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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated association of religious affiliation with positive mental health (PMH) and mental disorders. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 2270 adults was conducted in Singapore. Participants reported their religious affiliation to Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Sikhism, Taoism, or other religions. A PMH instrument measured total PMH and six subcomponents: general coping (GC), emotional support (ES), spirituality (S), interpersonal skills (IS), personal growth and autonomy (PGA), and global affect (GA). Lifetime history of mental disorders was assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. RESULTS: Total PMH (mean ± SD) was 4.56 ± 0.66 for participants with any religion versus 4.12 ± 0.63 (p = 0.002) in those without any religion. After adjustment for all potential confounders, the mean difference in total PMH between these groups was 0.348 (95% CI: 0.248-0.448). Having any religion was significantly associated with higher scores for S, GC, ES, IS, but not with PGA, GA or mental disorders. Compared with individuals without any religion, total PMH and S levels were significantly higher across all religions. Additionally, Christianity was significantly associated with higher ES, Taoism with higher GC, Buddhism and Islam with higher GC, ES and IS, Hinduism with higher IS and Sikhism with higher ES and IS. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that religious affiliation is significantly associated with higher PMH, but not with mental disorders in an Asian community setting. In addition, different religions showed unique patterns of association with PMH subcomponents.

2.
Nutr Rev ; 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855443

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is increasing in Asia and several countries are adopting preventive policies to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). However, evidence on the relation between SSB consumption and cardiometabolic health in Asian populations has not been summarized. OBJECTIVE: In this systematic review, the associations between consumption of SSBs and cardiometabolic outcomes, including obesity, T2DM, and CVD, are examined in Asian populations. DATA SOURCES: The PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases, and gray literature were searched up to October, 2020 to identify relevant articles. DATA EXTRACTION: Two investigators independently extracted data from included studies. DATA ANALYSIS: When sufficient studies were available, a random-effects meta-analysis was used to calculate the pooled estimates (expressed as risk ratio [RR] and 95% confidence interval [CI]). Heterogeneity was tested and quantified using the Cochrane Q test and I2 statistic, respectively. RESULTS: Of the 17 studies included, 8 provided results about measures of adiposity (3 on weight change, 4 on body mass index (BMI), 2 on percent body fat, and 1 on abdominal obesity), 6 reported results about T2DM, and 3 reported on different CVD outcomes. High SSB consumption was significantly associated with greater weight gain and with a higher risk of selected CVD outcomes as compared with low consumption. In the meta-analysis, high SSB consumption was associated with greater T2DM risk before (RR, 1.51; 95%CI, 1.15-1.98 for highest vs lowest category; I2 = 76%) and after (RR, 1.38; 95%CI, 1.09-1.73; I2 = 56%) adjustment for BMI. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that high SSB consumption is directly associated with weight gain, risk of T2DM, and, possibly, selected CVD outcomes in Asian populations. Public health strategies to reduce SSB consumption in Asian countries are warranted. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration no. CRD42019129456.Keywords: adiposity. cardiovascular disease, Asia, sugar-sweetened beverages, type 2 diabetes.

3.
Appetite ; 162: 105189, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667500

RESUMO

Novel staple foods are staple foods that are modified with the purpose of improving their nutritional properties. However, consumers' acceptance towards novel staple foods remains to be evaluated, especially in Asian populations where staple foods like white rice are a major source of energy. The objective of this study was to explore consumers' attitudes and perceptions towards novel staple foods in a multi-ethnic Asian population. We conducted 11 focus group discussions, with 37 healthy participants and 22 participants with diabetes recruited through newspaper, email and poster advertisement and in-person recruitment at a clinic. Thematic analysis using the general inductive approach was performed. We found that participants' conceptual understanding of the modification process affected their acceptance towards novel staple foods. Plant-based modifications were considered natural and acceptable while genetic modification and use of chemicals were unnatural and undesirable. Participants expected novel staple foods to be more expensive and less tasty and this was largely due to their perceptions and experiences with healthy eating. Participants with diabetes or family history of diabetes were generally more willing to compromise taste and cost for healthier staple foods, and this appeared to be driven by concerns about diabetes and its related co-morbidities. The appearance of food was an important influence on participants' initial impression of the food, which appeared to be mediated by taste expectations. Participants' trust of novel staple foods was largely influenced by their trust in food industry, governmental authorities and nutrition science that was mediated through pathways of information and food safety.

