18, SE = 0.10) were independently associated with faster cognitive decline (p < 0.05 for all). Different effects between Asian people and white people included stronger associations for Asian people between ever smoking and poorer cognition (group by risk factor interaction: B = -0.24, SE = 0.12), and between diabetes and cognitive decline (B = -0.66, SE = 0.27; p < 0.05 for both). Limitations of our study include a loss or distortion of risk factor data with harmonization, and not investigating factors at midlife. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that education, smoking, physical activity, diabetes, and stroke are all modifiable factors associated with cognitive decline. If these factors are determined to be causal, controlling them could minimize worldwide levels of cognitive decline. However, any global prevention strategy may need to consider ethno-regional differences.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 678, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The total number of people with dementia is increasing worldwide, due to our aging society. Without a disease-modifying drug available, risk reduction strategies are to date the only promising way to reduce dementia incidence in the future. Substantial evidence exists that lifestyle factors contribute to the risk of dementia, such as physical exercise, mental activity and (non-)smoking. Still, most people seem unaware of a relationship between lifestyle and brain health. This paper investigates dementia literacy and knowledge of modifiable risk and protective factors of dementia in a Dutch population-based sample. METHODS: An online-survey was carried out among 590 community-dwelling people between 40 and 75 years old in the Province of Limburg, the Netherlands. The total group comprises both of a provincial sample (n = 381) and a sample of three specific districts within the province (n = 209). Dementia awareness and knowledge about 12 risk and protective factors was assessed with items derived from the British Social Attitudes (BSA) survey, supplemented with custom items developed by the research team. RESULTS: The majority of participants (56%) were unaware of a relationship between lifestyle and dementia risk. Most individuals identified low cognitive activity, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet as dementia risk factors. Particular gaps in knowledge existed with regard to major cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and coronary heart disease. Although the level of awareness varied by age and level of education, most people (70%) were eager to learn more about the topic of brain health, and indicated to be interested in using eHealth (54%) to measure or improve brain health. CONCLUSIONS: Most people still are unaware of the relation between lifestyle and brain health, indicating the need for public health campaigns. Increasing awareness in the general population about the presence of modifiable dementia risk and protective factors is a crucial first step prior to implementation of preventative measures. Targeting specific subgroups, such as individuals with low socioeconomic status and low health literacy, is essential for the reach and effect of a prevention campaign. Outcome of this study was the rationale for an awareness campaign in The Netherlands, called "MijnBreincoach" ("MyBraincoach").


Assuntos
Conscientização , Encéfalo , Demência , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude , Demência/etiologia , Demência/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão , Masculino , Processos Mentais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 11: 92, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068800

RESUMO

Objective: Studies have shown preliminary support for mindfulness-based interventions benefitting people with dementia and their caregivers. However, most studies focus on these two groups separately. This study examined whether it would be possible and beneficial for people with dementia and their caregiver to jointly undergo an adjusted Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) training, named TANDEM. Methods: The 8-week MBSR training was adjusted based on a literature review and interviews with experts (clinicians and mindfulness trainers). Seven couples (a person with early-stage dementia and their caregiver) participated together in the 8-week TANDEM program. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted after completion. Questionnaires (administered before and after the intervention) assessed the primary outcomes of quality of life and psychological distress (stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms). Secondary outcomes were mindfulness, self-compassion, positive mental health, worrying, and perceived burden (for caregivers). Results: All participants completed the program and reported beneficial effects (relaxation, awareness, acceptance, and resilience). Most managed to integrate exercises into their daily lives and planned to continue their practice. Participating in a group was considered valuable and supportive. Furthermore, it was appreciated that participants could follow the training together (as a couple). The quantitative results showed a small effect on increased quality of life for caregivers. No substantial decrease in psychological distress was apparent. Caregivers displayed a large increase in mindfulness. Conclusion: The results of this mixed-methods study suggest that an adjusted mindfulness program is feasible and well-received among couples of persons with early-stage dementia and their caregiver, warranting further research in this area.

10.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; 25(6): 603-617, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive reserve (CR) capacity can be viewed as the maximum processing potential of neural systems that support adaptive cognitive performance in age-related cognitive decline. CR is a complex construct that can only be measured indirectly. Proxy measures (e.g., psychosocial/lifestyle variables) are traditionally used to reflect CR. However, strong relationships have been observed between these measures and cognitive functions (e.g., executive function [EF], processing resources [PR], fluid/crystallized abilities); therefore, the organizational structure of indicators implicated in CR remains unclear. The objective of this study was to test a hypothetical, theoretical model of CR capacity that includes both traditional CR proxy indicators and measures of cognitive function [Satz et al. (2011). Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 33(1), 121-130], which remain, as yet, untested. METHOD: Construct validity of the model was investigated in healthy older adults through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA and CFA) using data from the Maastricht Ageing Study (MAAS). A secondary CFA was conducted to validate the model using data from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). RESULTS: EFA and CFA in MAAS established a two-factor model comprising EF/PR and cumulative cognitive enrichment (CCE), which was further validated in a secondary analysis in TILDA. Convergent and discriminant validity was supported in MAAS (range of R2 = .228-.635; factor correlation confidence interval (CI) = .622, .740) and TILDA (range of R2 = .172-.899; factor correlation CI = .559, .624). CONCLUSIONS: A dual model of CR elucidated the relationships between hypothesized indicators of CR capacity and revealed a two-factor structure suggesting that both control (EF/PR) and representational processes (CCE) are involved in CR capacity.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018480

RESUMO

In an effort to better quantify the impact of adulthood socioeconomic circumstances on prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), we set out to examine the relative importance of four adulthood socioeconomic indicators. Using cross-sectional data from The Maastricht Study on 2011 middle-aged older men and women, our findings indicate that low educational level (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.24-2.64), low occupational level (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.98-2.05), and material deprivation (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.33-2.38) were independently associated with T2DM. Low income (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 0.88-1.87) was the strongest, albeit not significant, SEP (socioeconomic position) correlate of prediabetes. This association confirms SEP as a multifaceted concept and indicates the need to measure SEP accordingly. In order to tackle the social gradient in prediabetes and T2DM, one should, therefore, address multiple SEP indicators and their possible pathways.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna , Ocupações , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
13.
Hypertension ; 73(4): 803-811, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739535

RESUMO

An increasing number of individuals will face age-related cognitive difficulties because life expectancy has increased. It is, therefore, important to identify modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment. Very short-term to mid-term blood pressure variability (BPV) may be such a factor because it may cause cerebral ischemia. To this end, we investigated whether greater systolic and diastolic BPV are cross-sectionally associated with memory function (n=1804), information processing speed (n=1793), and executive function (n=1780) in 40- to 75-year-old individuals from The Maastricht Study. A composite BPV-index was derived by standardizing within-visit, 24-hour, and 7-day BPV. We performed linear regression with adjustments for age, sex, educational level, 24-hour systolic or diastolic pressure, and cardiovascular risk factors. We found that a 1-SD greater systolic BPV was not associated with information processing speed (ß [SD difference], -0.10; 95% CI, -0.14 to 0.06), or executive function (-0.09; 95% CI, -0.20 to 0.02) but was marginally associated with lower memory function (-0.11; 95% CI, -0.21 to 0.00). A 1-SD greater diastolic BPV was associated with lower information processing speed (-0.10; 95% CI, -0.20 to -0.00) and executive function (-0.12; 95% CI, -0.22 to -0.01) and marginally associated with lower memory function (-0.09; 95% CI, -0.20 to 0.01). These effects on cognitive performance are equivalent to ≈3 additional years of aging. In conclusion, greater very short-term to mid-term diastolic and, to a lesser extent, systolic BPV may be a modifiable risk factor for cognitive deterioration in 40- to 75-year-old, community-dwelling individuals.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Vigilância da População , Adulto , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Diástole , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Internet Interv ; 15: 18-27, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510911

RESUMO

Introduction: Informal caregivers of persons with dementia have an increased risk of facing social isolation. Online social media interventions might offer a new opportunity to increase access to social support. An online social support platform, 'Inlife', was developed and launched in the Netherlands to enhance social support, positive interactions and information sharing in informal support networks. Objective: A process evaluation was performed to evaluate the internal and external validity of the Inlife intervention. Methods: Implementation, sampling and intervention quality were evaluated by both qualitative and quantitative methods. Analyses were performed using descriptive statistics and inductive content analysis. Analyses were conducted following participants' completion of the intervention after 16 weeks. Results: The overall participation rate in the study was 27% (96/351). The Inlife intervention was generally well-received by the primary caregivers. Inlife facilitated empowerment, openness, involvement, and efficient care organization. Still, adherence was not optimal for all Inlife users. Determinants for Inlife use were identified on the level of the Inlife innovation, the users, and the socio-political context. Conclusions: Inlife was evaluated as a useful instrument for efficient central care coordination and mutual involvement. This study emphasizes that the personal attitudes of the Inlife users to seek and provide support warrant attention, next to the characteristics of the actual Inlife innovation for optimal intervention uptake. Online and offline support might be integrated to raise awareness of caregiver social support needs and attitudes and provide insight into caregivers' available social capital. Trial registration: Dutch trial register NTR6131, Registered on 20 October 2016.