4.
Hum Mutat ; 42(2): 200-212, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314489

RESUMO

The discovery of high-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes, such as Breast cancer associated gene 1 (BRCA1) and Breast cancer associated gene 2 (BRCA2) has led to accurate identification of individuals for risk management and targeted therapy. The rapid decline in sequencing costs has tremendously increased the number of individuals who are undergoing genetic testing world-wide. However, given the significant differences in population-specific variants, interpreting the results of these tests can be challenging especially for novel genetic variants in understudied populations. Here we report the characterization of novel variants in the Malaysian and Singaporean population that consist of different ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese, Indian, and other indigenous groups). We have evaluated the functional significance of 14 BRCA2 variants of uncertain clinical significance by using multiple in silico prediction tools and examined their frequency in a cohort of 7840 breast cancer cases and 7928 healthy controls. In addition, we have used a mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC)-based functional assay to assess the impact of these variants on BRCA2 function. We found these variants to be functionally indistinguishable from wild-type BRCA2. These variants could fully rescue the lethality of Brca2-null mESCs and exhibited no sensitivity to six different DNA damaging agents including a poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitor. Our findings strongly suggest that all 14 evaluated variants are functionally neutral. Our findings should be valuable in risk assessment of individuals carrying these variants.

5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(3): 675-683, 2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33381807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although adherence to healthful dietary patterns has been associated with a lower risk of kidney function decline in Western populations, evidence in Asian populations remains scanty. OBJECTIVES: We examined predefined dietary patterns, namely, the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and the alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED), in relation to risk of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). METHODS: We included 56,985 Chinese adults (aged 45-74 y) in the Singapore Chinese Health Study who were free of cancer, stroke, coronary artery disease, and ESKD at recruitment (1993-1998). Dietary pattern scores were calculated based on a validated 165-item FFQ. AHEI-2010 and aMED scores were modified by excluding the alcohol intake component because daily drinking has been associated with a higher risk of ESKD in our study population. We identified 1026 ESKD cases over a median follow-up of 17.5 y via linkage with the nationwide Singapore Renal Registry. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to compute HRs and their 95% CIs. RESULTS: Higher scores of all 3 dietary patterns were associated with lower ESKD risk in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with the lowest quintiles, the multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of ESKD were 0.75 (0.61, 0.92) for the highest quintile of AHEI-2010, 0.67 (0.54, 0.84) for DASH, and 0.73 (0.59, 0.91) for aMED (all P-trend ≤ 0.004). These inverse associations were stronger with increasing BMI (in kg/m2), and the HRs for the diet-ESKD association were lowest in the obese (BMI ≥ 27.5), followed by the overweight (BMI = 25 to <27.5) participants, compared with those in lower BMI categories; the P-interaction values between BMI and diet scores were 0.03 for AHEI-2010, 0.004 for aMED, and 0.06 for DASH. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to healthful dietary patterns was associated with a lower ESKD risk in an Asian population, especially in overweight or obese individuals.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável , Falência Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Singapura
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287415

RESUMO

The study aimed to investigate the association between leisure time physical activity (LTPA) subtypes and cardiometabolic outcomes in the Singapore Multi-Ethnic Cohort (MEC). Self-reported data on socio-demographics, lifestyle factors , LTPA subtypes, and health screening data on body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), triglycerides (TG), and HDL-and LDL cholesterol were collected. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used adjusting for confounders. The mean age of 9768 participants was 45.2 ± 12.5 years (57.3% female, 47.3% Chinese, 26.0% Malay, and 26.8% Indians). Overall, 65.8% engaged in LTPA, and walking, strength/fitness and running were most common. Higher total LTPA was associated with lower WC, DBP, TG, a trend towards lower BMI, and higher SBP and HDL. Running was beneficially associated with all outcomes except for SBP and LDL. Balance exercises (BMI, SBP and DBP), cycling (BMI, WC and HDL), and strength/fitness (BMI, WC, TG and HDL) were also favorably associated with a number of outcomes, whereas ball games (DBP and TG), dancing (HDL) and other LTPA (DBP) were only favorably associated with selected outcomes. Unfavorable associations were found for total LTPA (SBP), strength/fitness (SBP), golf (DBP) and swimming (BMI and WC). Further research is warranted to inform future health promotion efforts.

7.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218913

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between dietary patterns in midlife and likelihood of future healthy ageing in Chinese older adults. DESIGN: Prospective population-based study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We included 14,159 participants aged 45-74 years who were free from cancer, cardiovascular disease, or diabetes at baseline (1993-1998) from the Singapore Chinese Health Study. METHODS: Dietary intakes in midlife were assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Diet quality was scored according to the alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED), the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, the alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010, overall plant-based diet index (PDI), and healthful plant-based diet index (hPDI). Healthy ageing was assessed at the third follow-up visit (2014-2016), which occurred about 20 years after the baseline visit, and was defined as the absence of 10 chronic diseases, no impairment of cognitive function, no limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, no clinical depression at screening, good overall self-perceived health, good physical functioning, and no function-limiting pain among participants who had survival to at least 65 years of age. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were applied to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between each dietary pattern score and healthy ageing. RESULTS: About 20.0% of participants met the healthy ageing criteria. The OR (95% CI) for healthy ageing comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of diet quality scores was 1.52 (1.31-1.77) for aMED, 1.53 (1.35-1.73) for DASH, 1.39 (1.23-1.57) for AHEI-2010, 1.34 (1.18-1.53) for PDI, and 1.45 (1.27-1.65) for hPDI (all P-trend < .001). Each standard deviation increment in different diet quality scores was associated with 12% to 18% higher likelihood of healthy ageing. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: In this Chinese population, adherence to various healthy dietary patterns at midlife is associated with higher likelihood of healthy ageing at later life.

8.
J Nutr ; 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both high energy density and fast eating rates contribute to excess energy intakes. The energy intake rate (EIR; kcal/min) combines both the energy density (kcal/g) and eating rate (g/min) of a food to quantify the typical rate at which calories of different foods are ingested. OBJECTIVES: We describe the EIRs of diets in a multi-ethnic Asian population, and examine relationships between the consumption of high-EIR foods and total energy intake, body composition, and cardio-metabolic risk factors. METHODS: Diet and lifestyle data from the Singapore Multi-Ethnic Cohort 2 (n = 7011; 21-75 y), were collected through interviewer-administrated questionnaires. The EIR for each of the 269 foods was calculated as the product of its eating rate and energy density. Multivariable models were used to examine associations between the relative consumption of foods with higher and lower EIRs and energy intake, body composition, and cardio-metabolic risks, after adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, education level, physical activity, smoking status, and alcohol drinking status. RESULTS: Individuals with higher daily energy intakes and with obesity consumed a significantly larger percentage of their energy from high-EIR foods, with a smaller relative intake of lower-EIR foods. Individuals with raised serum cholesterol also consumed a significantly higher proportion of high-EIR foods, whereas those without hypertension consumed a larger percentage of energy intake from low-EIR foods. Individuals classified as having a "very high" dietary EIR had a significantly 1.3 kg higher body weight (95% CI, 0.2-1.5; P = 0.013), 0.4 kg/m2 higher BMI (95% CI, 0.03-0.8; P = 0.037), and 1.2 cm larger waist circumference (95% CI, 0.2-2.2; P = 0.010), and were more likely to have abdominal overweight (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5; P < 0.001) than those with a "low" dietary EIR. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing foods by their EIRs summarizes the combined impact of energy density and eating rate, and may identify foods and dietary patterns that are associated with obesogenic eating styles and higher diet-related cardiovascular disease risk in an Asian population.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed the associations of sleep, physical activity and sedentary behaviour with positive mental health (PMH) in the multi-ethnic population of Singapore. METHODS: The Singapore Health 2 study is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey among residents aged 18-79 years. A PMH instrument was administered to 1925 participants to obtain total PMH and six sub-component scores. Self-rated sleep duration, sleep quality, sedentary behaviour and physical activity were assessed. Multivariable linear regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 40.1 (SD 14.3) years. Sleep duration (≥8 h/night: ß = 0.17,95% CI: 0.02-0.32; 7-< 8 h/night: ß = 0.17,95% CI: 0.03-0.30 versus <6 h/night, p = 0.002), sleep quality (very good: ß = 0.45,95% CI: 0.29-0.60; fairly good: ß = 0.20,95% CI: 0.06-0.33 versus very/fairly bad; ptrend < 0.001) and physical activity (high: ß = 0.19,95% CI: 0.05-0.32; moderate: ß = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03-0.27 versus low; ptrend < 0.001) were directly associated with total PMH. Sedentary behaviour was not significantly associated with PMH. Sleep duration, sleep quality and physical activity were directly associated with the PMH sub-components 'emotional support' and 'personal growth and autonomy'. CONCLUSIONS: Duration and quality of sleep and physical activity were directly associated with PMH in an urban Asian population. These findings support incorporating sleep and physical activity interventions to improve population mental health.