15.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 70(s1): S31-S41, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline have been identified, but whether differences by gender and educational level exist is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to clarify this by prospectively investigating the relationship between health and lifestyle factors and cognitive functioning in different subgroups defined by gender and educational level. METHODS: 2,347 cognitive healthy individuals (mean age = 54.8, SD = 6.8, range: 41-71; 51.8% female; 26.2% low education) from the Doetinchem Cohort Study were examined for cognitive function at baseline, and at 5- and 10-year follow-up. Health- and lifestyle factors were captured by a poly-environmental risk score labelled 'LIfestyle for BRAin Health' (LIBRA). This score consists of 12 modifiable risk and protective factors for cognitive decline and dementia, with higher scores indicating greater risk (range: -2.7 to +12.7). Heterogeneity in associations between LIBRA and decline in verbal memory, cognitive flexibility, and mental speed between males and females and individuals with different levels of education were assessed in linear mixed models. RESULTS: Overall, higher LIBRA scores predicted faster decline in verbal memory, cognitive flexibility, and mental speed over 10 years. Higher LIBRA scores were further associated with increased risk for incident cognitive impairment (one-point increase in LIBRA: HR = 1.09, 1.04-1.14, p = 0.001). In general, these effects were similar across gender and educational level. CONCLUSION: A composite risk score comprising unhealthy lifestyle and relatively poor health in midlife is significantly associated with a worse course of cognition 10 years later. These associations were for the most part unrelated to gender or educational differences.

16.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 27(1): 42-52, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409551

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anxiety might be a risk factor for cognitive decline, but previous studies had short follow-up or small sample sizes or studied general or single cognitive domain functioning. METHODS: Anxiety symptoms were assessed with the Symptom Checklist-90 in 918 participants of the Maastricht Aging Study aged 50 years or older. Anxiety was analyzed both dichotomously (highest versus lower quartiles as a group) and continuously. Neuropsychological tests measured executive function, memory, speed of information processing, and verbal fluency. Linear mixed models were conducted with anxiety symptoms as predictor and change in cognitive scores as outcome. Differences of associations by age and gender were studied with three-way interactions. RESULTS: Higher anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with more decline in verbal memory in those aged 65 years and older (delayed recall: χ2 = 9.30, df = 2, p = 0.01; immediate recall: χ2 = 11.81, df = 2, p = 0.003). There were sex differences in executive function (χ2 = 6.63, df = 2, p = 0.036), fluency (χ2 = 6.89, df = 2, p = 0.032), and processing speed (χ2 = 8.83, df = 2, p = 0.012), with lower performance in women over time. CONCLUSION: In participants without cognitive impairments at baseline, anxiety symptoms were associated with a decline in verbal memory in older adults and with poorer performance in nonamnestic domains in women. Adequate treatment of anxiety symptoms could have a beneficial influence on the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases. Further research is needed to elucidate whether this association is causal.

17.
Atherosclerosis ; 276: 15-22, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Arterial remodelling aims at normalising circumferential wall stress (CWS). Greater CWS in the carotid artery has previously been associated with the prevalence and severity of cerebral small vessel disease, a major cause of ageing-related cognitive decline. Here we test the hypothesis that greater carotid CWS is associated with poorer cognitive performance. METHODS: We studied 722 individuals (60 ±â€¯8 years, 55% men, 42.5% highly educated, blood pressure 137 ±â€¯19/77 ±â€¯11 mmHg, n = 197 with type 2 diabetes) who completed a neuropsychological assessment and underwent vascular ultrasound to measure the intima-media thickness (IMT) and interadventitial diameter (IAD) of the left common carotid artery at a plaque-free site. From IMT and IAD, lumen diameter (LD) was calculated. These structural measures were then combined with local carotid pulse pressure and brachial mean arterial pressure to obtain a measure of pulsatile (CWSpulsatile) and average (CWSmean) mechanical load on the vessel wall. Cognitive domains assessed were memory, executive function and attention, and processing speed. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, sex, and education, regression analyses showed that neither CWSpulsatile nor CWSmean were associated with measures of cognitive performance (p-values ≥0.31). This null association did not differ by age or educational level, and was observed in both individuals with and without carotid plaque, diabetes and/or hypertension. In addition, none of the individual measures of carotid structure (i.e. IMT, IAD, and LD) was related to cognitive performance. CONCLUSIONS: The present cross-sectional study shows that carotid CWS is not associated with cognitive performance, at least not among relatively highly educated individuals in late middle age with adequately controlled cardiovascular risk factors.