10.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: SMART-GDM examined whether Habits-GDM, a smartphone application (app) coaching program, can prevent excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) and improve glycemic control and maternal and neonatal outcomes in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, women diagnosed with GDM between 12 and 30 weeks were randomly assigned to usual care (control) or to additional support from Habits-GDM that integrated dietary, physical activity, weight, and glucose monitoring (intervention). The primary outcome was the proportion of participants with EGWG. Secondary outcomes included absolute GWG, glycemic control, and maternal, delivery, and neonatal outcomes. RESULTS: In total, 340 women were randomized (170 intervention, 170 control; mean ± SD age 32.0 ± 4.2 years; mean BMI 25.6 ± 5.6 kg/m2). There were no statistically significant differences in the proportions of women with EGWG, absolute GWG, or maternal and delivery outcomes between experimental groups. Average glucose readings were lower in the intervention group (mean difference -0.15 mmol/L [95% CI -0.26; -0.03], P = 0.011) as were the proportions of glucose above targets (premeal: 17.9% vs. 23.3%, odds ratio 0.68 [95% CI 0.53; 0.87], P = 0.003; 2-h postmeal: 19.9% vs. 50%, 0.54 [0.42; 0.70], P < 0.001). When regarded as a composite (although not prespecified), the overall neonatal complications (including birth trauma, neonatal hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, respiratory distress, neonatal intensive care unit admission, and perinatal death) were significantly lower in the intervention group (38.1% vs. 53.7%, 0.53 [0.34; 0.84], P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: When added to usual care, Habits-GDM resulted in better maternal glycemic control and composite neonatal outcomes (nonprespecified) but did not reduce EGWG among women with GDM.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004401

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We evaluated whether concentrations of serum acylcarnitines and amino acids are associated with risk of type 2 diabetes and can improve predictive diabetes models in an Asian population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used data from 3313 male and female participants from the Singapore Prospective Study Program cohort who were diabetes-free at baseline. The average age at baseline was 48.0 years (SD: 11.9 years), and participants were of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity. Diabetes cases were identified through self-reported physician diagnosis, fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin concentrations, and linkage to national disease registries. We measured fasting serum concentrations of 45 acylcarnitines and 14 amino acids. The association between metabolites and incident diabetes was modeled using Cox proportional hazards regression with adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, height, and parental history of diabetes, and correction for multiple testing. Metabolites were added to the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) predictive diabetes risk model to assess whether they could increase the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). RESULTS: Participants were followed up for an average of 8.4 years (SD: 2.1 years), during which time 314 developed diabetes. Branched-chain amino acids (HR: 1.477 per SD; 95% CI 1.325 to 1.647) and the alanine to glycine ratio (HR: 1.572; 95% CI 1.426 to 1.733) were most strongly associated with diabetes risk. Additionally, the acylcarnitines C4 and C16-OH, and the amino acids alanine, combined glutamate/glutamine, ornithine, phenylalanine, proline, and tyrosine were significantly associated with higher diabetes risk, and the acylcarnitine C8-DC and amino acids glycine and serine with lower risk. Adding selected metabolites to the ARIC model resulted in a significant increase in AUC from 0.836 to 0.846. CONCLUSIONS: We identified acylcarnitines and amino acids associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in an Asian population. A subset of these modestly improved the prediction of diabetes when added to an established diabetes risk model.

12.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-8, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046170

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Singapore, an urbanised, developed nation, with a high reliance on food importation and a high prevalence of eating out is facing rising rates of obesity and diabetes. The objective of the current study was to characterise and evaluate the Singapore government's policies to improve the food environment and to identify and prioritise concrete actions. DESIGN: The Healthy Food Environment Policy Index tool and process were used. An expert panel rated the Singapore government's implementation of forty-seven indicators compared with international best practice in 2018. Indicators were prioritised, and specific recommendations were proposed by panel. SETTING: Singapore. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty experts primarily from academia. RESULTS: As compared with international benchmarks, the level of implementation of most indicators (thirty-three indicators, 70 %) by the Singapore government was evaluated as being at least moderate. Highly rated indicators included those related to provision of healthier meals at school, supporting the use of healthier ingredients by food vendors and governmental leadership. More policy indicators (6, 26 %) as compared with infrastructure support indicators (2, 8 %) received a 'very little or no implementation' rating. After rating, the experts prioritised eleven indicators and proposed thirty-one actions informed by several considerations including those of effectiveness, political acceptability, feasibility and unique characteristics of food retail in Singapore. CONCLUSIONS: Supported by documented evidence, an independent expert panel identified areas of strengths and provided specific recommendations to meaningfully improve the Singapore food environment to facilitate healthier eating. Fundamental recommendations including improving nutrition profiling and strengthening monitoring systems have the potential to positively influence environments across policy domains.

13.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(12): 2405-2413, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064936

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It remains unclear whether ethnicity has an impact on obesity independent of socioeconomic status (SES) and environmental factors. Singapore provides a unique opportunity to address this issue because three major Asian ethnic groups are represented, and government policies prevent ethnic segregation. Therefore this study examined associations between ethnicity, SES, and obesity within neighborhoods in Singapore. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 29,819 participants of the Singapore Multiethnic Cohort who were aged 21 to 75 years and of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity were used. Obesity was defined using Asian criteria. Multilevel models used obesity as the dependent variable and age, marital status, ethnicity, education level, income, and neighborhood SES as independent variables. RESULTS: Education level was more strongly inversely associated with obesity than income level or neighborhood SES. The association between ethnicity and obesity was not substantially explained by measures of individual and neighborhood SES. In females, the fully adjusted odds ratio of obesity was 5.01 for Malay ethnicity and 4.81 for Indian ethnicity as compared with Chinese ethnicity. In males, these odds ratios were 2.61 and 2.07, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Ethnicity was strongly associated with obesity independent of SES and neighborhood environment. More research on sociocultural factors contributing to ethnic differences in obesity is warranted.