Assuntos
Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/psicologia , Cognição , Remodelação Vascular , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Atenção , Pressão Sanguínea , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Mecânico
18.
Front Psychol ; 9: 982, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29951027

RESUMO

The world population is aging and the prevalence of dementia is increasing. By 2050, those aged 60 years and older are expected to make up a quarter of the population. With that, the number of people with dementia is increasing. Unfortunately, there is no cure for dementia. The progression of symptoms with no hope of improvement is difficult to cope with, both for patients and their caregivers. New and evidence-based strategies are needed to support the well-being of both caregiver and patient. Mindfulness training is a body-mind intervention that has shown to improve psychological well-being in a variety of mental health conditions. Mindfulness, a non-judgmental attention to one's experience in the present moment, is a skill that can be developed with a standard 8-week training. Research has shown preliminary but promising results for mindfulness-based interventions to benefit people with dementia and caregivers. The aim of this review is (a) to provide a rationale for the application of mindfulness in the context of dementia care by giving an overview of studies on mindfulness for people with dementia and/or their caregivers and (b) to provide suggestions for future projects on mindfulness in the context of dementia and to give recommendations for future research.

19.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 38(8): 1948-1958, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29954754

RESUMO

Objective- NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) and cardiac troponin T (cTNT) are associated with cognitive performance. Whether this extends to individuals <60 years of age is unclear. We investigated whether age modified the associations between NT-proBNP and cTNT and cognitive performance and structural brain changes. Approach and Results- In 3011 individuals (60±8 years; 49% women), NT-proBNP and cTNT, memory, information processing speed and executive functioning, grey matter (GM) and white matter, and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volumes were determined. We used regression, adjusted for educational level, cardiovascular factors, and lifestyle factors, to test whether cross-sectional associations between biomarkers and cognitive performance and structural brain changes were modified by age (<60 versus ≥60 years). ≥60 years, higher NT-proBNP was associated with lower memory (ß [SD] per 10-fold higher level [95% confidence interval (CI)], -0.11 [-0.22 to -0.00]), information processing speed (-0.12 [95% CI, -0.21 to -0.03]), executive functioning (-0.12 [95% CI, -0.22 to -0.03]), and smaller GM (ß [mL] per 10-fold higher level, -6.89 [95% CI, -11.58 to -2.20]). Additionally, higher cTNT was associated with lower memory (-0.33 [95% CI, -0.53 to -0.12]) and information processing speed (-0.17 [95% CI, -0.3 to -0.01]); with smaller GM (-16.07 [95% CI, -24.90 to -7.24]) and greater WMH (10ß WMH per 10-fold higher level, 0.31 [95% CI, 0.10-0.52]). <60 years, NT-proBNP and cTNT were not associated with cognitive performance ( Pinteraction, <0.10). In contrast, higher NT-proBNP was associated with smaller GM (-7.43 [95% CI, -11.70 to -3.16]) and greater WMH (0.13 [95% CI, 0.01-0.25]; Pinteraction,>0.10). Higher cTNT was associated with greater WMH (0.18 [95% CI, -0.01 to 0.37]; Pinteraction,>0.10) but not with GM (0.07 [95% CI, -6.87 to 7.02]; Pinteraction, <0.10). Conclusions- Biomarkers of cardiac injury are continuously associated with structural brain changes in both older and younger individuals but with poorer cognitive performance only in older individuals. These findings stress the continuous nature of the heart-brain axis in the development of cognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Cognição , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Cardiopatias/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Troponina T/sangue , Substância Branca/patologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Envelhecimento/sangue , Envelhecimento/patologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Estudos Transversais , Função Executiva , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/fisiopatologia , Nível de Saúde , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Memória , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/fisiopatologia
20.
Sleep Med ; 41: 78-85, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29425581

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In older adults, both short and long sleep duration are associated with lower cognitive function, suggesting an inverted U-shaped association between sleep duration and cognitive outcomes. This study examined whether sleep duration is associated with (changes in) cognitive function in a middle-aged population. METHODS: In the Doetinchem Cohort Study, the cognitive function of 2970 men and women aged 41-75 years at baseline (1995-2007) was examined 2-3 times, with 5-year time intervals. Global cognitive function and the domains memory, information processing speed, and cognitive flexibility were assessed. In multivariable linear regression models, (change in) self-reported sleep duration was studied in association with the level and change in cognitive function. In a subsample of the population (n = 2587), the association of sleep duration and feeling rested with cognitive function was studied. RESULTS: Sleep duration of 9 h and more was statistically significantly associated with lower global cognitive function (p < 0.01), memory (p = 0.02), and flexibility (p = 0.03), compared to a sleep duration of 7 or 8 h. Among adults feeling frequently not well rested, both short and long sleep duration were associated with a lower speed of cognitive function. An inverted U-shaped association between sleep duration and cognitive function was observed for speed, flexibility, and global cognitive function. Sleep duration was not associated with change in cognitive function. CONCLUSIONS: Middle-age adults with long sleep duration had a lower cognitive function.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Sono/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Fatores de Tempo
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