14.
Appetite ; 158: 104997, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Positive front-of-pack (FOP) labels, including Singapore's Healthier Choice Symbol (HCS), target a subset of healthier products whose consumption is to be encouraged. However, this may inadvertently lead to excess caloric intake, which could be addressed by including an additional label identifying calories per serving. We test this hypothesis by adding a Physical Activity Equivalent (PAE) label, an indicator of calorie content, to all products available in an on-line grocery store. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial using a 3 arm within-subject crossover design in adult Singapore residents recruited online. Participants shopped once in each condition in an experimental online grocery store in random order: 1) no FOP label (Control); 2) Select products displaying HCS labels (HCS-only); 3) Condition 2 with additional information displaying PAEs per serving on every product (HCS+PAE). 117 participants were recruited and data from 317 shops were analyzed. We used first-differenced regressions to assess the impact of the conditions on calories per serving (primary) and on other measures of diet quality. RESULTS: The HCS-only condition led to a statistically significant five-percentage point increase in the proportion of HCS products purchased (95% CI, 1%: 9%). However, neither the HCS-only (3.45; 95% CI, -12.52: 19.43) nor HCS + PAE (8.14; 95% CI, -5.25: 21.54) condition led to a change in the number of calories per serving purchased or changes in other measures of diet quality. CONCLUSIONS: Positive labels, like the HCS, are likely to increase purchases of labelled products. However, these changes may not lead to improvements in diet quality or calorie intake. Combining positive labels with additional PAE information does not appear to address this concern.

15.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113792

RESUMO

Eating more quickly and consuming foods with a higher energy-intake-rate (EIR: kcal/min) is associated with greater energy intake and adiposity. However, it remains unclear whether individuals who eat more quickly are more likely to consume foods with higher EIR. We investigated the overlap between self-reported eating rate (SRER) and the consumption of higher EIR foods, and their combined impact on daily energy intake and adiposity in a population-based Asian cohort (n = 7011; 21-75y). Food consumption was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Moderated regression with simple slope analysis was conducted to evaluate whether SRER modified the association between dietary EIR and total dietary energy intakes. Faster eaters consumed a significantly higher proportion of energy from higher EIR foods among overweight individuals, but not among normal-weight individuals. Associations between dietary EIR and total energy intake were stronger among medium (ß = 15.04, 95%CI: 13.00-17.08) and fast (ß = 15.69, 95%CI: 12.61-18.78) eaters, compared with slower eaters (ß = 9.89, 95%CI: 5.11-14.67; p-interaction = 0.032). Higher dietary EIR also tended to be more strongly associated with BMI in fast eaters (ß = 0.025, 95%CI: 0.011-0.038) than in slow eaters (ß = 0.017, 95%CI: -0.007-0.040). These findings suggest that the combination of eating more quickly and selecting a greater proportion of energy from higher EIR foods (i.e., softly textured, energy dense), promoted higher dietary energy intakes and adiposity.

16.
Diabetes Care ; 43(11): 2625-2627, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082242
17.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e2000527, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120436

RESUMO

SCOPE: Coffee and tea are among the most popular beverages in the world. However, the association between habitual coffee, green tea, and black tea consumption with metabolomics profiles in Asian populations remain largely unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: 158 metabolites (14 amino acids, 45 acylcarnitines, and 99 sphingolipids) in the blood plasma of participants are measured from the population-based Singapore Prospective Study Program cohort using mass spectrometry (MS). Linear regression models are used to obtain the estimates for the association between coffee and tea consumption with metabolite levels, adjusted for potential confounders and false discovery rate (FDR). Coffee consumption is significantly associated with higher levels of 63 sphingolipids (29 sphingomyelins, 32 ceramides, a sphingosine-1-phosphate, and a sphingosine) and lower levels of 13 acylcarnitines and alanine. Black tea consumption is significantly associated with higher levels of eight sphingolipids, and lower levels of an amino acid, whereas green tea is significantly inversely associated with four metabolites (C8:1-OH acylcarnitine, ganglioside GM3 d18:1/16:0, sphingomyelins d18:2/18:0 and d18:1/14:0). CONCLUSIONS: Coffee, black tea, and green tea consumption are associated with plasma levels of certain classes of sphingolipids and acylcarnitines in an Asian population, particularly sphingomyelins, which may mediate the health benefits of these beverages.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129230

RESUMO

There is limited research on the effect of dietary quality on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk in populations with relatively high risk of HCC. Using data from Singapore Chinese Health Study, a prospective cohort study, of 63 257 Chinese aged 45 to 74, we assessed four diet-quality index (DQI) scores: the Alternative Health Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), Alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Heathy Diet Indicator (HDI). We identified 561 incident HCC cases among the cohort participants after a mean of 17.6 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for HCC in relation to these DQI scores. Unconditional logistic regression method was used to evaluate the associations between DQIs and HCC risk among a subset of individuals who tested negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). High scores of AHEI-2010, aMED and DASH, representing higher dietary quality, were associated with lower risk of HCC (all Ptrend < .05). Compared with the lowest quartile, HRs (95% CIs) of HCC for the highest quartile of AHEI-2010, aMED and DASH were 0.69 (0.53-0.89), 0.70 (0.52-0.95) and 0.67 (0.51-0.87), respectively. No significant association between HDI and HCC risk was observed. Among HBsAg-negative individuals, similar inverse associations were observed, and the strongest inverse association was for aMED (HRQ4vsQ1 = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.23-0.94, Ptrend = .10). These findings support the notion that adherence to a healthier diet may lower the risk of HCC, suggesting that dietary modification may be an effective approach for primary prevention of HCC.

19.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(12)2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936915

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level is used to screen and diagnose diabetes. Genetic determinants of HbA1c can vary across populations and many of the genetic variants influencing HbA1c level were specific to populations. OBJECTIVE: To discover genetic variants associated with HbA1c level in nondiabetic Malay individuals. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis for HbA1c using 2 Malay studies, the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES, N = 1721 on GWAS array) and the Living Biobank study (N = 983 on GWAS array and whole-exome sequenced). We built a Malay-specific reference panel to impute ethnic-specific variants and validate the associations with HbA1c at ethnic-specific variants. RESULTS: Meta-analysis of the 1000 Genomes imputed array data identified 4 loci at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8). Of the 4 loci, 3 (ADAM15, LINC02226, JUP) were novel for HbA1c associations. At the previously reported HbA1c locus ATXN7L3-G6PC3, association analysis using the exome data fine-mapped the HbA1c associations to a 27-bp deletion (rs769664228) at SLC4A1 that reduced HbA1c by 0.38 ±â€…0.06% (P = 3.5 × 10-10). Further imputation of this variant in SiMES confirmed the association with HbA1c at SLC4A1. We also showed that these genetic variants influence HbA1c level independent of glucose level. CONCLUSION: We identified a deletion at SLC4A1 associated with HbA1c in Malay. The nonglycemic lowering of HbA1c at rs769664228 might cause individuals carrying this variant to be underdiagnosed for diabetes or prediabetes when HbA1c is used as the only diagnostic test for diabetes.

20.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867058

RESUMO

Profiles of circulating amino acids have been associated with cardiometabolic diseases. We investigated the associations between dietary protein intake, physical activity and adiposity and serum amino acid profiles in an Asian population. We used data from 3009 male and female participants from the Singapore Prospective Study Program cohort. Dietary and physical activity data were obtained from validated questionnaires; anthropometric measurements were collected during a health examination; and fasting concentrations of 16 amino acids were measured using targeted LC-MS. The association between lifestyle factors and amino acid levels was modeled using multiple linear regression with adjustment for other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and correction for multiple testing. We observed significant associations between seafood intake (ß-coefficient 0.132, 95% CI 0.006, 0.257 for a 100% increment), physical activity (ß-coefficient -0.096, 95% CI -0.183, -0.008 in the highest versus lowest quartile) and adiposity (BMI ß-coefficient 0.062, 95% CI 0.054, 0.070 per kg/m2; waist circumference ß-coefficient 0.034, 95% CI 0.031, 0.037 per cm) and branched-chain amino acid levels (expressed per-SD). We also observed significant interactions with sex for the association between meat and seafood and total intakes and BCAA levels (P for interaction 0.007), which were stronger in females than in males. Our findings suggest novel associations between modifiable lifestyle factors and amino acid levels in Asian populations.

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